DnaA protein DNA-binding domain binds to Hda protein to promote inter-AAA+ domain interaction involved in regulatory inactivation of DnaA.
ABSTRACT: Chromosomal replication is initiated from the replication origin oriC in Escherichia coli by the active ATP-bound form of DnaA protein. The regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) system, a complex of the ADP-bound Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp, represses extra initiations by facilitating DnaA-bound ATP hydrolysis, yielding the inactive ADP-bound form of DnaA. However, the mechanisms involved in promoting the DnaA-Hda interaction have not been determined except for the involvement of an interaction between the AAA+ domains of the two. This study revealed that DnaA Leu-422 and Pro-423 residues within DnaA domain IV, including a typical DNA-binding HTH motif, are specifically required for RIDA-dependent ATP hydrolysis in vitro and that these residues support efficient interaction with the DNA-loaded clamp·Hda complex and with Hda in vitro. Consistently, substitutions of these residues caused accumulation of ATP-bound DnaA in vivo and oriC-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Leu-422 plays a more important role in these activities than Pro-423. By contrast, neither of these residues is crucial for DNA replication from oriC, although they are highly conserved in DnaA orthologues. Structural analysis of a DnaA·Hda complex model suggested that these residues make contact with residues in the vicinity of the Hda AAA+ sensor I that participates in formation of a nucleotide-interacting surface. Together, the results show that functional DnaA-Hda interactions require a second interaction site within DnaA domain IV in addition to the AAA+ domain and suggest that these interactions are crucial for the formation of RIDA complexes that are active for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only approximately 100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain.
Project description:This review summarizes the mechanisms of the initiator protein DnaA in replication initiation and its regulation in Escherichia coli. The chromosomal origin (oriC) DNA is unwound by the replication initiation complex to allow loading of DnaB helicases and replisome formation. The initiation complex consists of the DnaA protein, DnaA-initiator-associating protein DiaA, integration host factor (IHF), and oriC, which contains a duplex-unwinding element (DUE) and a DnaA-oligomerization region (DOR) containing DnaA-binding sites (DnaA boxes) and a single IHF-binding site that induces sharp DNA bending. DiaA binds to DnaA and stimulates DnaA assembly at the DOR. DnaA binds tightly to ATP and ADP. ATP-DnaA constructs functionally different sub-complexes at DOR, and the DUE-proximal DnaA sub-complex contains IHF and promotes DUE unwinding. The first part of this review presents the structures and mechanisms of oriC-DnaA complexes involved in the regulation of replication initiation. During the cell cycle, the level of ATP-DnaA level, the active form for initiation, is strictly regulated by multiple systems, resulting in timely replication initiation. After initiation, regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) intervenes to reduce ATP-DnaA level by hydrolyzing the DnaA-bound ATP to ADP to yield ADP-DnaA, the inactive form. RIDA involves the binding of the DNA polymerase clamp on newly synthesized DNA to the DnaA-inactivator Hda protein. In datA-dependent DnaA-ATP hydrolysis (DDAH), binding of IHF at the chromosomal locus datA, which contains a cluster of DnaA boxes, results in further hydrolysis of DnaA-bound ATP. SeqA protein inhibits untimely initiation at oriC by binding to newly synthesized oriC DNA and represses dnaA transcription in a cell cycle dependent manner. To reinitiate DNA replication, ADP-DnaA forms oligomers at DnaA-reactivating sequences (DARS1 and DARS2), resulting in the dissociation of ADP and the release of nucleotide-free apo-DnaA, which then binds ATP to regenerate ATP-DnaA. In vivo, DARS2 plays an important role in this process and its activation is regulated by timely binding of IHF to DARS2 in the cell cycle. Chromosomal locations of DARS sites are optimized for the strict regulation for timely replication initiation. The last part of this review describes how DDAH and DARS regulate DnaA activity.
Project description:Regulatory inactivation of DnaA is dependent on Hda (homologous to DnaA), a protein homologous to the AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase region of the replication initiator DnaA. When bound to the sliding clamp loaded onto duplex DNA, Hda can stimulate the transformation of active DnaA-ATP into inactive DnaA-ADP. The crystal structure of Hda from Shewanella amazonensis SB2B at 1.75 A resolution reveals that Hda resembles typical AAA+ ATPases. The arrangement of the two subdomains in Hda (residues 1-174 and 175-241) differs dramatically from that of DnaA. A CDP molecule anchors the Hda domains in a conformation that promotes dimer formation. The Hda dimer adopts a novel oligomeric assembly for AAA+ proteins in which the arginine finger, crucial for ATP hydrolysis, is fully exposed and available to hydrolyze DnaA-ATP through a typical AAA+ type of mechanism. The sliding clamp binding motifs at the N-terminus of each Hda monomer are partially buried and combine to form an antiparallel beta-sheet at the dimer interface. The inaccessibility of the clamp binding motifs in the CDP-bound structure of Hda suggests that conformational changes are required for Hda to form a functional complex with the clamp. Thus, the CDP-bound Hda dimer likely represents an inactive form of Hda.
