Pyrimethamine inhibits adult polycystic kidney disease by modulating STAT signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a commonly inherited disorder mostly caused by mutations in PKD1, encoding polycystin-1 (PC1). The disease is characterized by development and growth of epithelium-lined cyst in both kidneys, often leading to renal failure. There is no specific treatment for this disease. Here, we report a sustained activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in ischemic injured and uninjured Pkd1 knockout polycystic kidneys and in human ADPKD kidneys. Through a chemical library screen, we identified the anti-parasitic compound pyrimethamine as an inhibitor of STAT3 function. Treatment with pyrimethamine decreases cell proliferation in human ADPKD cells and blocks renal cyst formation in an adult and a neonatal PKD mouse model. Moreover, we demonstrated that a specific STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, reduces cyst formation and growth in a neonatal PKD mouse model. Our results suggest that PC1 acts as a negative regulator of STAT3 and that blocking STAT3 signaling with pyrimethamine or similar drugs may be an attractive therapy for human ADPKD.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is driven by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Recent work suggests that epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein function may play a role in ADPKD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified SMYD2, a SET and MYND domain protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a regulator of renal cyst growth. SMYD2 was upregulated in renal epithelial cells and tissues from Pkd1-knockout mice as well as in ADPKD patients. SMYD2 deficiency delayed renal cyst growth in postnatal kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Pkd1 and Smyd2 double-knockout mice lived longer than Pkd1-knockout mice. Targeting SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, delayed cyst growth in both early- and later-stage Pkd1 conditional knockout mouse models. SMYD2 carried out its function via methylation and activation of STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-?B, leading to increased cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation and survival. We further identified two positive feedback loops that integrate epigenetic regulation and renal inflammation in cyst development: SMYD2/IL-6/STAT3/SMYD2 and SMYD2/TNF-?/NF-?B/SMYD2. These pathways provide mechanisms by which SMYD2 might be induced by cyst fluid IL-6 and TNF-? in ADPKD kidneys. The SMYD2 transcriptional target gene Ptpn13 also linked SMYD2 to other PKD-associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling, via PTPN13-mediated phosphorylation.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is among the most common monogenic disorders mainly associated with PKD1/PC1 mutations. We show herein that renal regulation in Pc1 dosage-reduced and -increased mouse models converge toward stimulation of c-Myc expression along with ?-catenin, delineating c-Myc as a key Pkd1 node in cystogenesis. Enhanced renal c-Myc-induced ADPKD in SBM transgenic mice lead conversely to striking upregulation of Pkd1/Pc1 expression and ?-catenin activation, lending credence for reciprocal crosstalk between c-Myc and Pc1. In adult SBM kidneys, c-Myc is strongly enriched on Pkd1 promoter with RNA pol II, consistent with Pkd1 upregulation during cystogenesis. Similar c-Myc direct binding at birth uncovers an equivalent role on Pkd1 regulation during renal developmental program. Concurrent with enriched c-Myc binding, recruitment of active chromatin modifying co-factors by c-Myc at the Pkd1 regulatory region probably opens chromatin to stimulate transcription. A similar transcriptional activation by c-Myc is also likely operant on endogenous human PKD1 gene from our transactivation analysis in response to human c-MYC upregulation. Genetic ablation of c-Myc in Pc1-reduced and -increased mouse models significantly attenuates cyst growth, proliferation and PKD progression. Our study determined a dual role for c-Myc, as a major contributor in Pc1-induced cystogenesis and in a feed-forward regulatory Pkd1-c-Myc loop mechanism that may also prevail in human ADPKD.
Project description:Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in humans involves kidney cyst expansion beginning in utero. Recessive PKD can result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within the first decade, whereas autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD), caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 gene, typically leads to ESRD by the fifth decade of life. Inhibition of mTOR signalling was recently found to halt cyst formation in adult ADPKD mice. In contrast, no studies have investigated potential treatments to prevent cyst formation in utero in recessive PKD. Given that homozygous Pkd1 mutant mice exhibit cyst formation in utero, we decided to investigate whether mTOR inhibition in utero ameliorates kidney cyst formation in foetal Pkd1 homozygous mutant mice.Pregnant Pkd1(+/-) female mice (mated with Pkd1(+/-) male mice) were treated with rapamycin from E14.5 to E17.5. Foetal kidneys were dissected, genotyped and evaluated by cyst size as well as expression of the developmental marker, Pax2.Numerous cysts were present in Pkd1(-/-) kidneys, which were twice the weight of wild-type kidneys. Cyst size was reduced by a third in rapamycin-treated Pkd1(-/-) kidney sections and kidney mass was reduced to near wild-type levels. However, total cyst number was not reduced compared with control embryos. Pax2 expression and kidney development were unaltered in rapamycin-treated mice but some lethality was observed in Pkd1(-/-) null embryos.Rapamycin treatment reduces cyst formation in Pkd1(-/-) mutant mice; therefore, the prevention of kidney cyst expansion in utero by mTOR inhibition is feasible. However, selective rapamycin-associated lethality limits its usefulness as a treatment in utero.
