Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 is a novel regulator of stress-induced premature senescence.
ABSTRACT: According to the "free radical theory" of aging, premature senescence induced by oxidative stress contributes to organismal aging. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 is a structural protein component of caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in signal transduction. We show that oxidative stress up-regulates PTRF/cavin-1 protein expression and promotes the interaction between PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1, another structural protein component of caveolae. Consistent with these data, the number of caveolae is dramatically increased in cells subjected to oxidative stress. We demonstrate that down-regulation of PTRF/cavin-1 by shRNA significantly inhibits oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Mechanistically, we found that PTRF/cavin-1 expression is necessary for the oxidant-induced sequestration of Mdm2, a negative regulator of p53, into caveolar membranes, away from p53, and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway. Expression of a mutant form of PTRF/cavin-1, which fails to localize to caveolar membranes after oxidative stress, inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of p53 and induction of premature senescence. Thus, PTRF/cavin-1 is a novel regulator of oxidative stress-induced premature senescence by acting as a link between free radicals and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway.
Project description:Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF, also known as Cavin-1) is an essential component in the biogenesis and function of caveolae. Here, we show that PTRF expression is increased in senescent human fibroblasts. Importantly, overexpression of PTRF induced features characteristic of cellular senescence, whereas reduced PTRF expression extended the cellular replicative lifespan. Interestingly, we found that PTRF localized primarily to the nuclei of young and quiescent WI-38 human fibroblasts, but translocated to the cytosol and plasma membrane during cellular senescence. Furthermore, electron microscopic analysis demonstrated an increased number of caveolar structures in senescent and PTRF-transfected WI-38 cells. Our data suggest that the role of PTRF in cellular senescence is dependent on its targeting to caveolae and its interaction with caveolin-1, which appeared to be regulated by the phosphorylation of PTRF. Taken together, our findings identify PTRF as a novel regulator of cellular senescence that acts through the p53/p21 and caveolar pathways.
Project description:Caveolae are abundant cell-surface organelles involved in lipid regulation and endocytosis. We used comparative proteomics to identify PTRF (also called Cav-p60, Cavin) as a putative caveolar coat protein. PTRF-Cavin selectively associates with mature caveolae at the plasma membrane but not Golgi-localized caveolin. In prostate cancer PC3 cells, and during development of zebrafish notochord, lack of PTRF-Cavin expression correlates with lack of caveolae, and caveolin resides on flat plasma membrane. Expression of PTRF-Cavin in PC3 cells is sufficient to cause formation of caveolae. Knockdown of PTRF-Cavin reduces caveolae density, both in mammalian cells and in the zebrafish. Caveolin remains on the plasma membrane in PTRF-Cavin knockdown cells but exhibits increased lateral mobility and accelerated lysosomal degradation. We conclude that PTRF-Cavin is required for caveola formation and sequestration of mobile caveolin into immobile caveolae.
Project description:Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is an important antioxidant enzyme that controls cellular redox homeostasis. By using a proteomic-based approach, here we identify TrxR1 as a caveolar membrane-resident protein. We show that caveolin 1, the structural protein component of caveolae, is a TrxR1-binding protein by demonstrating that the scaffolding domain of caveolin 1 (amino acids 82-101) binds directly to the caveolin-binding motif (CBM) of TrxR1 (amino acids 454-463). We also show that overexpression of caveolin 1 inhibits TrxR activity, whereas a lack of caveolin 1 activates TrxR, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of a peptide corresponding to the caveolin 1 scaffolding domain is sufficient to inhibit TrxR activity. A TrxR1 mutant lacking the CBM, which fails to localize to caveolae and bind to caveolin 1, is constitutively active and inhibits oxidative-stress-mediated activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence. Finally, we show that caveolin 1 expression inhibits TrxR1-mediated cell transformation. Thus, caveolin 1 links free radicals to activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of cellular senescence by acting as an endogenous inhibitor of TrxR1.
Project description:Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein.