Project description:The ATP-bound form of the Escherichia coli DnaA protein binds 'DnaA boxes' present in the origin of replication (oriC) and operator sites of several genes, including dnaA, to co-ordinate their transcription with initiation of replication. The Hda protein, together with the ? sliding clamp, stimulates the ATPase activity of DnaA via a process termed regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA), to regulate the activity of DnaA in DNA replication. Here, we used the mutant dnaN159 strain, which expresses the ?159 clamp protein, to gain insight into how the actions of Hda are co-ordinated with replication. Elevated expression of Hda impeded growth of the dnaN159 strain in a Pol II- and Pol IV-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Hda managing the actions of these Pols. In a wild-type strain, elevated levels of Hda conferred sensitivity to nitrofurazone, and suppressed the frequency of -1 frameshift mutations characteristic of Pol IV, while loss of hda conferred cold sensitivity. Using the dnaN159 strain, we identified 24 novel hda alleles, four of which supported E. coli viability despite their RIDA defect. Taken together, these findings suggest that although one or more Hda functions are essential for cell viability, RIDA may be dispensable.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, ATP-DnaA multimers formed on the replication origin oriC promote duplex unwinding, which leads to helicase loading. Based on a detailed functional analysis of the oriC sequence motifs, we previously proposed that the left half of oriC forms an ATP-DnaA subcomplex competent for oriC unwinding, whereas the right half of oriC forms a distinct ATP-DnaA subcomplex that facilitates helicase loading. However, the molecular basis for the functional difference between these ATP-DnaA subcomplexes remains unclear. By analyzing a series of novel DnaA mutants, we found that structurally distinct DnaA multimers form on each half of oriC. DnaA AAA+ domain residues Arg-227 and Leu-290 are specifically required for oriC unwinding. Notably, these residues are required for the ATP-DnaA-specific structure of DnaA multimers in complex with the left half of oriC but not for that with the right half. These results support the idea that the ATP-DnaA multimers formed on oriC are not uniform and that they can adopt different conformations. Based on a structural model, we propose that Arg-227 and Leu-290 play a crucial role in inter-ATP-DnaA interaction and are a prerequisite for the formation of unwinding-competent DnaA subcomplexes on the left half of oriC. These residues are not required for the interaction with DnaB, nucleotide binding, or regulatory DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, which further supports their important role in inter-DnaA interaction. The corresponding residues are evolutionarily conserved and are required for unwinding in the initial complexes of Thermotoga maritima, an ancient hyperthermophile. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel and common mechanism for ATP-DnaA-dependent activation of initial complexes.
Project description:Regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) is one of the major regulatory mechanisms of prokaryotic replication licensing. In RIDA, the Hda-sliding clamp complex loaded onto DNA directly interacts with adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound DnaA and stimulates the hydrolysis of ATP to inactivate DnaA. A prediction is that the activity of Hda is tightly controlled to ensure that replication initiation occurs only once per cell cycle. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the Hda-? clamp complex. This complex contains two pairs of Hda dimers sandwiched between two ? clamp rings to form an octamer that is stabilized by three discrete interfaces. Two separate surfaces of Hda make contact with the ? clamp, which is essential for Hda function in RIDA. The third interface between Hda monomers occludes the active site arginine finger, blocking its access to DnaA. Taken together, our structural and mutational analyses of the Hda-? clamp complex indicate that the interaction of the ? clamp with Hda controls the ability of Hda to interact with DnaA. In the octameric Hda-? clamp complex, the inability of Hda to interact with DnaA is a novel mechanism that may regulate Hda function.
Project description:The initiation of chromosomal DNA replication is rigidly regulated to ensure that it occurs in a cell cycle-coordinated manner. To ensure this in Escherichia coli, multiple systems regulate the activity of the replication initiator ATP-DnaA. The level of ATP-DnaA increases before initiation after which it drops via DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, yielding initiation-inactive ADP-DnaA. DnaA-ATP hydrolysis is crucial to regulation of initiation and mainly occurs by a replication-coupled feedback mechanism named RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA). Here, we report a second DnaA-ATP hydrolysis system that occurs at the chromosomal site datA. This locus has been annotated as a reservoir for DnaA that binds many DnaA molecules in a manner dependent upon the nucleoid-associated factor IHF (integration host factor), resulting in repression of untimely initiations; however, there is no direct evidence for the binding of many DnaA molecules at this locus. We reveal that a complex consisting of datA and IHF promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis in a manner dependent on specific inter-DnaA interactions. Deletion of datA or the ihf gene increased ATP-DnaA levels to the maximal attainable levels in RIDA-defective cells. Cell-cycle analysis suggested that IHF binds to datA just after replication initiation at a time when RIDA is activated. We propose a model in which cell cycle-coordinated ATP-DnaA inactivation is regulated in a concerted manner by RIDA and datA.
