Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from animals presenting at a university veterinary hospital.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined molecular mechanisms associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in a collection of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from hospitalized animals in Ireland. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify genes associated with resistance. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (94.6%) and contained gene cassettes recognized previously and implicated mainly in resistance to aminoglycosides, ?-lactams, and trimethoprim (aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, bla(OXA-30)-aadA1, aacC1-orf1-orf2-aadA1, dfr7). Class 2 integrons (13.5%) contained the dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 gene array. The most frequently occurring phenotypes included resistance to ampicillin (97.3%), chloramphenicol (75.4%), florfenicol (40.5%), gentamicin (54%), neomycin (43.2%), streptomycin (97.3%), sulfonamide (98.6%), and tetracycline (100%). The associated resistance determinants detected included bla(TEM), cat, floR, aadB, aphA1, strA-strB, sul2, and tet(B), respectively. The bla(CTX-M-2) gene, encoding an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ES?L), and bla(CMY-2), encoding an AmpC-like enzyme, were identified in 8 and 18 isolates, respectively. The mobility of the resistance genes was demonstrated using conjugation assays with a representative selection of isolates. High-molecular-weight plasmids were found to be responsible for resistance to multiple antimicrobial compounds. The study demonstrated that animal-associated commensal E. coli isolates possess a diverse repertoire of transferable genetic determinants. Emergence of ES?Ls and AmpC-like enzymes is particularly significant. To our knowledge, the bla(CTX-M-2) gene has not previously been reported in Ireland.
Project description:In the last few years, numerous cases of multidrug-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans infections have been documented in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms and mobile elements related to multidrug resistance in this bacterium, we studied 24 non-epidemiological A. xylosoxidans clinical isolates from Argentina. Specific primers for plasmids, transposons, insertion sequences, bla(ampC), intI1, and intI2 genes were used in PCR reactions. The obtained results showed the presence of wide host range IncP plasmids in ten isolates and a high dispersion of class 1 integrons (n = 10) and class 2 integrons (n = 3). Four arrays in the variable region (vr) of class 1 integrons were identified carrying different gene cassettes as the aminoglycoside resistance aac(6')-Ib and aadA1, the trimethoprim resistance dfrA1 and dfrA16, and the ?-lactamase bla(OXA-2). In only one of the class 2 integrons, a vr was amplified that includes sat2-aadA1. The bla(ampC) gene was found in all isolates, confirming its ubiquitous nature. Our results show that A. xylosoxidans clinical isolates contain a rich variety of genetic elements commonly associated with resistance genes and their dissemination. This supports the hypothesis that A. xylosoxidans is becoming a reservoir of horizontal genetic transfer elements commonly involved in spreading antibiotic resistance.
Project description:This study describes the genotypic characteristics of a collection of 100 multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains recovered from cattle and the farm environment in Ireland in 2007. The most prevalent antimicrobial resistance identified was to streptomycin (100%), followed by tetracycline (99%), sulfonamides (98%), ampicillin (82%), and neomycin (62%). Resistance was mediated predominantly by strA-strB (92%), tetA (67%), sul2 (90%), bla(TEM) (79%), and aphA1 (63%) gene markers, respectively. Twenty-seven isolates harbored a class 1 integrase (intI1), while qacE?1 and sul1 markers were identified in 25 and 26 isolates, respectively. The variable regions of these integrons contained aminoglycoside, trimethoprim, and ?-lactam resistance determinants (aadA12, aadB-aadA1, bla(OXA-30)-aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA7). Class 2 integrons were identified less frequently (4%) and contained the gene cassette array dfrA1-sat1-aadA1. Resistance to ampicillin, neomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline was associated with transferable high-molecular-weight plasmids, as demonstrated by conjugation assays. A panel of virulence markers was screened for by PCR, and genes identified included vt1, K5 in 2 isolates, papC in 10 isolates, and PAI IV(536) in 37 isolates. MDR commensal E. coli isolates from Irish cattle displayed considerable diversity with respect to the genes identified. Our findings highlight the importance of the commensal microflora of food-producing animals as a reservoir of transferable MDR.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) piglets in Heilongjiang province, China. METHODS:Of 458 E. coli isolated from 589 fecal samples from PWD piglets, a total of 198 isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by the double-disk synergy test (DDST). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were performed to identify genes for ESBL, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), and integrons. RESULTS:Of the 198 isolates, bla CTX-M and bla TEM were detected in 191 and 149 isolates, respectively. Sequencing revealed that 10 bla CTX-M subtypes were detected, and bla CTX-M-14 was the most prevalent, followed by bla CTX-M-55 and bla CTX-M-65. Of the 149 TEM-positive strains, four were bla TEM-52 and the rest were bla TEM-1. Among the 198 ESBL-positive isolates, 173 isolates were found to harbor at least one PMQR gene, with oqxAB, qnrS, qnrB, qepA, and aac(6')-Ib-cr being detected alone or in combination in 125, 114, 26, 24, and 45 strains, respectively. One hundred and fifty-five ESBL-positive isolates were also positive for class I integron (int1), and eight different gene cassette arrays were confirmed in 110 isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing analyses, with predominance of dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, and dfrA1-aadA1 arrays. CONCLUSION:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the bla TEM-52 gene in pig E. coli isolates in China and this is also the first description of the coexistence of the qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB genes in one E. coli strain.
