Oxygen tension changes the rate of migration of human skin keratinocytes in an age-related manner.
ABSTRACT: Migration of keratinocytes to re-epithelialize wounds is a key step in dermal wound healing. In aged human skin, wound healing rates decrease and cellular damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulates. The relationship between age, ROS and human skin keratinocyte migration is not clearly understood. In this study, 4% and 21% oxygen tensions were used to modify levels of ROS produced by metabolism to model low and high oxidative stress conditions. When migration of keratinocytes from young and old primary skin was compared using an in vitro scratch assay, old keratinocytes migrated faster in high oxygen tension than did young keratinocytes, whereas young keratinocytes migrated faster in low oxygen tension. Although all young and old cells at the scratch margins showed intense increases in dihydroethidium oxidation immediately after scratching, the old keratinocytes grown at 21% oxygen demonstrated a greater decrease in the DHE oxidation following scratching and migrated the fastest. These results show that old and young keratinocytes respond to oxygen tension differently and support the hypothesis that keratinocyte migration is affected by the capacity to remove ROS.
Project description:The endogenous electric field (EF)-directed migration of keratinocytes (galvanotaxis) into wounds is an essential step in wound re-epithelialization. Hypoxia, which occurs immediately after injury, acts as an early stimulus to initiate the healing process; however, the mechanisms for this effect, remain elusive. We show here that the galvanotactic migration of keratinocytes was enhanced by hypoxia preconditioning as a result of the increased directionality rather than the increased motility of keratinocytes. This enhancement was both oxygen tension- and preconditioning time-dependent, with the maximum effects achieved using 2% O2 preconditioning for 6?hours. Hypoxic preconditioning (2% O2, 6?hours) decreased the threshold voltage of galvanotaxis to?<?25?mV/mm, whereas this value was between 25 and 50?mV/mm in the normal culture control. In a scratch-wound monolayer assay in which the applied EF was in the default healing direction, hypoxic preconditioning accelerated healing by 1.38-fold compared with the control conditions. Scavenging of the induced ROS by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) abolished the enhanced galvanotaxis and the accelerated healing by hypoxic preconditioning. Our data demonstrate a novel and unsuspected role of hypoxia in supporting keratinocyte galvanotaxis. Enhancing the galvanotactic response of cells might therefore be a clinically attractive approach to induce improved wound healing.
Project description:The vicious itch-scratch cycle is a cardinal feature of atopic dermatitis (AD), in which IL-13 signaling plays a dominant role. Keratinocytes express two receptors: The heterodimeric IL-4R?/IL-13R?1 and IL-13R?2. The former one transduces a functional IL-13 signal, whereas the latter IL-13R?2 works as a nonfunctional decoy receptor. To examine whether scratch injury affects the expression of IL-4R?, IL-13R?1, and IL-13R?2, we scratched confluent keratinocyte sheets and examined the expression of three IL-13 receptors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence techniques. Scratch injuries significantly upregulated the expression of IL13RA2 in a scratch line number-dependent manner. Scratch-induced IL13RA2 upregulation was synergistically enhanced in the simultaneous presence of IL-13. In contrast, scratch injuries did not alter the expression of IL4R and IL13RA1, even in the presence of IL-13. Scratch-induced IL13RA2 expression was dependent on ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signals. The expression of IL-13R?2 protein was indeed augmented in the scratch edge area and was also overexpressed in lichenified lesional AD skin. IL-13 inhibited the expression of involucrin, an important epidermal terminal differentiation molecule. IL-13-mediated downregulation of involucrin was attenuated in IL-13R?2-overexpressed keratinocytes, confirming the decoy function of IL-13R?2. Our findings indicate that scratching upregulates the expression of the IL-13 decoy receptor IL-13R?2 and counteracts IL-13 signaling.
Project description:Oxygen tension is an important micro-environmental factor that affects epidermal development and function. After injury, high oxygen consumption and vascular injury result in partial hypoxia. However, whether hypoxia benefits or hurts wound healing remains controversial. In this study, a tissue oxygen tension monitor was used to detect the spatial and temporal distribution of oxygen in burn wounds. In vitro, we demonstrate that hypoxia promoted the expression of integrin ?1 and the migration of keratinocytes. Furthermore, hypoxia-induced migration was slowed by Notch1 ligands and a siRNA against ITGB1 (integrin ?1). Our findings suggest that integrin ?1 may be an oxygen-sensitive molecule that promotes keratinocyte migration during wound healing and that Notch1 signaling is involved in this process.
Project description:Interferon regulatory factor 6 (Irf6) regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Irf6 regulates cellular migration and adhesion. Irf6-deficient embryos at 10.5?days post-conception failed to close their wound compared with wild-type embryos. In vitro, Irf6-deficient murine embryonic keratinocytes were delayed in closing a scratch wound. Live imaging of the scratch showed deficient directional migration and reduced speed in cells lacking Irf6. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions were investigated. We show that wild-type and Irf6-deficient keratinocytes adhere similarly to all matrices after 60?min. However, Irf6-deficient keratinocytes were consistently larger and more spread, a phenotype that persisted during the scratch-healing process. Interestingly, Irf6-deficient keratinocytes exhibited an increased network of stress fibers and active RhoA compared with that observed in wild-type keratinocytes. Blocking ROCK, a downstream effector of RhoA, rescued the delay in closing scratch wounds. The expression of Arhgap29, a Rho GTPase-activating protein, was reduced in Irf6-deficient keratinocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that Irf6 functions through the RhoA pathway to regulate cellular migration.