Project description:Mutations in polycystin-1 (PC1) lead to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a leading cause of renal failure for which no treatment is available. PC1 is an integral membrane protein, which has been implicated in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways including the JAK/STAT pathway. Here we show that membrane-anchored PC1 activates STAT3 in a JAK2-dependent manner, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. The C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of PC1 can undergo proteolytic cleavage and nuclear translocation. Tail-cleavage abolishes the ability of PC1 to directly activate STAT3 but the cleaved PC1 tail now coactivates STAT3 in a mechanism requiring STAT phosphorylation by cytokines or growth factors. This leads to an exaggerated cytokine response. Hence, PC1 can regulate STAT activity by a dual mechanism. In ADPKD kidneys PC1 tail fragments are overexpressed, including a unique ?15-kDa fragment (P15). STAT3 is strongly activated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in human ADPKD, and orthologous and nonorthologous polycystic mouse models. STAT3 is also activated in developing, postnatal kidneys but inactivated in adult kidneys. These results indicate that STAT3 signaling is regulated by PC1 and is a driving factor for renal epithelial proliferation during normal renal development and during cyst growth.
Project description:Polycystin-1 (PC1) mutations result in proliferative renal cyst growth and progression to renal failure in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) was shown to be activated in cyst-lining cells in ADPKD and PKD mouse models and may drive renal cyst growth, but the mechanisms leading to persistent STAT3 activation are unknown. A proteolytic fragment of PC1 corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail, PC1-p30, is overexpressed in ADPKD. Here, we show that PC1-p30 interacts with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, resulting in Src-dependent activation of STAT3 by tyrosine phosphorylation. The PC1-p30-mediated activation of Src/STAT3 was independent of JAK family kinases and insensitive to the STAT3 inhibitor suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Signaling by the EGF receptor (EGFR) or cAMP amplified the activation of Src/STAT3 by PC1-p30. Expression of PC1-p30 changed the cellular response to cAMP signaling. In the absence of PC1-p30, cAMP dampened EGFR- or IL-6-dependent activation of STAT3; in the presence of PC1-p30, cAMP amplified Src-dependent activation of STAT3. In the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat model, activation of STAT3 in renal cystic cells depended on vasopressin receptor 2 (V2R) signaling, which increased cAMP levels. Genetic inhibition of vasopressin expression or treatment with a pharmacologic V2R inhibitor strongly suppressed STAT3 activation and reduced renal cyst growth. These results suggest that PC1, via its cleaved cytoplasmic tail, integrates signaling inputs from EGFR and cAMP, resulting in Src-dependent activation of STAT3 and a proliferative response.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by germline mutations of PKD1 or PKD2 on one allele and a somatic mutation inactivating the remaining normal allele. However, if and how null ADPKD gene renal epithelial cells affect the biology and function of neighboring cells, including heterozygous renal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and macrophages during cyst initiation and expansion remains unknown. Here we address this question with a "cystic extracellular vesicles/exosomes theory". We show that cystic cell derived extracellular vesicles and urinary exosomes derived from ADPKD patients promote cyst growth in Pkd1 mutant kidneys and in 3D cultures. This is achieved by: 1) downregulation of Pkd1 gene expression and upregulation of specific miRNAs, resulting in the activation of PKD associated signaling pathways in recipient renal epithelial cells and tissues; 2) the activation of fibroblasts; and 3) the induction of cytokine expression and the recruitment of macrophages to increase renal inflammation in cystic kidneys. Inhibition of exosome biogenesis/release with GW4869 significantly delays cyst growth in aggressive and milder ADPKD mouse models, suggesting that targeting exosome secretion has therapeutic potential for ADPKD.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) gene products polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2) colocalize in the apical monocilia of renal epithelial cells. Mouse and human renal cells without PC1 protein show impaired ciliary mechanosensation, and this impairment has been proposed to promote cystogenesis. However, most cyst epithelia of human ADPKD kidneys appear to express full-length PC1 and PC2 in normal or increased abundance. We show that confluent primary ADPKD cyst cells with the novel PC1 mutation DeltaL2433 and with normal abundance of PC1 and PC2 polypeptides lack ciliary PC1 and often lack ciliary PC2, whereas PC1 and PC2 are both present in cilia of confluent normal human kidney (NK) epithelial cells in primary culture. Confluent NK cells respond to shear stress with transient increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), dependent on both extracellular Ca(2+) and release from intracellular stores. In contrast, ADPKD cyst cells lack flow-sensitive [Ca(2+)](i) signaling and exhibit reduced endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores and store-depletion-operated Ca(2+) entry but retain near-normal [Ca(2+)](i) responses to ANG II and to vasopressin. Expression of wild-type and mutant CD16.7-PKD1(115-226) fusion proteins reveals within the COOH-terminal 112 amino acids of PC1 a coiled-coil domain-independent ciliary localization signal. However, the coiled-coil domain is required for CD16.7-PKD1(115-226) expression to accelerate decay of the flow-induced Ca(2+) signal in NK cells. These data provide evidence for ciliary dysfunction and polycystin mislocalization in human ADPKD cells with normal levels of PC1.