Project description:Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations with a characteristic flask-shaped morphology. They function in diverse cellular processes, including endocytosis. The mechanism by which caveolae are generated is not fully understood, but both caveolin proteins and PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor, also known as cavin) are important. Here we show that loss of SDPR (serum deprivation protein response) causes loss of caveolae. SDPR binds directly to PTRF and recruits PTRF to caveolar membranes. Overexpression of SDPR, unlike PTRF, induces deformation of caveolae and extensive tubulation of the plasma membrane. The B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STB) also induces membrane tubulation and these membrane tubes also originate from caveolae. STB colocalizes extensively with both SDPR and caveolin 1. Loss of caveolae reduces the propensity of STB to induce membrane tubulation. We conclude that SDPR is a membrane-curvature-inducing component of caveolae, and that STB-induced membrane tubulation is facilitated by caveolae.
Project description:Cavin-1/polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) is a requisite component of caveolae, small plasma membrane invaginations that are highly abundant in adipocytes. Cavin-1 is a dynamic molecule whose dissociation from caveolae plays an important role in mechanoprotection and rRNA synthesis. In the former situation, the acute dissociation of cavin-1 from caveolae allows cell membrane expansion that occurs upon insulin-aided lipid uptake into the fat cells. Cavin-1 dissociation from caveolae and membrane flattening alters the cytoskeleton and the interaction of plasma membrane proteins with the extracellular matrix through interactions with focal adhesion structures. Here, using cavin-1 knockout mice, subcellular fractionation, and immunoblotting methods, we addressed the relationship of cavin-1 with focal adhesion complexes following nutritional stimulation. We found that cavin-1 is acutely translocated to focal complex compartments upon insulin stimulation, where it regulates focal complex formation through an interaction with paxillin. We found that loss of cavin-1 impairs focal complex remodeling and focal adhesion formation and causes a mechanical stress response, concomitant with activation of proinflammatory and senescence/apoptosis pathways. We conclude that cavin-1 plays key roles in dynamic remodeling of focal complexes upon metabolic stimulation. This mechanism also underlies the crucial role of caveolae in the long-term healthy expansion of the adipocyte.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce premature cellular senescence, which is believed to contribute to aging and age-related diseases. The nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that mediates cytoprotective responses against stress. We demonstrate that caveolin-1 is a direct binding partner of Nrf2, as shown by the binding of the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 (amino acids 82-101) to the caveolin-binding domain of Nrf2 (amino acids 281-289). Biochemical studies show that Nrf2 is concentrated into caveolar membranes in human and mouse fibroblasts, where it colocalizes with caveolin-1, under resting conditions. After oxidative stress, caveolin-1 limits the movement of Nrf2 from caveolar membranes to the nucleus. In contrast, Nrf2 is constitutively localized to the nucleus before and after oxidative stress in caveolin-1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which do not express caveolin-1. Functional studies demonstrate that caveolin-1 acts as an endogenous inhibitor of Nrf2, as shown by the enhanced up-regulation of NQO1, an Nrf2 target gene, in caveolin-1-null MEFs and the activation or inhibition of a luciferase construct carrying an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) after down-regulation of caveolin-1 by small interfering RNA or overexpression of caveolin-1, respectively. Expression of a mutant form of Nrf2 that cannot bind to caveolin-1 (??A-Nrf2) hyperactivates ARE and inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence in fibroblasts. Finally, we show that overexpression of caveolin-1 in colon cancer cells inhibits oxidant-induced activation of Nrf2-dependent signaling, promotes premature senescence, and inhibits their transformed phenotype. Thus, by inhibiting Nrf2-mediated signaling, caveolin-1 links free radicals to the activation of the p53/senescence pathway.
