Novel C-terminal motif within Sec7 domain of guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulates ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) binding and activation.
ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and their activating guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) play key roles in membrane traffic and signaling. All ARF GEFs share a ?200-residue Sec7 domain (Sec7d) that alone catalyzes the GDP to GTP exchange that activates ARF. We determined the crystal structure of human BIG2 Sec7d. A C-terminal loop immediately following helix J (loop>J) was predicted to form contacts with helix H and the switch I region of the cognate ARF, suggesting that loop>J may participate in the catalytic reaction. Indeed, we identified multiple alanine substitutions within loop>J of the full length and/or Sec7d of two large brefeldin A-sensitive GEFs (GBF1 and BIG2) and one small brefeldin A-resistant GEF (ARNO) that abrogated binding of ARF and a single alanine substitution that allowed ARF binding but inhibited GDP to GTP exchange. Loop>J sequences are highly conserved, suggesting that loop>J plays a crucial role in the catalytic activity of all ARF GEFs. Using GEF mutants unable to bind ARF, we showed that GEFs associate with membranes independently of ARF and catalyze ARF activation in vivo only when membrane-associated. Our structural, cell biological, and biochemical findings identify loop>J as a key regulatory motif essential for ARF binding and GDP to GTP exchange by GEFs and provide evidence for the requirement of membrane association during GEF activity.
Project description:The integrity of the Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) is disrupted by brefeldin A (BFA), which inhibits the Golgi-localized BFA-sensitive factor (GBF1) and brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (BIG1 and BIG2). Using a cellular replacement assay to assess GBF1 functionality without interference from the BIGs, we show that GBF1 alone maintains Golgi architecture; facilitates secretion; activates ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)1, 3, 4, and 5; and recruits ARF effectors to Golgi membranes. Unexpectedly, GBF1 also supports TGN integrity and recruits numerous TGN-localized ARF effectors. The impact of the catalytic Sec7 domain (Sec7d) on GBF1 functionality was assessed by swapping it with the Sec7d from ARF nucleotide-binding site opener (ARNO)/cytohesin-2, a plasma membrane GEF reported to activate all ARFs. The resulting chimera (GBF1-ARNO-GBF1 [GARG]) targets like GBF1, supports Golgi/TGN architecture, and facilitates secretion. However, unlike GBF1, GARG activates all ARFs (including ARF6) at the Golgi/TGN and recruits additional ARF effectors to the Golgi/TGN. Our results have general implications: 1) GEF's targeting is independent of Sec7d, but Sec7d influence the GEF substrate specificity and downstream effector events; 2) all ARFs have access to all membranes, but are restricted in their distribution by the localization of their activating GEFs; and 3) effector association with membranes requires the coincidental presence of activated ARFs and specific membrane identifiers.
Project description:Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop.
Project description:Trafficking through the Golgi apparatus requires members of the Arf family of GTPases, whose activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Once activated, Arf-GTP recruits effectors such as coat complexes and lipid-modifying enzymes to specific membrane sites, creating a domain competent for cargo concentration and transport. GBF1 is a peripherally associated Arf GEF involved in both endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport. The mechanism of GBF1 binding to membranes is unknown. As a first step to understanding the mechanism of membrane association, we constructed a yellow fluorescent protein-tagged version of GBF1 and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis to determine its residence time on Golgi membranes. We find that GBF1 molecules are not stably associated with the Golgi but rather cycle rapidly on and off membranes. The drug brefeldin A (BFA), an uncompetitive inhibitor of the exchange reaction that binds to an Arf-GDP-Arf GEF complex, stabilizes GBF1 on Golgi membranes. Using an in vivo assay to monitor Arf1-GTP levels, we show that GBF1 exchange activity on Arf1 is inhibited by BFA in mammalian cells. These results suggest that an Arf1-GBF1-BFA complex is formed and has a longer residence time on Golgi membranes than GBF1 or Arf1 alone.