Project description:It is not known how diverse bacteria regulate chromosome replication. Based on Escherichia coli studies, DnaA initiates replication and the homolog of DnaA (Hda) inactivates DnaA using the RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA) mechanism that thereby prevents extra chromosome replication cycles. RIDA may be widespread, because the distantly related Caulobacter crescentus homolog HdaA also prevents extra chromosome replication (J. Collier and L. Shapiro, J Bacteriol 191:5706-5715, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00525-09). To further study the HdaA/RIDA mechanism, we created a C. crescentus strain that shuts off hdaA transcription and rapidly clears HdaA protein. We confirm that HdaA prevents extra replication, since cells lacking HdaA accumulate extra chromosome DNA. DnaA binds nucleotides ATP and ADP, and our results are consistent with the established E. coli mechanism whereby Hda converts active DnaA-ATP to inactive DnaA-ADP. However, unlike E. coli DnaA, C. crescentus DnaA is also regulated by selective proteolysis. C. crescentus cells lacking HdaA reduce DnaA proteolysis in logarithmically growing cells, thereby implicating HdaA in this selective DnaA turnover mechanism. Also, wild-type C. crescentus cells remove all DnaA protein when they enter stationary phase. However, cells lacking HdaA retain stable DnaA protein even when they stop growing in nutrient-depleted medium that induces complete DnaA proteolysis in wild-type cells. Additional experiments argue for a distinct HdaA-dependent mechanism that selectively removes DnaA prior to stationary phase. Related freshwater Caulobacter species also remove DnaA during entry to stationary phase, implying a wider role for HdaA as a novel component of programed proteolysis.Bacteria must regulate chromosome replication, and yet the mechanisms are not completely understood and not fully exploited for antibiotic development. Based on Escherichia coli studies, DnaA initiates replication, and the homolog of DnaA (Hda) inactivates DnaA to prevent extra replication. The distantly related Caulobacter crescentus homolog HdaA also regulates chromosome replication. Here we unexpectedly discovered that unlike the E. coli Hda, the C. crescentus HdaA also regulates DnaA proteolysis. Furthermore, this HdaA proteolysis acts in logarithmically growing and in stationary-phase cells and therefore in two very different physiological states. We argue that HdaA acts to help time chromosome replications in logarithmically growing cells and that it is an unexpected component of the programed entry into stationary phase.
Project description:The biochemical aspects of the initiation of DNA replication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are unknown. To understand this process, we overproduced, purified and characterized the recombinant M. tuberculosis DnaA protein. The M. tuberculosis DnaA protein binds the origin of replication (oriC), ATP and ADP, and exhibited weak ATPase activity. ADP, after hydrolysis of ATP, remained strongly associated with DnaA and the exchange of ATP for bound ADP was weak. Vesicles prepared from acidic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylinositol, cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol, promoted dissociation of both ADP and ATP, whereas the neutral phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine did not. The phospholipid-mediated dissociation of ATP was decreased in the presence of the M. tuberculosis oriC, whereas dissociation of ADP was stimulated in the presence of oriC. Acidic phospholipids in micelles, however, were not efficient in dissociating bound nucleotides from DnaA. Together, these results suggest that both polar head groups and membrane bilayer structure play an important role in M. tuberculosis DnaA-adenine-nucleotide interactions. We suggest that initiation of M. tuberculosis oriC involves intimate interactions between DnaA, adenine nucleotides and membrane phospholipids, and the latter helps to ensure that only the ATP form of the DnaA protein interacts continuously with oriC.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, interactions between the replication initiation protein DnaA, the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III (the sliding clamp protein), and Hda, the recently identified DnaA-related protein, are required to convert the active ATP-bound form of DnaA to an inactive ADP-bound form through the accelerated hydrolysis of ATP. This rapid hydrolysis of ATP is proposed to be the main mechanism that blocks multiple initiations during cell cycle and acts as a molecular switch from initiation to replication. However, the biochemical mechanism for this crucial step in DNA synthesis has not been resolved. Using purified Hda and beta proteins in a plate binding assay and Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid pulldown analysis, we show for the first time that Hda directly interacts with beta in vitro. A new beta-binding motif, a hexapeptide with the consensus sequence QL[SP]LPL, related to the previously identified beta-binding pentapeptide motif (QL[SD]LF) was found in the amino terminus of the Hda protein. Mutants of Hda with amino acid changes in the hexapeptide motif are severely defective in their ability to bind beta. A 10-amino-acid peptide containing the E. coli Hda beta-binding motif was shown to compete with Hda for binding to beta in an Hda-beta interaction assay. These results establish that the interaction of Hda with beta is mediated through the hexapeptide sequence. We propose that this interaction may be crucial to the events that lead to the inactivation of DnaA and the prevention of excess initiation of rounds of replication.