Extraction of tumor motion trajectories using PICCS-4DCBCT: a validation study.
ABSTRACT: As a counterpart of 4DCT in the treatment planning stage of radiotherapy treatment, 4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) method has been proposed to verify tumor motion trajectories before radiation therapy treatment delivery. Besides 4DCBCT acquisition using slower gantry rotation speed or multiple rotations, a new method using the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) image reconstruction method and the standard 1-min data acquisition were proposed. In this paper, the PICCS-4DCBCT method was combined with deformable registration to validate its capability in motion trajectory extraction using physical phantom data, simulated human subject data from 4DCT and in vivo human subject data.Two methods were used to validate PICCS-4DCBCT for the purpose of respiratory motion delineation. The standard 1-min gantry rotation Cone Beam CT acquisition was used for both methods. In the first method, 4DCBCT projection data of a physical motion phantom were acquired using an on-board CBCT acquisition system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Using a deformable registration method, the object motion trajectories were extracted from both FBP and PICCS reconstructed 4DCBCT images, and compared against the programmed motion trajectories. In the second method, using a clinical 4DCT dataset, Cone Beam CT projections were simulated by forward projection. Using a deformable registration method, the tumor motion trajectories were extracted from the reconstructed 4DCT and PICCS-4DCBCT images. The performance of PICCS-4DCBCT is assessed against the 4DCT ground truth. The breathing period was varied in the simulation to study its effect on motion extraction. For both validation methods, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the maximum of the errors (MaxE) were used to quantify the accuracy of the extracted motion trajectories. After the validation, a clinical dataset was used to demonstrate the motion delineation capability of PICCS-4DCBCT for human subjects.In both validation studies, the RMSEs of the extracted motion trajectories from PICCS-4DCBCT images are less than 0.7 mm, and their MaxEs are less than 1 mm, for all three directions. In comparison, FBP-4DCBCT shows considerably larger RMSEs in the physical phantom based validation. PICCS-4DCBCT also shows insensitivity to the breathing period in the 4DCT based validation. For the in vivo human subject study, high quality 3D motion trajectory of the tumor was obtained from PICCS-4DCBCT images and showed consistency with visual observation.These results demonstrate accurate delineation of tumor motion trajectory can be achieved using PICCS-4DCBCT and the standard 1-min data acquisition.
Project description:To describe in detail a dataset consisting of serial four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and 4D cone beam CT (4DCBCT) images acquired during chemoradiotherapy of 20 locally advanced, nonsmall cell lung cancer patients we have collected at our institution and shared publicly with the research community.As part of an NCI-sponsored research study 82 4DCT and 507 4DCBCT images were acquired in a population of 20 locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. All subjects underwent concurrent radiochemotherapy to a total dose of 59.4-70.2 Gy using daily 1.8 or 2 Gy fractions. Audio-visual biofeedback was used to minimize breathing irregularity during all fractions, including acquisition of all 4DCT and 4DCBCT acquisitions in all subjects. Target, organs at risk, and implanted fiducial markers were delineated by a physician in the 4DCT images. Image coordinate system origins between 4DCT and 4DCBCT were manipulated in such a way that the images can be used to simulate initial patient setup in the treatment position. 4DCT images were acquired on a 16-slice helical CT simulator with 10 breathing phases and 3 mm slice thickness during simulation. In 13 of the 20 subjects, 4DCTs were also acquired on the same scanner weekly during therapy. Every day, 4DCBCT images were acquired on a commercial onboard CBCT scanner. An optically tracked external surrogate was synchronized with CBCT acquisition so that each CBCT projection was time stamped with the surrogate respiratory signal through in-house software and hardware tools. Approximately 2500 projections were acquired over a period of 8-10 minutes in half-fan mode with the half bow-tie filter. Using the external surrogate, the CBCT projections were sorted into 10 breathing phases and reconstructed with an in-house FDK reconstruction algorithm. Errors in respiration sorting, reconstruction, and acquisition were carefully identified and corrected.4DCT and 4DCBCT images are available in DICOM format and structures through DICOM-RT RTSTRUCT format. All data are stored in the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA, http://www.cancerimagingarchive.net/) as collection 4D-Lung and are publicly available.Due to high temporal frequency sampling, redundant (4DCT and 4DCBCT) data at similar timepoints, oversampled 4DCBCT, and fiducial markers, this dataset can support studies in image-guided and image-guided adaptive radiotherapy, assessment of 4D voxel trajectory variability, and development and validation of new tools for image registration and motion management.