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to support cellular homeostasis. Key to understanding spatio-temporal regulation of ARF signaling is the mechanism of GEF recruitment to membranes. Small GEFs are recruited through phosphoinositide (PIP) binding by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain downstream from the catalytic Sec7 domain (Sec7d). The large GEFs lack PH domains, and their recruitment mechanisms are poorly understood. We probed Golgi recruitment of GBF1, a GEF catalyzing ARF activation required for Golgi homeostasis. We show that the homology downstream of Sec7d-1 (HDS1) regulates Golgi recruitment of GBF1. We document that GBF1 binds phosphoinositides, preferentially PI3P, PI4P and PI(4,5)P2, and that lipid binding requires the HDS1 domain. Mutations within HDS1 that reduce GBF1 binding to specific PIPs in vitro inhibit GBF1 targeting to Golgi membranes in cells. Our data imply that HDS1 and PH domains are functionally analogous in that each uses lipid-based membrane information to regulate GEF recruitment. Lipid-based recruitment of GBF1 extends the paradigm of lipid regulation to small and large GEFs and suggests that lipid-based mechanisms evolved early during GEF diversification. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors BIG1 and BIG2 activate, through their Sec7 domains, ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of Arf-bound GDP with GTP for initiation of vesicular transport or activation of specific enzymes that modify important phospholipids. They are also implicated in regulation of cell polarization and actin dynamics for directed migration. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous HeLa cell BIG1 and BIG2 with myosin IIA was demonstrably independent of Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activity, because effects of BIG1 and BIG2 depletion were reversed by overexpression of the cognate BIG molecule C-terminal sequence that follows the Arf activation site. Selective depletion of BIG1 or BIG2 enhanced specific phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (T18/S19) and F-actin content, which impaired cell migration in Transwell assays. Our data are clear evidence of these newly recognized functions for BIG1 and BIG2 in transduction or integration of mechanical signals from integrin adhesions and myosin IIA-dependent actin dynamics. Thus, by anchoring or scaffolding the assembly, organization, and efficient operation of multimolecular myosin phosphatase complexes that include myosin IIA, protein phosphatase 1?, and myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1, BIG1 and BIG2 serve to integrate diverse biophysical and biochemical events in cells.
Project description:The small G protein Arf1 regulates Golgi traffic and is activated by two related types of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). GBF1 acts at the cis-Golgi, whereas BIG1 and its close paralog BIG2 act at the trans-Golgi. Peripheral membrane proteins such as these GEFs are often recruited to membranes by small G proteins, but the basis for specific recruitment of Arf GEFs, and hence Arfs, to Golgi membranes is not understood. In this paper, we report a liposome-based affinity purification method to identify effectors for small G proteins of the Arf family. We validate this with the Drosophila melanogaster Arf1 orthologue (Arf79F) and the related class II Arf (Arf102F), which showed a similar pattern of effector binding. Applying the method to the Arf-like G protein Arl1, we found that it binds directly to Sec71, the Drosophila ortholog of BIG1 and BIG2, via an N-terminal region. We show that in mammalian cells, Arl1 is necessary for Golgi recruitment of BIG1 and BIG2 but not GBF1. Thus, Arl1 acts to direct a trans-Golgi-specific Arf1 GEF, and hence active Arf1, to the trans side of the Golgi.
Project description:Like other guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins (GEPs) that activate ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, brefeldin A-inhibited GEP2, BIG2, contains an approximately 200-aa Sec7 domain that is responsible for this catalytic activity and its inhibition by brefeldin A. The Sec7 domain is located near the center of the molecule and serves to accelerate replacement of GDP bound to ARF with GTP. To explore possible functions of the N-terminal region of BIG2 (1-832), we used three coding-region constructs as bait to screen a human heart cDNA library in a yeast two-hybrid system, retrieving two unique clones that encode a type I protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit, RI alpha. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed interaction of in vitro translated BIG2 and RI alpha, as well as of the endogenous proteins in cytosol of cultured HepG2 cells. Using 28 deletion mutants, we found three regions of BIG2 that interacted with R subunits of PKA. Residues 27-48 (domain A) interacted with RI alpha and RI beta, 284-301 (domain B) interacted with RII alpha and RII beta, and 517-538 (domain C) interacted with RI alpha, RII alpha, and RII beta. Sequence analysis and helical wheel projection of amino acids in the three domains revealed potential amphipathic wheel structures characteristic for binding of PKA R subunits. Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions demonstrated translocation of BIG2 (and BIG1) from cytosol to the Golgi and other membrane structures after incubation of cells with 8-Br-cAMP or forskolin. All findings are consistent with a role for BIG2 as an A kinase-anchoring protein (or AKAP) that could coordinate cAMP and ARF regulatory pathways.
