Construction of a lytically replicating Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
ABSTRACT: Karposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is found predominantly in a latent state in most cell types, impeding investigations of the lytic replication cycle. Here, we engineered the cloned KSHV genome, bacterial artificial chromosome 36 (BAC36), to enforce constitutive expression of the main lytic switch regulator, the replication and transcription activator (RTA) (open reading frame 50 [ORF50]). The resulting virus, KSHV-lyt, activated by default the lytic cycle and replicated to high titers in various cells. Using KSHV-lyt, we showed that ORF33 (encoding a tegument protein) is essential for lytic KSHV replication in cell culture, but ORF73 (encoding the latent nuclear antigen [LANA]) is not. Thus, KSHV-lyt should be highly useful to study viral gene function during lytic replication.
Project description:Similar to that of other herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) lytic replication destroys the host cell, while the virus can persist in a latent state in synchrony with the host. During latency only a few genes are transcribed, and the question becomes one of what determines latent versus lytic gene expression. Here we undertake a detailed analysis of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA [orf73]) promoter (LANAp). We characterized a minimal region that is necessary and sufficient to maintain high-level transcription in all tissues tested, including primary endothelial cells and B cells, which are the suspected natural host for KSHV. We show that in transient-transfection assays LANAp mimics the expression pattern observed for the authentic promoter in the context of the KSHV episome. Unlike other KSHV promoters tested thus far, LANAp is not affected by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate or viral lytic cycle functions. It is, however, subject to control by LANA itself and cellular regulatory factors, such as p53. This is in contrast to the K14/vGCR (orf74) promoter, which overlaps LANAp and directs transcription on the opposite strand. We isolated a minimal cis-regulatory region sufficient for K14/vGCR promoter activity and show that it, too, mimics the regulation observed for the authentic viral promoter. In particular, we demonstrate that its activity is absolutely dependent on the immediate-early transactivator orf50, the KSHV homolog of the Epstein-Barr virus Rta transactivator.
Project description:Infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells in vitro by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) provides an excellent in vitro model system to study viral latency. KSHV infection is characterized by the induction of preexisting host signal cascades; sustained expression of the latency-associated open reading frame 73 (ORF73) (LANA-1), ORF72, and K13 genes; transient expression of a limited number of lytic genes, including the lytic cycle switch ORF50 (replication and transcription activator) gene; and reprogramming of host transcriptional machinery regulating a variety of cellular processes, including several proinflammatory responses. The cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene was one of the host cell genes that was highly up-regulated at 2 and 4 h postinfection (p.i.) of HMVEC-d and HFF cells (P. P. Naranatt, H. H. Krishnan, S. R. Svojanovsky, C. Bloomer, S. Mathur, and B. Chandran, Cancer Res. 64:72-84, 2004). Since COX-2 is an important mediator of inflammatory and angiogenic responses, here, using real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays, we characterized the COX-2 stimulation and its role in KSHV infection. KSHV induced a robust COX-2 expression, which reached a maximum at 2 h p.i. in HMVEC-d cells and at 8 h p.i. in HFF cells, and significantly higher levels were continuously detected for up to 72 h p.i. Constitutive COX-1 protein levels were not modulated by KSHV infection. Moderate levels of COX-2 were also induced by UV-irradiated KSHV and by envelope glycoproteins gB and gpK8.1A; however, viral gene expression appears to be essential for the increased COX-2 induction. High levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a COX-2 product, were released in the culture supernatant medium of infected cells. PGE(2) synthase, catalyzing the biosynthesis of PGE(2), also increased upon infection and inhibition of COX-2 by NS-398, and indomethacin drastically reduced the levels of PGE(2) and PGE(2) synthase. COX-2 inhibition did not affect KSHV binding, internalization of virus, or the trafficking to the infected cell nuclei. However, latent ORF73 gene expression and ORF73 promoter activity were significantly reduced by COX-2 inhibitors, and this inhibition was relieved by exogenous supplementation with PGE(2). In contrast, lytic ORF50 gene expression and ORF50 promoter activity were unaffected. These studies demonstrate that COX-2 and PGE(2) play roles in facilitating latent viral gene expression and the establishment and maintenance of latency and suggest that KSHV has evolved to utilize the inflammatory responses induced during infection of endothelial cells for the maintenance of viral latent gene expression.