Project description:The accuracy of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) imaging depends on temporal characteristics of the acquisition protocol--for example, the temporal spacing of the reconstructed images (also known as cine duration between images) and the gantry rotation speed. These parameters affect the temporal resolution of 4DCT images, and a single default acquisition protocol, as commonly used in most clinics, may be suboptimal for a subset of respiratory motion characteristics. It could lead to substantial inaccuracies in target delineation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interplay between parameters affecting temporal resolution and the accuracy of the resulting images. We acquired 4DCT images of cylindrical phantoms under repetitive motion induced by a translation platform. Acquisition settings varied with respect to temporal spacing, gantry rotation speed, and motion period of the phantoms. Reconstructed images were sorted into 10 phase bins and were compared to static phantom images acquired at corresponding positions of the respiration phase. Acquisitions with different temporal spacing did not play a significant role in the amount of motion observed in full-cycle maximum intensity projection images. Target delineation accuracy at end-of-inhalation phase was observed to be constant up to a threshold in the value of the reconstruction interval, beyond which it varied arbitrarily. This threshold was found to be correlated with the number of phase bins and the motion period. No observable variations were noted with images from the end of exhalation when temporal spacing was varied. Target delineation accuracy was observed to be enhanced in acquisitions using faster gantry rotation speeds. An evaluation of the acquisition parameters needs to be performed depending on the period of the motion and limiting factors such as the availability of acquisition settings, X-ray tube workload, image storage, and processing power.
Project description:Computed tomography (CT) derived ventilation algorithms estimate the apparent voxel volume changes within an inhale/exhale CT image pair. Transformation-based methods compute these estimates solely from the spatial transformation acquired by applying a deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm to the image pair. However, approaches based on finite difference approximations of the transformation's Jacobian have been shown to be numerically unstable. As a result, transformation-based CT ventilation is poorly reproducible with respect to both DIR algorithm and CT acquisition method.<h4>Purpose</h4>We introduce a novel Integrated Jacobian Formulation (IJF) method for estimating voxel volume changes under a DIR-recovered spatial transformation. The method is based on computing volume estimates of DIR mapped subregions using the hit-or-miss sampling algorithm for integral approximation. The novel approach allows for regional volume change estimates that (a) respect the resolution of the digital grid and (b) are based on approximations with quantitatively characterized and controllable levels of uncertainty. As such, the IJF method is designed to be robust to variations in DIR solutions and thus overall more reproducible.<h4>Methods</h4>Numerically, Jacobian estimates are recovered by solving a simple constrained linear least squares problem that guarantees the recovered global volume change is equal to the global volume change obtained from the inhale and exhale lung segmentation masks. Reproducibility of the IJF method with respect to DIR solution was assessed using the expert-determined landmark point pairs and inhale/exhale phases from 10 four-dimensional computed tomographies (4DCTs) available on www.dir-lab.com. Reproducibility with respect to CT acquisition was assessed on the 4DCT and 4D cone beam CT (4DCBCT) images acquired for five lung cancer patients prior to radiotherapy.<h4>Results</h4>The ten Dir-Lab 4DCT cases were registered twice with the same DIR algorithm, but with different smoothing parameter. Finite difference Jacobian (FDJ) and IFJ images were computed for both solutions. The average spatial errors (300 landmarks per case) for the two DIR solution methods were 0.98 (1.10) and 1.02 (1.11). The average Pearson correlation between the FDJ images computed from the two DIR solutions was 0.83 (0.03), while for the IJF images it was 1.00 (0.00). For intermodality assessment, the IJF and FDJ images were computed from the 4DCT and 4DCBCT of five patients. The average Pearson correlation of the spatially aligned FDJ images was 0.27 (0.11), while it was 0.77 (0.13) for the IFJ method.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The mathematical theory underpinning the IJF method allows for the generation of ventilation images that are (a) computed with respect to DIR spatial accuracy on the digital voxel grid and (b) based on DIR-measured subregional volume change estimates acquired with quantifiable and controllable levels of uncertainty. Analyses of the experiments are consistent with the mathematical theory and indicate that IJF ventilation imaging has a higher reproducibility with respect to both DIR algorithm and CT acquisition method, in comparison to the standard finite difference approach.