Project description:Arf GTPases assemble protein complexes on membranes to carry out major functions in cellular traffic. An essential step is their activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), whose Sec7 domain stimulates GDP/GTP exchange. ArfGEFs form 2 major families: ArfGEFs with DCB, HUS and HDS domains (GBF1 and BIG1/BIG2 in humans), which act at the Golgi; and ArfGEFs with a C-terminal PH domain (cytohesin, EFA6 and BRAG), which function at the plasma membrane and endosomes. In addition, pathogenic bacteria encode an ArfGEF with a unique membrane-binding domain. Here we review the allosteric regulation of Arf GTPases and their GEFs at the membrane interface. Membranes contribute several regulatory layers: at the GTPase level, where activation by GTP is coupled to membrane recruitment by a built-in structural device; at the Sec7 domain, which manipulates this device to ensure that Arf-GTP is attached to membranes; and at the level of non-catalytic ArfGEF domains, which form direct or GTPase-mediated interactions with membranes that enable a spectacular diversity of regulatory regimes. Notably, we show here that membranes increase the efficiency of a large ArfGEF (human BIG1) by 32-fold by interacting directly with its N-terminal DCB and HUS domains. The diversity of allosteric regulatory regimes suggests that ArfGEFs can function in cascades and circuits to modulate the shape, amplitude and duration of Arf signals in cells. Because Arf-like GTPases feature autoinhibitory elements similar to those of Arf GTPases, we propose that their activation also requires allosteric interactions of these elements with membranes or other proteins.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections.<h4>Importance</h4>To initiate infections, the Salmonella bacterial pathogen remodels the mammalian actin cytoskeleton and invades host cells by subverting host Arf GEFs that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases. Cellular Arf GAPs deactivate Arf GTPases and negatively regulate cell processes, but whether they target Arfs during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered an important role for the Arf GAP family in Salmonella invasion. Surprisingly, we found that Arf1 and Arf6 GAPs cooperate with their Arf GEF counterparts to facilitate cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation, which direct pathogen invasion. This report illustrates that GAP proteins promote actin-dependent processes and are not necessarily restricted to negatively regulating cellular signaling. It uncovers a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs that is exploited by Salmonella to establish infection and expands our understanding of Arf GTPase-regulated cytoskeleton remodeling.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) have crucial roles in vesicular trafficking. Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins (BIG)1 and BIG2 catalyze the activation of class I ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP. Several additional and differing actions of BIG1 and BIG2 have been described. These include the presence in BIG2 of 3 A kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP) domains, one of which is identical in BIG1. Proteins that contain AKAP sequences act as scaffolds for the assembly of PKA with other enzymes, substrates, and regulators in complexes that constitute molecular machines for the reception, transduction, and integration of signals from cAMP or other sources, which are initiated, propagated, and transmitted by chemical, electrical, or mechanical means. Specific depletion of HeLa cell PDE3A with small interfering RNA significantly decreased membrane-associated BIG1 and BIG2, which by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy were widely dispersed from an initial perinuclear Golgi concentration. Concurrently, activated ARF1-GTP was significantly decreased. Selective inhibition of PDE3A by 1-h incubation of cells with cilostamide similarly decreased membrane-associated BIG1. We suggest that decreasing PDE3A allowed cAMP to accumulate in microdomains where its enzymatic activity limited cAMP concentration. There, cAMP-activated PKA phosphorylated BIG1 and BIG2 (AKAPs for assembly of PKA, PDE3A, and other molecules), which decreased their GEP activity and thereby amounts of activated ARF1-GTP. Thus, PDE3A in these BIG1 and BIG2 AKAP complexes may contribute to the regulation of ARF function via limitation of cAMP effects with spatial and temporal specificity.