Local elongation of endothelial cell-anchored von Willebrand factor strings precedes ADAMTS13 protein-mediated proteolysis.
ABSTRACT: Platelet-decorated von Willebrand factor (VWF) strings anchored to the endothelial surface are rapidly cleaved by ADAMTS13. Individual VWF string characteristics such as number, location, and auxiliary features of the ADAMTS13 cleavage sites were explored here using imaging and computing software. By following changes in VWF string length, we demonstrated that VWF strings are cleaved multiple times, successively shortening string length in the function of time and generating fragments ranging in size from 5 to over 100 ?m. These are larger than generally observed in normal plasma, indicating that further proteolysis takes place in circulation. Interestingly, in 89% of all cleavage events, VWF strings elongate precisely at the cleavage site before ADAMTS13 proteolysis. These local elongations are a general characteristic of VWF strings, independent of the presence of ADAMTS13. Furthermore, large elongations, ranging in size from 1.4 to 40 ?m, occur at different sites in space and time. In conclusion, ADAMTS13-mediated proteolysis of VWF strings under flow is preceded by large elongations of the string at the cleavage site. These elongations may lead to the simultaneous exposure of many exosites, thereby facilitating ADAMTS13-mediated cleavage.
Project description:von Willebrand factor (VWF) strings are removed from the endothelial surface by ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-1 repeats)-mediated proteolysis. To visualize how single ADAMTS13 molecules bind to these long strings, we built a customized single molecule fluorescence microscope and developed single particle tracking software. Extensive analysis of over 6,000 single inactive ADAMTS13(E225Q) enzymes demonstrated that 20% of these molecules could be detected in at least two consecutive 60-ms frames and followed two types of trajectories. ADAMTS13(E225Q) molecules either decelerated in the vicinity of VWF strings, whereas sometimes making brief contact with the VWF string before disappearing again, or readily bound to the VWF strings and this for 120 ms or longer. These interactions were observed at several sites along the strings. Control experiments using an IgG protein revealed that only the second type of trajectory reflected a specific interaction of ADAMTS13 with the VWF string. In conclusion, we developed a dedicated single molecule fluorescence microscope for detecting single ADAMTS13 molecules (nm scale) on their long, flow-stretched VWF substrates (?m scale) anchored on living cells. Comprehensive analysis of all detected enzymes showed a random interaction mechanism for ADAMTS13 with many available binding sites on the VWF strings.
Project description:von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 (ADAMTS13) are present both within endothelial cells (ECs) and in peripheral blood. Calcium concentrations are lower in intracellular compartments (80-400 ?M) compared with the extracellular milieu (?1.25 mM). Because low calcium favors VWF A2-domain proteolysis by ADAMTS13, the dependence of proteolysis rates on calcium was assayed both within ECs and in blood. Confocal microscopy studies demonstrate partial perinuclear colocalization of VWF with ADAMTS13 in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). Consequently, low levels (5%-10%) of VWF cleavage products were detected in HUVEC lysates and also culture-supernatant following EC stimulation. This proteolysis occurred before disulfide bond formation. Compared with wild-type VWF A2-domain, calcium-binding mutants including the common von Willebrand disease (VWD) type 2A R1597W mutant were expressed in an open conformation in ECs and were highly susceptible to intracellular proteolysis. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements demonstrate strong calcium-dependent VWF-A2 conformation changes at concentrations <500 ?M, with unfolding rates being fourfold higher for monomeric VWF A2-domain compared with multimeric, full-length VWF. Under shear, physiological levels of ADAMTS13 did not cleave VWF strings on HUVECs, unless platelets were attached to stretch these strings under flow. Further, VWF-platelet string cleavage under shear proceeded with equal efficiency in the absence and presence of calcium at shear stress ?1 dyn/cm2. Overall, low calcium levels may promote intracellular VWF proteolysis particularly during VWD type 2A disease. Calcium has a negligible effect on VWF-platelet string proteolysis under physiologically relevant fluid shear.
Project description:Platelet recruitment to sites of blood vessel damage is highly dependent upon von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWF platelet-tethering function is proteolytically regulated by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. Proteolysis depends upon shear-induced conformational changes in VWF that reveal the A2 domain cleavage site. Multiple ADAMTS13 exosite interactions are involved in recognition of the unfolded A2 domain. Here we report through kinetic analyses that, in binding VWF, the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich and spacer domain exosites bring enzyme and substrate into proximity. Thereafter, binding of the ADAMTS13 disintegrin-like domain exosite to VWF allosterically activates the adjacent metalloprotease domain to facilitate proteolysis. The crystal structure of the ADAMTS13 metalloprotease to spacer domains reveals that the metalloprotease domain exhibits a latent conformation in which the active-site cleft is occluded supporting the requirement for an allosteric change to enable accommodation of the substrate. Our data demonstrate that VWF functions as both the activating cofactor and substrate for ADAMTS13.
