Components of the Rv0081-Rv0088 locus, which encodes a predicted formate hydrogenlyase complex, are coregulated by Rv0081, MprA, and DosR in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world despite a vaccine and cost-effective antibiotics. The success of this organism can be attributed, in part, to its ability to adapt to potentially harmful stress within the host and establish, maintain, and reactivate from long-term persistent infection within granulomatous structures. The DosRS-DosT/DevRS-Rv2027c, and MprAB two-component signal transduction systems have previously been implicated in aspects of persistent infection by M. tuberculosis and are known to be responsive to conditions likely to be found within the granuloma. Here, we describe initial characterization of a locus (Rv0081-Rv0088) encoding components of a predicted formate hydrogenylase enzyme complex that is directly regulated by DosR/DevR and MprA, and the product of the first gene in this operon, Rv0081. In particular, we demonstrate that Rv0081 negatively regulates its own expression and that of downstream genes by binding an inverted repeat element in its upstream region. In contrast, DosR/DevR and MprA positively regulate Rv0081 expression by binding to recognition sequences that either partially or completely overlap that recognized by Rv0081, respectively. Expression of Rv0081 initiates from two promoter elements; one promoter located downstream of the DosR/DevR binding site but overlapping the sequence recognized by both Rv0081 and MprA and another promoter downstream of the DosR/DevR, Rv0081, and MprA binding sites. Interestingly, Rv0081 represses Rv0081 and downstream determinants following activation of DosRS-DosT/DevRS-Rv2027c by nitric oxide, suggesting that expression of this locus is complex and subject to multiple levels of regulation. Based on this and other published information, a model is proposed detailing Rv0081-Rv0088 expression by these transcription factors within particular growth environments.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ?Rv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ?Rv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes Rv0844c/Rv0845 encoding the NarL response regulator and NarS histidine kinase are hypothesized to constitute a two-component system involved in the regulation of nitrate metabolism. However, there is no experimental evidence to support this. In this study, we established M. tuberculosis NarL/NarS as a functional two-component system and identified His(241) and Asp(61) as conserved phosphorylation sites in NarS and NarL, respectively. Transcriptional profiling between M. tuberculosis H37Rv and a ?narL mutant strain during exponential growth in broth cultures with or without nitrate defined an ?30-gene NarL regulon that exhibited significant overlap with DevR-regulated genes, thereby implicating a role for the DevR response regulator in the regulation of nitrate metabolism. Notably, expression analysis of a subset of genes common to NarL and DevR regulons in M. tuberculosis ?devR, ?devS?dosT, and ?narL mutant strains revealed that in response to nitrite produced during aerobic nitrate metabolism, the DevRS/DosT regulatory system plays a primary role that is augmented by NarL. Specifically, NarL itself was unable to bind to the narK2, acg, and Rv3130c promoters in phosphorylated or unphosphorylated form; however, its interaction with DevR?P resulted in cooperative binding, thereby enabling co-regulation of these genes. These findings support the role of physiologically derived nitrite as a metabolic signal in mycobacteria. We propose NarL-DevR binding, possibly as a heterodimer, as a novel mechanism for co-regulation of gene expression by the DevRS/DosT and NarL/NarS regulatory systems.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tubercle bacilli are thought to persist in a dormant state during latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. Although little is known about the host factors that induce and maintain Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) within latent lesions, O(2) depletion, nutrient limitation and acidification are some of the stresses implicated in bacterial dormancy development/growth arrest. Adaptation to hypoxia and exposure to NO/CO is implemented through the DevRS/DosT two-component system which induces the dormancy regulon.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Here we show that vitamin C (ascorbic acid/AA) can serve as an additional signal to induce the DevR regulon. Physiological levels of AA scavenge O(2) and rapidly induce the DevR regulon at an estimated O(2) saturation of <30%. The kinetics and magnitude of the response suggests an initial involvement of DosT and a sustained DevS-mediated response during bacterial adaptation to increasing hypoxia. In addition to inducing DevR regulon mechanisms, vitamin C induces the expression of selected genes previously shown to be responsive to low pH and oxidative stress, triggers bacterial growth arrest and promotes dormancy phenotype development in M. tb grown in axenic culture and intracellularly in THP-1 cells.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Vitamin C mimics multiple intracellular stresses and has wide-ranging regulatory effects on gene expression and physiology of M. tb which leads to growth arrest and a 'dormant' drug-tolerant phenotype, but in a manner independent of the DevRS/DosT system. The 'AA-dormancy infection model' offers a potential alternative to other models of non-replicating persistence of M. tb and may be useful for investigating host-'dormant' M. tb interactions. Our findings offer a new perspective on the role of nutritional factors in TB and suggest a possible role for vitamin C in TB.