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The inactivation of the ciliary proteins polycystin 1 or polycystin 2 leads to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although signaling by primary cilia and interstitial inflammation both play a critical role in the disease, the reciprocal interactions between immune and tubular cells are not well characterized. The transcription factor STAT3, a component of the cilia proteome that is involved in crosstalk between immune and nonimmune cells in various tissues, has been suggested as a factor fueling ADPKD progression.<h4>Method</h4>To explore how STAT3 intersects with cilia signaling, renal inflammation, and cyst growth, we used conditional murine models involving postdevelopmental ablation of <i>Pkd1</i>, <i>Stat3</i>, and cilia, as well as cultures of cilia-deficient or STAT3-deficient tubular cell lines.<h4>Results</h4>Our findings indicate that, although primary cilia directly modulate STAT3 activation <i>in vitro</i>, the bulk of STAT3 activation in polycystic kidneys occurs through an indirect mechanism in which primary cilia trigger macrophage recruitment to the kidney, which in turn promotes Stat3 activation. Surprisingly, although inactivating <i>Stat3</i> in <i>Pkd1</i>-deficient tubules slightly reduced cyst burden, it resulted in a massive infiltration of the cystic kidneys by macrophages and T cells, precluding any improvement of kidney function. We also found that <i>Stat3</i> inactivation led to increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CCL5 and CXCL10 in polycystic kidneys and cultured tubular cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>STAT3 appears to repress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and restrict immune cell infiltration in ADPKD. Our findings suggest that STAT3 is not a critical driver of cyst growth in ADPKD but rather plays a major role in the crosstalk between immune and tubular cells that shapes disease expression.
Project description:Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutation of PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin 1 and 2, respectively. The polycystins localize to primary cilia and the functional loss of the polycystin complex leads to the formation and progressive growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. The pathogenesis of ADPKD is complex and molecular mechanisms connecting ciliary dysfunction to renal cystogenesis are unclear. Primary cilia mediate Hedgehog signaling, which modulates cell proliferation and differentiation in a tissue-dependent manner. Previously, we showed that Hedgehog signaling was increased in cystic kidneys of several PKD mouse models and that Hedgehog inhibition prevented cyst formation in embryonic PKD mouse kidneys treated with cAMP. Here, we show that in human ADPKD tissue, Hedgehog target and activator, Glioma 1, was elevated and localized to cyst-lining epithelial cells and to interstitial cells, suggesting increased autocrine and paracrine Hedgehog signaling in ADPKD, respectively. Further, Hedgehog inhibitors reduced basal and cAMP-induced proliferation of ADPKD cells and cyst formation in vitro. These data suggest that Hedgehog signaling is increased in human ADPKD and that suppression of Hedgehog signaling can counter cellular processes that promote cyst growth in vitro.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PKD1 or PKD2, the two main causal genes for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), encode the multipass transmembrane proteins polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), respectively. Polycystins localize to the primary cilium, an organelle essential for cell signaling, including signal transduction of the Hedgehog pathway. Mutations in ciliary genes that build and maintain the cilium also cause renal cystic disease through unknown pathways. Although recent studies have found alterations in Hedgehog signaling in ADPKD-related models and tissues, the relationship between Hedgehog and polycystic kidney disease is not known. METHODS:To examine the potential role of cell-autonomous Hedgehog signaling in regulating kidney cyst formation in vivo in both early- and adult-onset mouse models of ADPKD, we used conditional inactivation of Pkd1 combined with conditional modulation of Hedgehog signaling components in renal epithelial cells, where mutations in Pkd1 initiate cyst formation. After increasing or decreasing levels of Hedgehog signaling in cells that underwent inactivation of Pkd1, we evaluated the effects of these genetic manipulations on quantitative parameters of polycystic kidney disease severity. RESULTS:We found that in Pkd1 conditional mutant mouse kidneys, neither downregulation nor activation of the Hedgehog pathway in epithelial cells along the nephron significantly influenced the severity of the polycystic kidney phenotype in mouse models of developmental or adult-onset of ADPKD. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that loss of Pkd1 function results in kidney cysts through pathways that are not affected by the activity of the Hedgehog pathway.