Project description:Shiga toxin 1 (Stx-1) and Stx-2 produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli cause the diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This type of HUS is characterized by obstruction of the glomeruli and renal microvasculature by platelet-fibrin thrombi, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, microvascular hemolytic anemia, and plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity that are within a broad normal range. We investigated the mechanism of initial platelet accumulation on Stx-stimulated endothelial cells. Stx-1 or Stx-2 (1-10 nM) stimulated the rapid secretion of unusually large (UL) VWF multimeric strings from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs). Perfused normal human platelets immediately adhered to the secreted ULVWF multimeric strings. Nanomolar concentrations (1-10 nM) of the Shiga toxins were as effective in inducing the formation of ULVWF-platelet strings as millimolar concentrations (0.1-20 mM) of histamine. The rate of ULVWF-platelet string cleavage by plasma or recombinant ADAMTS13 was delayed by 3 to 10 minutes (or longer) in the presence of 10 nM Stx-1 or Stx-2 compared with 20 mM histamine. Stx-induced formation of ULVWF strings, and impairment of ULVWF-platelet string cleavage by ADAMTS13, may promote initial platelet adhesion above glomerular endothelial cells. These processes may contribute to the evolution of glomerular occlusion by platelet and fibrin thrombi in diarrhea-associated HUS.
Project description:The platelet-tethering function of von Willebrand factor (VWF) is proteolytically regulated by ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13), which cleaves the Tyr1605-Met1606 (P1-P1') bond in the VWF A2 domain. To date, most of the functional interactions between ADAMTS13 and VWF that have been characterized involve VWF residues that are C terminal to the scissile bond. We now demonstrate that the substrate P3 position in VWF, Leu1603, is a critical determinant of VWF proteolysis. When VWF Leu1603 was substituted with Ser, Ala, Asn, or Lys in a short VWF substrate, VWF115, proteolysis was either greatly reduced or ablated (up to 400-fold reduction in k(cat)/K(m)). As Leu1603 must interact with residues proximate to the Zn(2+) ion coordinated in the active center of ADAMTS13, we sought the corresponding S3 interacting residues. Substitution of 10 candidate residues in the metalloprotease domain of ADAMTS13 identified two spatially separated clusters centered on Leu198 or Val195 (acting with Leu232 and Leu274, or with Leu151, respectively), as possible subsites interacting with VWF. These experimental findings using the short VWF115 substrate were replicated using full-length VWF. It is hypothesized that VWF Leu1603 interacts with ADAMTS13 Leu198/Leu232/Leu274 and that Val195/Leu151 may form part of a S1 subsite. The recognition of VWF Leu1603 by ADAMTS13, in conjunction with previously reported remote exosites C terminal of the cleavage site, suggests a mechanism whereby the VWF P1-P1' scissile bond is brought into position over the active site for cleavage. Together with recently characterized remote exosite interactions, these findings provide a general framework for understanding the ADAMTS family substrate interactions.
Project description:RATIONALE:PAD4 (peptidylarginine deiminase type IV), an enzyme essential for neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), is released together with neutrophil extracellular traps into the extracellular milieu. It citrullinates histones and holds the potential to citrullinate other protein targets. While NETosis is implicated in thrombosis, the impact of the released PAD4 is unknown. OBJECTIVE:This study tests the hypothesis that extracellular PAD4, released during inflammatory responses, citrullinates plasma proteins, thus affecting thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS:Here, we show that injection of r-huPAD4 in vivo induces the formation of VWF (von Willebrand factor)-platelet strings in mesenteric venules and that this is dependent on PAD4 enzymatic activity. VWF-platelet strings are naturally cleaved by ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 motif-13). We detected a reduction of endogenous ADAMTS13 activity in the plasma of wild-type mice injected with r-huPAD4. Using mass spectrometry and in vitro studies, we found that r-huPAD4 citrullinates ADAMTS13 on specific arginine residues and that this modification dramatically inhibits ADAMTS13 enzymatic activity. Elevated citrullination of ADAMTS13 was observed in plasma samples of patients with sepsis or noninfected patients who were elderly (eg, age >65 years) and had underlying comorbidities (eg, diabetes mellitus and hypertension) as compared with healthy donors. This shows that ADAMTS13 is citrullinated in vivo. VWF-platelet strings that form on venules of Adamts13-/- mice were immediately cleared after injection of r-huADAMTS13, while they persisted in vessels of mice injected with citrullinated r-huADAMTS13. Next, we assessed the effect of extracellular PAD4 on platelet-plug formation after ferric chloride-induced injury of mesenteric venules. Administration of r-huPAD4 decreased time to vessel occlusion and significantly reduced thrombus embolization. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that PAD4 in circulation reduces VWF-platelet string clearance and accelerates the formation of a stable platelet plug after vessel injury. We propose that this effect is, at least in part, due to ADAMTS13 inhibition.