Project description:Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are the most frequent craniofacial birth defects. An orofacial cleft (OFC) occurs as a result of deviations in palatogenesis. Cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and apoptosis are crucial in palatogenesis. We hypothesized that deregulation of these processes in oral keratinocytes contributes to OFC. We performed microarray expression analysis on palatal keratinocytes from OFC and non-OFC individuals. Principal component analysis showed a clear difference in gene expression with 24 and 17% for the first and second component respectively. In OFC cells, 228 genes were differentially expressed (p<0.001). Gene ontology analysis showed enrichment of genes involved in β1 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration, as well as in P-cadherin expression. A scratch assay demonstrated reduced migration of OFC keratinocytes (343.6 ± 29.62 μm) vs. non-OFC keratinocytes (503.4 ± 41.81 μm, p<0.05). Our results indicate that adhesion and migration are deregulated in OFC keratinocytes, which might contribute to OFC pathogenesis. Overall design: We performed microarray expression analysis and QPCR on palatal keratinocytes from OFC and non-OFC individuals. In addition a functional scratch assay was performed. Microarray expression study, cultured keratinocytes, QPCR, scratch assay
Project description:To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC) and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism.Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (p< 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in Nrf2 mRNA expression levels between the adenomyosis and control groups. Using an agonist and Nrf2 siRNA, we regulated the Nrf2 protein levels of primary cultured endometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05).Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Wound healing is a complex process that is essential to provide skin homeostasis. Infection with pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus can lead to chronic wounds, which are challenging to heal. Previously, we demonstrated that the antimicrobial endotoxin-neutralizing peptide Pep19-2.5 promotes artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the mechanism of peptide-induced cell migration and if Pep19-2.5 accelerates wound closure in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Cell migration was examined in HaCaT keratinocytes and P2X7 receptor-overexpressing HEK293 cells using the wound healing scratch assay. The protein expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2, ATP release, calcium influx and mitochondrial ROS were analysed to characterize Pep19-2.5-mediated signalling. For in vivo studies, female BALB/c mice were wounded and infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or left non-infected and treated topically with Pep19-2.5 twice daily for 6 days. KEY RESULTS:Specific P2X7 receptor antagonists inhibited Pep19-2.5-induced cell migration and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in keratinocytes and P2X7 receptor-transfected HEK293 cells. ATP release was not increased by Pep19-2.5; however, ATP was required for cell migration. Pep19-2.5 increased cytosolic calcium and mitochondrial ROS, which were involved in peptide-induced migration and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In both non-infected and MRSA-infected wounds, the wound diameter was reduced already at day 2 post-wounding in the Pep19-2.5-treated groups compared to vehicle, and remained decreased until day 6. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Our data suggest the potential application of Pep19-2.5 in the treatment of non-infected and S. aureus-infected wounds and provide insights into the mechanism involved in Pep19-2.5-induced wound healing.
Project description:Changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca²?]i) as well as in the phosphorylation state of proteins have been implicated in keratinocyte wound healing revealed in scratch assays. Scratching confluent HaCaT monolayers decreased the number of cells displaying repetitive Ca²? oscillations as well as the frequency of their Ca²?-transients in cells close to the wounded area and initiated migration of the cells into the wound bed. In contrast, calyculin-A (CLA) and okadaic acid (OA), known cell permeable inhibitors of protein phosphatase-1 and 2A, increased the level of resting [Ca²?]i and suppressed cell migration and wound healing of HaCaT cells. Furthermore, neither CLA nor OA influenced how scratching affected Ca²? oscillations. It is assumed that changes in and alterations of the phosphorylation level of Ca²?-transport and contractile proteins upon phosphatase inhibition mediates cell migration and wound healing.
Project description:Several transcription factors, including the master regulator of the epidermis, p63, are involved in controlling human keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we report that in normal keratinocytes, the expression of FOXM1, a member of the Forkhead superfamily of transcription factors, is controlled by p63. We observe that, together with p63, FOXM1 strongly contributes to the maintenance of high proliferative potential in keratinocytes, whereas its expression decreases during differentiation, as well as during replicative-induced senescence. Depletion of FOXM1 is sufficient to induce keratinocyte senescence, paralleled by an increased ROS production and an inhibition of ROS-scavenger genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX2, PRDX). Interestingly, FOXM1 expression is strongly reduced in keratinocytes isolated from old human subjects compared with young subjects. FOXM1 depletion sensitizes both normal keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cells to apoptosis and ROS-induced apoptosis. Together, these data identify FOXM1 as a key regulator of ROS in normal dividing epithelial cells and suggest that squamous carcinoma cells may also use FOXM1 to control oxidative stress to escape premature senescence and apoptosis.
Project description:Erythropoietin (EPO) has both erythropoietic and tissue-protective properties. The EPO analogues carbamylated EPO (CEPO) and pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide (pHBSP) lack the erythropoietic activity of EPO but retain the tissue-protective properties that are mediated by a heterocomplex of EPO receptor (EPOR) and the ? common receptor (?CR). We studied the action of EPO and its analogues in a model of wound healing where a bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) monolayer was scratched and the scratch closure was assessed over 24 h under different oxygen concentrations. We related the effects of EPO and its analogues on repair to their effect on BAECs proliferation and migration (evaluated using a micro-Boyden chamber). EPO, CEPO and pHBSP enhanced scratch closure only at lower oxygen (5%), while their effect at atmospheric oxygen (21%) was not significant. The mRNA expression of EPOR was doubled in 5% compared with 21% oxygen, and this was associated with increased EPOR assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. By contrast, ?CR mRNA levels were similar in 5% and 21% oxygen. EPO and its analogues increased both BAECs proliferation and migration, suggesting that both may be involved in the reparative process. The priming effect of low oxygen tension on the action of tissue-protective cytokines may be of relevance to vascular disease, including atherogenesis and restenosis.