Project description:PURPOSE:To develop a physical, adaptive motion perturbation model to predict tumor motion using feedback from dynamic measurement of breathing conditions to compensate for breathing irregularities. METHODS AND MATERIALS:A novel respiratory motion perturbation (RMP) model was developed to predict tumor motion variations caused by breathing irregularities. This model contained 2 terms: the initial tumor motion trajectory, measured from 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, and motion perturbation, calculated from breathing variations in tidal volume (TV) and breathing pattern (BP). The motion perturbation was derived from the patient-specific anatomy, tumor-specific location, and time-dependent breathing variations. Ten patients were studied, and 2 amplitude-binned 4DCT images for each patient were acquired within 2 weeks. The motion trajectories of 40 corresponding bifurcation points in both 4DCT images of each patient were obtained using deformable image registration. An in-house 4D data processing toolbox was developed to calculate the TV and BP as functions of the breathing phase. The motion was predicted from the simulation 4DCT scan to the treatment 4DCT scan, and vice versa, resulting in 800 predictions. For comparison, noncorrected motion differences and the predictions from a published 5-dimensional model were used. RESULTS:The average motion range in the superoinferior direction was 9.4 ± 4.4 mm, the average ?TV ranged from 10 to 248 mm3 (-26% to 61%), and the ?BP ranged from 0 to 0.2 (-71% to 333%) between the 2 4DCT scans. The mean noncorrected motion difference was 2.0 ± 2.8 mm between 2 4DCT motion trajectories. After applying the RMP model, the mean motion difference was reduced significantly to 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.0018), a 40% improvement, similar to the 1.2 ± 1.8 mm (P=.72) predicted with the 5-dimensional model. CONCLUSIONS:A novel physical RMP model was developed with an average accuracy of 1.2 ± 1.8 mm for interfraction motion prediction, similar to that of a published lung motion model. This physical RMP was analytically derived and is able to adapt to breathing irregularities. Further improvement of this RMP model is under investigation.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Respiratory motion is one of the major challenges in radiotherapy. In this work, a comprehensive and clinically plausible set of 4D numerical phantoms, together with their corresponding "ground truths," have been developed and validated for 4D radiotherapy applications.<h4>Methods</h4>The phantoms are based on CTs providing density information and motion from multi-breathing-cycle 4D Magnetic Resonance imagings (MRIs). Deformable image registration (DIR) has been utilized to extract motion fields from 4DMRIs and to establish inter-subject correspondence by registering binary lung masks between Computer Tomography (CT) and MRI. The established correspondence is then used to warp the CT according to the 4DMRI motion. The resulting synthetic 4DCTs are called 4DCT(MRI)s. Validation of the 4DCT(MRI) workflow was conducted by directly comparing conventional 4DCTs to derived synthetic 4D images using the motion of the 4DCTs themselves (referred to as 4DCT(CT)s). Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) as well as 4D pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton dose calculations were used for validation.<h4>Results</h4>Based on the CT image appearance of 13 lung cancer patients and deformable motion of five volunteer 4DMRIs, synthetic 4DCT(MRI)s with a total of 871 different breathing cycles have been generated. The 4DCT(MRI)s exhibit an average superior-inferior tumor motion amplitude of 7 ± 5 mm (min: 0.5 mm, max: 22.7 mm). The relative change of the DRR image intensities of the conventional 4DCTs and the corresponding synthetic 4DCT(CT)s inside the body is smaller than 5% for at least 81% of the pixels for all studied cases. Comparison of 4D dose distributions calculated on 4DCTs and the synthetic 4DCT(CT)s using the same motion achieved similar dose distributions with an average 2%/2 mm gamma pass rate of 90.8% (min: 77.8%, max: 97.2%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We developed a series of numerical 4D lung phantoms based on real imaging and motion data, which give realistic representations of both anatomy and motion scenarios and the accessible "ground truth" deformation vector fields of each 4DCT(MRI). The open-source code and motion data allow foreseen users to generate further 4D data by themselves. These numeric 4D phantoms can be used for the development of new 4D treatment strategies, 4D dose calculations, DIR algorithm validations, as well as simulations of motion mitigation and different online image guidance techniques for both proton and photon radiation therapy.