Project description:ADAMTS13 proteolytically regulates the platelet-tethering function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). ADAMTS13 function is dependent upon multiple exosites that specifically bind the unraveled VWF A2 domain and enable proteolysis. We carried out a comprehensive functional analysis of the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich (Cys-rich) domain using engineered glycans, sequence swaps, and single point mutations in this domain. Mutagenesis of Cys-rich domain-charged residues had no major effect on ADAMTS13 function, and 5 out of 6 engineered glycans on the Cys-rich domain also had no effect on ADAMTS13 function. However, a glycan attached at position 476 appreciably reduced both VWF binding and proteolysis. Substitution of Cys-rich sequences for the corresponding regions in ADAMTS1 identified a hydrophobic pocket involving residues Gly471-Val474 as being of critical importance for both VWF binding and proteolysis. Substitution of hydrophobic VWF A2 domain residues to serine in a region (residues 1642-1659) previously postulated to interact with the Cys-rich domain revealed the functional importance of VWF residues Ile1642, Trp1644, Ile1649, Leu1650, and Ile1651. Furthermore, the functional deficit of the ADAMTS13 Cys-rich Gly471-Val474 variant was dependent on these same hydrophobic VWF residues, suggesting that these regions form complementary binding sites that directly interact to enhance the efficiency of the proteolytic reaction.
Project description:Acutely secreted von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers adhere to endothelial cells, support platelet adhesion, and may induce microvascular thrombosis. Immunofluorescence microscopy of live human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that VWF multimers rapidly formed strings several hundred micrometers long on the cell surface after stimulation with histamine. Unexpectedly, only a subset of VWF strings supported platelet binding, which depended on platelet glycoprotein Ib. Electron microscopy showed that VWF strings often consisted of bundles and networks of VWF multimers, and each string was tethered to the cell surface by a limited number of sites. Several approaches implicated P-selectin and integrin alpha(v)beta(3) in anchoring VWF strings. An RGDS peptide or a function-blocking antibody to integrin alpha(v)beta(3) reduced the number of VWF strings formed. In addition, integrin alpha(v) decorated the VWF strings by immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, lentiviral transduction of shRNA against the alpha(v) subunit reduced the expression of cell-surface integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and impaired the ability of endothelial cells to retain VWF strings. Soluble P-selectin reduced the number of platelet-decorated VWF strings in the absence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) but had no effect in the presence of these cations. These results indicate that VWF strings bind specifically to integrin alpha(v)beta(3) on human endothelial cells.
Project description:Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a multimeric protein that mediates platelet adhesion at sites of vascular injury, and ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin)is a multidomain metalloprotease that limits platelet adhesion by a feedback mechanism in which fluid shear stress induces proteolysis of VWF and prevents disseminated microvascular thrombosis. Cleavage of the Tyr(1605)-Met(1606) scissile bond in the VWF A2 domain depends on a Glu(1660)-Arg(1668) segment in the same domain and on the noncatalytic spacer domain of ADAMTS13, suggesting that extensive enzyme-substrate interactions facilitate substrate recognition. Based on mutagenesis and kinetic analysis, we find that the ADAMTS13 spacer domain binds to an exosite near the C terminus of the VWF A2 domain. Deleting the spacer domain from ADAMTS13 or deleting the exosite from the VWF substrate reduced the rate of cleavage approximately 20-fold. A cleavage product containing the exosite was a hyperbolic mixed-type inhibitor of ADAMTS13 proteolysis of either VWF multimers or model peptide substrates but only if the ADAMTS13 enzyme contained the spacer domain. The specificity of this unique mechanism depends on tension-induced unfolding of the VWF A2 domain, which exposes the scissile bond and exosite for interaction with complementary sites on ADAMTS13.
Project description:ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin type 1 repeats, 13) cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF), thereby inhibiting thrombus formation. Proteolytic cleavage relies on the amino-terminal (MDTCS) domains, but the role of the more distal carboxyl-terminal domains of ADAMTS13 is not fully understood. A previous study demonstrated the presence of multiple surface-exposed free sulfhydryls on ADAMTS13 that seemed to interact with those on VWF under shear. Here, we determined the physiological relevance of such an interaction in antithrombotic responses under flow.A microfluidic assay demonstrated that a carboxyl-terminal fragment of ADAMTS13, comprising either 2 to 8 thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) repeats and CUB domains (T2C) or 5 to 8 Thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) repeats and CUB domains (T5C), directly inhibited platelet adhesion/aggregation on a collagen surface under arterial shear. In addition, an intravital microscopic imaging analysis showed that the carboxyl-terminal fragment of ADAMTS13 (T2C or T5C) was capable of inhibiting the formation and elongation of platelet-decorated ultra large (UL) VWF strings and the adhesion of platelets/leukocytes on endothelium in mesenteric venules after oxidative injury. The inhibitory activity of T2C and T5C on platelet aggregation and ULVWF string formation were dependent on the presence of their surface free thiols; pretreatment of T2C and T5C or full-length ADAMTS13 with N-ethylmaleimide that reacts with free sulfhydryls abolished or significantly reduced its antithrombotic activity.Our results demonstrate for the first time that the carboxyl terminus of ADAMTS13 has direct antithrombotic activity in a free-thiol-dependent manner. The free thiols in the carboxyl-terminal domains of ADAMTS13 may also contribute to the overall antithrombotic function of ADAMTS13 under pathophysiological conditions.