Project description:Severe diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) patients visiting Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, were selected for this study. Bacteria were isolated from swab and deep tissue of 42 patients, for examining their prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity. DFUs of majority of the patients were found infected with Enterococcus spp. (47.61%), Escherichia coli (35.71%), Staphylococcus spp. (33.33%), Alcaligenes spp. (30.95%), Pseudomonas spp. (30.95%), and Stenotrophomonas spp. (30.95%). Antibiotic susceptibility assay of 142 bacteria with 16 antibiotics belonging to eight classes showed the presence of 38 (26.76%) isolates with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. MDR character appeared to be governed by integrons as class 1 integrons were detected in 26 (68.42%) isolates. Altogether six different arrays of genes (aadA1, aadB, aadAV, dhfrV, dhfrXII, and dhfrXVII) were found within class 1 integron. Gene cassette dhfrAXVII-aadAV (1.6 kb) was present in 12 (3 Gram positive and 9 Gram negative) isolates and was conserved across all the isolates as evident from RFLP analysis. In addition to the presence of class 1 integron, six ?-lactamase resistance encoding genes namely bla TEM, bla SHV, bla OXA, bla CTX-M-gp1, bla CTX-M-gp2, and bla CTX-M-gp9 and two methicillin resistance genes namely mecA and femA and vancomycin resistance encoding genes (vanA and vanB) were identified in different isolates. Majority of the MDR isolates were positive for bla TEM (89.47%), bla OXA (52.63%), and bla CTX-M-gp1 (34.21%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from DFUs from North India. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that class-1 integrons and ?-lactamase genes contributed to the MDR in above bacteria.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We determined the prevalence and evidence for physical linkage amongst integrons, insertion sequences, Tn21 and Tn7 transposons in a collection of 1327 E. coli obtained over a 19-year period from patients in Kenya. RESULTS: The prevalence of class 1 integrons was 35%, class 2 integrons were detected in 3 isolates but no isolate contained a class 3 integron. Integron lacking the 3'-CS or those linked to sul3 gene or IS26 or those containing the ISCR1 were only detected in multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The dfrAs were the most common cassettes and their prevalence was: - dfrA1(28%), dfrA12(20%), dfA17(9%), dfrA7(9%), and dfrA16(5%). The aadA were the second most abundant cassettes and their prevalence was: - aadA1(25%), aadA2(21%), and aadA5(14%). Other cassettes occurred in lower prevalence of below 5%. Prevalence of Tn21, ISEcp1, ISCR1 and IS26 was 22%, 10%, 15%, and 7% respectively. Majority of Tn21 containing integrons carried a complete set of transposition genes while class 2 integrons were borne on Tn7 transposon. The qnrA genes were detected in 34(3%) isolates while 19(1%) carried qnrB. All qnr genes were in MDR strains carrying integrons containing the ISCR1. Close to 88% of bla(TEM-52) were linked to IS26 while ? 80% of bla(CTX-Ms) and bla(CMYs) were linked to ISEcp1. Only a few studies have identified a bla(CTX-M-9) containing an ISEcp1 element as reported in this study. Multiple genetic elements, especially those borne on incIl, incFII, and incL/M plasmids, and their associated resistance genes were transferrable en bloc to E. coli strain J53 in mating experiments. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed study on the prevalence of selected elements implicated in evolution of resistance determinants in a large collection of clinical E. coli in Africa. Proliferation of such strains carrying multiple resistance elements is likely to compromise the use of affordable and available treatment options for majority of poor patients in Africa. There is therefore a need to monitor the spread of these highly resistant strains in developing countries through proper infection control and appropriate use of antimicrobials.