Project description:Most clinically deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating and tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are based on a rigid exterior and a rigid or a deformable-interior. Such designs do not adequately represent respiration because the thoracic anatomy deforms internally as well as externally. In order to create a closer approximation of respiratory motion, the authors describe the construction and experimental testing of an externally as well as internally deformable, programmable lung phantom.The outer shell of a commercially available lung phantom (RS-1500, RSD, Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A custom-made insert was designed using a piece of natural latex foam block. A motion platform was programmed with sinusoidal and ten patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam "diaphragm" that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of determining the reproducibility and the external-internal correlation of external and internal marker trajectories extracted from kV x-ray fluoroscopy. Experiments were conducted to illustrate three example applications of the phantom-(i) validating the geometric accuracy of the VisionRT surface photogrammetry system; (ii) validating an image registration tool, NiftyReg; and (iii) quantifying the geometric error due to irregular motion in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT).The phantom correctly reproduced sinusoidal and patient-derived motion, as well as realistic respiratory motion-related effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0.25 mm RMS error. The motion trajectories of internal and external radio-opaque markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R > 0.95). Using the phantom, it was demonstrated that the motion trajectories of regions-of-interest on the surface as measured by VisionRT are highly consistent with corresponding fluoroscopically acquired surface marker trajectories, with RMS errors within 0.26 mm. Furthermore, it was shown that the trajectories of external and internal marker trajectories derived from NiftyReg deformation vector fields were within 1 mm root mean square errors comparing to trajectories obtained by segmenting markers from individual fluoro frames. Finally, it was shown that while 4DCT can be used to localize internal markers for sinusoidal motion with reasonable accuracy, the localization error increases significantly (by a factor of ? 2) in the presence of cycle-to-cycle variations that are observed in patient-derived respiratory motion.The authors have developed a realistic externally and internally deformable, programmable lung phantom that will serve as a valuable tool for clinical and investigational motion management studies in thoracic and abdominal radiation therapies.
Project description:To provide a proof of concept validation of a novel 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) reconstruction algorithm and to determine the best methods to train and optimize the algorithm.The algorithm animates a patient fan-beam CT (FBCT) with a patient specific parametric motion model in order to generate a time series of deformed CTs (the reconstructed 4DCBCT) that track the motion of the patient anatomy on a voxel by voxel scale. The motion model is constrained by requiring that projections cast through the deformed CT time series match the projections of the raw patient 4DCBCT. The motion model uses a basis of eigenvectors that are generated via principal component analysis (PCA) of a training set of displacement vector fields (DVFs) that approximate patient motion. The eigenvectors are weighted by a parameterized function of the patient breathing trace recorded during 4DCBCT. The algorithm is demonstrated and tested via numerical simulation.The algorithm is shown to produce accurate reconstruction results for the most complicated simulated motion, in which voxels move with a pseudo-periodic pattern and relative phase shifts exist between voxels. The tests show that principal component eigenvectors trained on DVFs from a novel 2D/3D registration method give substantially better results than eigenvectors trained on DVFs obtained by conventionally registering 4DCBCT phases reconstructed via filtered backprojection.Proof of concept testing has validated the 4DCBCT reconstruction approach for the types of simulated data considered. In addition, the authors found the 2D/3D registration approach to be our best choice for generating the DVF training set, and the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm the most robust optimization routine.