Project description:Caveolae are invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in many cellular processes, including clathrin-independent endocytosis, cholesterol transport, and signal transduction. They are characterized by the presence of caveolin proteins. Mutations that cause deficiency in caveolin-3, which is expressed exclusively in skeletal and cardiac muscle, have been linked to muscular dystrophy. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF; also known as cavin) is a caveolar-associated protein suggested to play an essential role in the formation of caveolae and the stabilization of caveolins. Here, we identified PTRF mutations in 5 nonconsanguineous patients who presented with both generalized lipodystrophy and muscular dystrophy. Muscle hypertrophy, muscle mounding, mild metabolic complications, and elevated serum creatine kinase levels were observed in these patients. Skeletal muscle biopsies revealed chronic dystrophic changes, deficiency and mislocalization of all 3 caveolin family members, and reduction of caveolae structure. We generated expression constructs recapitulating the human mutations; upon overexpression in myoblasts, these mutations resulted in PTRF mislocalization and disrupted physical interaction with caveolins. Our data confirm that PTRF is essential for formation of caveolae and proper localization of caveolins in human cells and suggest that clinical features observed in the patients with PTRF mutations are associated with a secondary deficiency of caveolins.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) associated with caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane that regulate vesicular transport, endocytosis and intracellular signaling. IGF-IR internalization represents a key mechanism of down-modulation of receptors number on plasma membrane. IGF-IR interacts directly with Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the most relevant protein of caveolae. Recently it has been demonstrated that the Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor I (PTRF/Cavin) is required for caveolae biogenesis and function. The role of Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in IGF-IR internalization is still to be clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the interaction of IGF-IR with Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in the presence of IGF1in human Hacat cells. We show that IGF-IR internalization triggers Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin translocation from plasma membrane to cytosol and increases IGF-IR interaction with these proteins. In fact, Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin co-immunoprecipitate with IGF-IR during receptor internalization. We found a different time course of co-immunoprecipitation between IGF-IR and Cav-1 compared to IGF-IR and PTRF/Cavin. Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing by siRNA differently affect surface IGF-IR levels following IGF1 treatment: Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing significantly affect IGF-IR rate of internalization, while PTRF/Cavin silencing also decreases IGF-IR plasma membrane recovery. Since Cav-1 phosphorylation could have a role in IGF-IR internalization, the mutant Cav-1Y14F lacking Tyr14 was transfected. Cav-1Y14F transfected cells showed a reduced internalization of IGF-IR compared with cells expressing wild type Cav-1. Receptor internalization was not impaired by Clathrin silencing. These findings support a critical role of caveolae in IGF-IR intracellular traveling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that Caveolae play a role in IGF-IR internalization. Based on these findings, Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin could represent two relevant and distinct targets to modulate IGF-IR function.
Project description:Mutations in the PTRF/Cavin-1 gene cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (CGL4) associated with myopathy. Additionally, long-QT syndrome and fatal cardiac arrhythmia are observed in patients with CGL4 who have homozygous PTRF/Cavin-1 mutations. PTRF/Cavin-1 deficiency shows reductions of caveolae and caveolin-3 (Cav3) protein expression in skeletal muscle, and Cav3 deficiency in the heart causes cardiac hypertrophy with loss of caveolae. However, it remains unknown how loss of PTRF/Cavin-1 affects cardiac morphology and function. Here, we present a characterization of the hearts of PTRF/Cavin-1-null (PTRF-/-) mice. Electron microscopy revealed the reduction of caveolae in cardiomyocytes of PTRF-/- mice. PTRF-/- mice at 16 weeks of age developed a progressive cardiomyopathic phenotype with wall thickening of left ventricles and reduced fractional shortening evaluated by echocardiography. Electrocardiography revealed that PTRF-/- mice at 24 weeks of age had low voltages and wide QRS complexes in limb leads. Histological analysis showed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy accompanied by progressive interstitial/perivascular fibrosis. Hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression was also induced in PTRF-/- hearts. Western blotting analysis and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Cav3 expression was suppressed in PTRF-/- hearts compared with that in wild-type (WT) ones. ERK1/2 was activated in PTRF-/- hearts compared with that in WT ones. These results suggest that loss of PTRF/Cavin-1 protein expression is sufficient to induce a molecular program leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy, which is partly attributable to Cav3 reduction in the heart.