Project description:Cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli (n = 109) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 16) isolates collected from patients in India in 2009 to 2010 were screened for bla(ampC) families and mobilizing elements (ISEcp1, IS26, ISCR1, and sul-1-type class 1 integrons) and their association with bla(ampC) and for the occurrence of class A beta-lactamases (BLs) (CTX-M, TEM, and SHV). The concurrent occurrences of two distinct AmpC families (bla(CIT) and bla(EBC)) and of class A with class C beta-lactamase were observed. All but one of the isolates harboring CTX-M extended-spectrum BLs (ESBLs) were carrying bla(CTX-M) genogroup 1; the remaining isolate carried bla(CTX-M) genogroup 9. The mobilizing elements occurred in different combinations in the study isolates.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n=331) isolates from humans with bloodstream infections were investigated for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons. The integron cassettes arrays were characterized and the findings were compared with data from similar investigations on resistant E. coli from meat and meat products (n=241) produced during the same time period. All isolates were obtained from the Norwegian monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens and in the veterinary sector. Methods used included PCR, sequencing, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing and subtyping, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and serotyping. Integrons of class 1 and 2 occurred significantly more frequently among human isolates; 45.4% (95% CI: 39.9-50.9) than among isolates from meat; 18% (95% CI: 13.2 -23.3), (p<0.01, Chi-square test). Identical cassette arrays including dfrA1-aadA1, aadA1, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, oxa-30-aadA1 (class 1 integrons) and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (class 2 integrons) were detected from both humans and meat. However, the most prevalent cassette array in human isolates, dfrA17-aadA5, did not occur in isolates from meat, suggesting a possible linkage between this class 1 integron and a subpopulation of E. coli adapted to a human host. The drfA1-aadA1 and aadA1 class 1 integrons were found frequently in both human and meat isolates. These isolates were subjected to further studies to investigate similarities with regard to transferability, plasmid and host strain characteristics. We detected incF plasmids with pMLST profile F24:A-:B1 carrying drfA1-aadA1 integrons in isolates from pork and in a more distantly related E. coli strain from a human with septicaemia. Furthermore, we showed that most of the class 1 integrons with aadA1 were located on incF plasmids with pMLST profile F51:A-:B10 in human isolates. The plasmid was present in unrelated as well as closely related host strains, demonstrating that dissemination of this integron also could be attributed to clonal spread. In conclusion, among the systematically collected isolates from two different sources, some significant differences concerning integron prevalence and integron variants were observed. However, closely related plasmids as vehicles for specific class 1 integrons in isolates from meat and from a human with bloodstream infection were found. The occurrence of similar multi-resistance plasmids in bacteria from a food source and from a human clinical sample highlights the possible role of meat as a source of resistance elements for pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:Chromosomally encoded AmpC ?-lactamases may be acquired by transmissible plasmids which consequently can disseminate into bacteria lacking or poorly expressing a chromosomal bla AmpC gene. Nowadays, these plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases are found in different bacterial species, namely Enterobacteriaceae, which typically do not express these types of ?-lactamase such as Klebsiella spp. or Escherichia coli. This study was performed to characterize two E. coli isolates collected in two different Portuguese hospitals, both carrying a novel CMY-2-type ?-lactamase-encoding gene.Both isolates, INSRA1169 and INSRA3413, and their respective transformants, were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, but susceptible to cefepime and imipenem, and presented evidence of synergy between cloxacilin and cefoxitin and/or ceftazidime. The genetic characterization of both isolates revealed the presence of bla CMY-46 and bla CMY-50 genes, respectively, and the following three resistance-encoding regions: a Citrobacter freundii chromosome-type structure encompassing a blc-sugE-bla CMY-2-type -ampR platform; a sul1-type class 1 integron with two antibiotic resistance gene cassettes (dfrA1 and aadA1); and a truncated mercury resistance operon.This study describes two new bla CMY-2-type genes in E. coli isolates, located within a C. freundii-derived fragment, which may suggest their mobilization through mobile genetic elements. The presence of the three different resistance regions in these isolates, with diverse genetic determinants of resistance and mobile elements, may further contribute to the emergence and spread of these genes, both at a chromosomal or/and plasmid level.
Project description:We analyzed the level of antimicrobial resistance, and the presence of integrons and β-lactamase-coding genes in 69 clinically relevant Escherichia coli strains originating from extraintestinal infections isolated in 1999-2001 and 2008-2010. Comparison of the two groups showed significant differences in drug resistance frequency, and the presence of integron and β-lactamase-coding genes. The frequency of resistance to all antimicrobials beside imipenem, streptomycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and sulfamethoxazole increased significantly, especially towards aminoglycosides, β-lactams and fluoroquinolones. Similarly, we noticed an increase in the number of strains with integrons from 31.6 to 80.7 %. The presence of integrase genes was associated with elevated frequency of resistance to each antimicrobial tested besides imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime. The presence of integrons was also associated with multidrug resistance phenotype. The genetic content of integrons comprised genes determining resistance toward aminoglycosides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim. Moreover, we noticed a significant increase in the frequency of bla (CTX-M) β-lactamases, with appearance of bla (CTX-M-15) variant and newer plasmid-encoded β-lactamases like CMY-15 and DHA. The emergence of strains resistant to several classes of antimicrobials and carrying integrons, ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase-coding genes may predict the spread of isolates with limited treatment options.
Project description:Aeromonas spp. is one of the major pathogens of freshwater animals. There has been little research on the genetics of antimicrobial resistance associated with it in Iranian aquaculture. To remedy this lack in research, 74 multi-drug-resistant Aeromonas spp. were isolated from farmed diseased carp, trout, sturgeon, ornamental fish, crayfish, and corresponding water samples and examined for genomic integron sequences. Class 1 integrons, containing seven types of integron cassette arrays (dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA1-orfC, dfrA12-aadA2, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, dfrA15, dfrB4-catB3-aadA1, aac(6')-Ib-cr-arr3-dfrA27) were found in 15% of the resistant isolates; no class 2 integrons were detected in any of the resistant isolates. As some tested isolates were resistant to more than two groups of antibiotics, our results demonstrated that freshwater animals in Iran could be a source of multiply drug-resistant Aeromonas spp. This finding suggests that the origin of the antimicrobial resistance of these animals be placed under increased surveillance in the future and that the use of antimicrobials be limited in aquaculture.