Project description:PURPOSE:For locally advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), inter-fraction target motion variations during the whole time span of a fractionated treatment course are assessed in a large and representative patient cohort. The primary objective is to develop a suitable motion monitoring strategy for pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBS-PT) treatments of NSCLC patients during free breathing. METHODS:Weekly 4D computed tomography (4DCT; 41 patients) and daily 4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT; 10 of 41 patients) scans were analyzed for a fully fractionated treatment course. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured and the 3D displacement vectors of the centroid positions were compared for all scans. Furthermore, motion amplitude variations in different lung segments were statistically analyzed. The dosimetric impact of target motion variations and target motion assessment was investigated in exemplary patient cases. RESULTS:The median observed centroid motion was 3.4 mm (range: 0.2-12.4 mm) with an average variation of 2.2 mm (range: 0.1-8.8 mm). Ten of 32 patients (31.3%) with an initial motion <5 mm increased beyond a 5-mm motion amplitude during the treatment course. Motion observed in the 4DCBCT scans deviated on average 1.5 mm (range: 0.0-6.0 mm) from the motion observed in the 4DCTs. Larger motion variations for one example patient compromised treatment plan robustness while no dosimetric influence was seen due to motion assessment biases in another example case. CONCLUSIONS:Target motion variations were investigated during the course of radiotherapy for NSCLC patients. Patients with initial GTV motion amplitudes of < 2 mm can be assumed to be stable in motion during the treatment course. For treatments of NSCLC patients who exhibit motion amplitudes of > 2 mm, 4DCBCT should be considered for motion monitoring due to substantial motion variations observed.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Extensive radiation therapy quality assurance (RTQA) programs are needed when advanced radiotherapy treatments are used. As part of the RTQA four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) imaging performance needs to be assessed. Here we present the RTQA data related to 4DCT procedures used within the context of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of centrally located lung tumours. It provides an overview of the 4DCT acquisition methods and achievable accuracy of imaging lung tumour volumes.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>3DCT and 4DCT images were acquired from a CIRS phantom with spheres of 7.5 and 12.5?mm radius using the institutional scan protocols. Regular asymmetric tumour motion was simulated with varying amplitudes and periods. Target volumes were reconstructed using auto-contouring with scanner specific thresholds. Volume and amplitudes deviations were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Although acquisition parameters were rather homogeneous over the eleven institutions analysed, volume deviations were observed. Average volume deviations for the 12.5?mm sphere were 15% (-4% to 69%) at end of inspiration, 2% (-2% to 9.0%) at end of expiration and 12% (0% to 36%) at mid-ventilation. For the 7.5?mm sphere deviations were 13% (-99% to 65%), 16% (-34% to 66%) and 1% (-13% to 20%), respectively. The amplitude deviation was generally within 2?mm although underestimations up to 6?mm were observed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The expiration phase was the most accurate phase to define the tumour volume and should be preferred for GTV delineation of tumours exhibiting large motion causing motion artefacts when using mid-ventilation or tracking techniques. The large variation found among the institutions indicated that further improvements in 4DCT imaging were possible. Recommendations for 4DCT QA have been formulated.
Project description:PURPOSE:Ventilation images can be derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) by analyzing the change in HU values and deformable vector fields between different respiration phases of computed tomography (CT). As deformable image registration (DIR) is involved, accuracy of 4DCT-derived ventilation image is sensitive to the choice of DIR algorithms. To overcome the uncertainty associated with DIR, we develop a method based on deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to derive ventilation images directly from the 4DCT without explicit image registration. METHODS:A total of 82 sets of 4DCT and ventilation images from patients with lung cancer were used in this study. In the proposed CNN architecture, the CT two-channel input data consist of CT at the end of exhale and the end of inhale phases. The first convolutional layer has 32 different kernels of size 5 × 5 × 5, followed by another eight convolutional layers each of which is equipped with an activation layer (ReLU). The loss function is the mean-squared-error (MSE) to measure the intensity difference between the predicted and reference ventilation images. RESULTS:The predicted images were comparable to the label images of the test data. The similarity index, correlation coefficient, and Gamma index passing rate averaged over the tenfold cross validation were 0.880 ± 0.035, 0.874 ± 0.024, and 0.806 ± 0.014, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrate that deep CNN can generate ventilation imaging from 4DCT without explicit deformable image registration, reducing the associated uncertainty.