Project description:The DevRS two-component system plays a pivotal role in signal transmission and downstream gene regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Under the hypoxic condition, phosphorylated DevR interacts with multiple binding sites at the promoter region of the target genes. In the present work, we carried out a detailed computational analysis to figure out the sensitivity of the kinetic parameters. The set of kinetic parameters takes care of the interaction among phosphorylated DevR and the binding sites, transcription and translation processes. We employ the method of stochastic optimization to quantitate the relevant kinetic parameter set necessary for DevR regulated gene expression. Measures of different correlation coefficients provide the relative ordering of kinetic parameters involved in gene regulation. Results obtained from correlation coefficients are further corroborated by sensitivity amplification.
Project description:The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) to survive and persist in the host for decades in an asymptomatic state is an important aspect of tuberculosis pathogenesis. Although adaptation to hypoxia is thought to play a prominent role underlying M. tb persistence, how the bacteria achieve this goal is largely unknown. Rv0081, a member of the DosR regulon, is induced at the early stage of hypoxia while Rv3334 is one of the enduring hypoxic response genes. In this study, we uncovered genetic interactions between these two transcription factors. RNA-seq analysis of ?Rv0081 and ?Rv3334 revealed that the gene expression profiles of these two mutants were highly similar. We also found that under hypoxia, Rv0081 positively regulated the expression of Rv3334 while Rv3334 repressed transcription of Rv0081. In addition, we demonstrated that Rv0081 formed dimer and bound to the promoter region of Rv3334. Taken together, these data suggest that Rv0081 and Rv3334 work in the same regulatory pathway and that Rv3334 functions immediately downstream of Rv0081. We also found that Rv3334 is a bona fide regulator of the enduring hypoxic response genes. Our study has uncovered a regulatory pathway that connects the early and the enduring hypoxic response, revealing a transcriptional cascade that coordinates the temporal response of M. tb to hypoxia.
Project description:The DevR-DevS two-component system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates bacterial adaptation to hypoxia, a condition believed to be associated with the initiation and maintenance of dormant bacilli during latent tuberculosis. The activity of the Rv3134c-devRS operon was studied in M. tuberculosis using several transcriptional fusions comprised of promoter regions and the gfp reporter gene under inducing and aerobic conditions. Aerobic transcription was DevR independent, while hypoxic induction was completely DevR dependent. The hypoxia transcriptional start point, T(H), was mapped at -40 bp upstream of Rv3134c. In contrast, the divergently transcribed Rv3135 gene was not induced under hypoxic conditions. DNase I footprinting and mutational analyses demonstrated that induction required the interaction of DevR-P with binding sites centered at bp -42.5 and -63.5 relative to T(H). Binding to the distal site (D) was necessary to recruit another molecule of DevR-P to the proximal site (P), and interaction with both sequences was essential for promoter activation. These sites did not bind to either unphosphorylated or phosphorylation-defective DevR protein, which was consistent with an essential role for DevR-P in activation. Phosphorylated DevR also bound to three copies of the motif at the hspX promoter. The Rv3134c and hspX promoters have a similar architecture, wherein the proximal DevR-P binding site overlaps with the promoter -35 element. A model for the likely mode of action of DevR at these promoters is discussed.
Project description:The DosR regulon, a set of 48 genes normally expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis under conditions that inhibit aerobic respiration, is controlled via the DosR-DosS/DosT two-component system. While the regulon requires induction in most M. tuberculosis isolates, for members of the Beijing lineage, its expression is uncoupled from the need for signaling. In our attempts to understand the mechanistic basis for this uncoupling in the Beijing background, we previously reported the identification of two synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the adjacent Rv3134c gene. In the present study, we have interrogated the impact of these SNPs on dosR expression in wild-type strains, as well as a range of dosR-dosS-dosT mutants, for both Beijing and non-Beijing M. tuberculosis backgrounds. In this manner, we have unequivocally determined that the C601T dosR promoter SNP is the sole requirement for the dramatic shift in the pattern of DosR regulon expression seen in this globally important lineage. Interestingly, we also show that DosT is completely nonfunctional within these strains. Thus, a complex series of evolutionary steps has led to the present-day Beijing DosR phenotype that, in turn, potentially confers a fitness advantage in the face of some form of host-associated selective pressure. IMPORTANCE:Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage have been described as being of enhanced virulence compared to other lineages, and in certain regions, they are associated with the dramatic spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). In terms of trying to understand the functional basis for these broad epidemiological phenomena, it is interesting that, in contrast to the other major lineages, the Beijing strains all constitutively overexpress members of the DosR regulon. Here, we identify the mutational events that led to the evolution of this unique phenotype. In addition, our work highlights the fact that important phenotypic differences exist between distinct M. tuberculosis lineages, with the potential to impact the efficacy of diagnosis, vaccination, and treatment programs.
Project description:Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is evidence of immunological control of tuberculosis. Dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon-encoded proteins may have a role in the maintenance of LTBI. T cell responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were found to be most frequent among household contacts of TB cases from Uganda compared to other DosR proteins, but antibody responses were not described. We characterized antibody responses to these proteins in individuals from Uganda. Antibodies to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were measured in 68 uninfected individuals, 62 with LTBI, and 107 with active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) cases. There were no differences in the concentrations of antibodies to Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins between individuals with LTBI and APTB and those who were uninfected. LTBI was associated with higher concentrations of antibodies to Rv1733c in female participants [adjusted geometric mean ratio: 1.812, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.105 2.973, and <i>p</i> = 0.019] but not in males (<i>p</i> value for interaction = 0.060). Antibodies to the four DosR regulon-encoded proteins investigated may not serve as good biomarkers of LTBI in the general population. More of the <i>M.tb</i> proteome needs to be screened to identify proteins that induce strong antibody responses in LTBI.
Project description:The present study reports the gene expression data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and H37RvΔdosSΔdosT (DKO) grown on 0.2 % acetate/glucose under aerobic/hypoxic conditions. Acetate was reported to be present in granulomas of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected guinea pigs which are also hypoxic. By exposing Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and H37RvΔdosSΔdosT to different combinations of granulomatous stresses (acetate/glucose and aerobic/hypoxic conditions) alongwith other experimental data, we were able to delineate a new signaling pathway that activates DevR (DosR) regulon through Acetyl phosphate. The presence of two pathways highlights the importance of targeting DevR and not DevS/DosT for intercepting DevRST signalling cascade. Overall design: Agilent one-color experiment; Organism: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Agilent Custom Mycobacterium tuberculosis Whole Genome Array 8 x 15k designed by University of Delhi South Campus Microarray Centre (UDSCMAC, AMADID: G2509F_034585); Labeling kit: Low Input Quick Amp WT labeling kit (Agilent Technologies G4140-90042)
Project description:Despite considerable progress in understanding the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), development of new therapeutics and vaccines against it has proven difficult. This is at least in part due to the use of less than optimal models of in-vivo Mtb infection, which has precluded a study of the physiology of the pathogen in niches where it actually persists. C3HeB/FeJ (Kramnik) mice develop human-like lesions when experimentally infected with Mtb and thus make available, a faithful and highly tractable system to study the physiology of the pathogen in-vivo. We compared the transcriptomics of Mtb and various mutants in the DosR (DevR) regulon derived from Kramnik mouse granulomas to those cultured in-vitro. We recently showed that mutant ?dosS is attenuated in C3HeB/FeJ mice. Aerosol exposure of mice with the mutant mycobacteria resulted in a substantially different and a relatively weaker transcriptional response (< = 20 genes were induced) for the functional category 'Information Pathways' in Mtb:?dosR; 'Lipid Metabolism' in Mtb:?dosT; 'Virulence, Detoxification, Adaptation' in both Mtb:?dosR and Mtb:?dosT; and 'PE/PPE' family in all mutant strains compare to wild-type Mtb H37Rv, suggesting that the inability to induce DosR functions to different levels can modulate the interaction of the pathogen with the host. The Mtb genes expressed during growth in C3HeB/FeJ mice appear to reflect adaptation to differential nutrient utilization for survival in mouse lungs. The genes such as glnB, Rv0744c, Rv3281, sdhD/B, mce4A, dctA etc. downregulated in mutant ?dosS indicate their requirement for bacterial growth and flow of carbon/energy source from host cells. We conclude that genes expressed in Mtb during in-vivo chronic phase of infection in Kramnik mice mainly contribute to growth, cell wall processes, lipid metabolism, and virulence.