Project description:The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) performs a variety of functions to establish and maintain KSHV latency. During latency, LANA localizes to discrete punctate spots in the nucleus, where it tethers viral episomes to cellular chromatin and interacts with nuclear components to regulate cellular and viral gene expression. Using highly sensitive tyramide signal amplification, we determined that LANA localizes to the cytoplasm in different cell types undergoing the lytic cycle of replication after de novo primary infection and after spontaneous, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-, or open reading frame 50 (ORF50)/replication transactivator (RTA)-induced activation. We confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic LANA in a subset of cells in lytically active multicentric Castleman disease lesions. The induction of cellular migration by scratch-wounding confluent cell cultures, culturing under subconfluent conditions, or induction of cell differentiation in primary cultures upregulated the number of cells permissive for primary lytic KSHV infection. The induction of lytic replication was characterized by high-level expression of cytoplasmic LANA and nuclear ORF59, a marker of lytic replication. Subcellular fractionation studies revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of LANA in the cytoplasm of ORF50/RTA-activated Vero cells undergoing primary infection. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that cytoplasmic LANA isoforms were full length, containing the N-terminal nuclear localization signal. These results suggest that trafficking of LANA to different subcellular locations is a regulated phenomenon, which allows LANA to interact with cellular components in different compartments during both the latent and the replicative stages of the KSHV life cycle.IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes AIDS-related malignancies, including lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma. KSHV establishes lifelong infections using its latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). During latency, LANA localizes to the nucleus, where it connects viral and cellular DNA complexes and regulates gene expression, allowing the virus to maintain long-term infections. Our research shows that intact LANA traffics to the cytoplasm of cells undergoing permissive lytic infections and latently infected cells in which the virus is induced to replicate. This suggests that LANA plays important roles in the cytoplasm and nuclear compartments of the cell during different stages of the KSHV life cycle. Determining cytoplasmic function and mechanism for regulation of the nuclear localization of LANA will enhance our understanding of the biology of this virus, leading to therapeutic approaches to eliminate infection and block its pathological effects.
Project description:During de novo infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induced the multifunctional angiogenin (ANG) protein, which entered the nuclei and nucleoli of infected cells and stimulated 45S rRNA gene transcription, proliferation, and tube formation, which were inhibited by blocking ANG nuclear translocation with the antibiotic neomycin (S. Sadagopan et al., J. Virol. 83:3342-3364, 2009). ANG was induced by KSHV latency protein LANA-1 (open reading frame 73 [ORF73]). Here we examined the presence and functions of ANG in KSHV-positive (KSHV(+)) primary effusion lymphoma (PEL/BCBL) cells. Significant ANG gene expression and secretion were observed in KSHV(+) (BCBL-1 and BC-3) and KSHV(+) and Epstein-Barr virus-positive (KSHV(+) EBV(+)) (JSC-1) PEL cells and in BJAB-KSHV cells but not in EBV(-) KSHV(-) lymphoma cells (Akata, Loukes, Ramos, and BJAB), EBV(+) lymphoma cells (Akata-EBV and Raji), and cells from an EBV(+) lymphoblastoid cell line, thus suggesting a specific association of ANG in KSHV biology. Inhibition of nuclear translocation of ANG resulted in reduced BCBL-1 and TIVE-LTC (latently infected endothelial) cell survival and proliferation, while EBV(-) and EBV(+) Akata cells were unaffected. Blocking nuclear transport of ANG inhibited latent ORF73 gene expression and increased lytic switch ORF50 gene expression, both during de novo infection and in latently infected cells. A greater quantity of infectious KSHV was detected in the supernatants of neomycin-treated BCBL-1 cells than 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated cells. Neomycin treatment and ANG silencing inhibited phospholipase C? (PLC-?) and AKT phosphorylation, and in contrast, ANG induced ORF73 expression and PLC-? and AKT phosphorylation. Further studies provided evidence that blockage of PLC-? activation by neomycin appears to be mediating the inhibition of latent gene expression, since treatment with the conventional PLC-? inhibitor U73122 also showed similar results. Silencing of ANG also resulted in reduced cell survival, reduced ORF73 gene expression, and lytic gene activation in BCBL-1 and TIVE-LTC cells and during de novo infection. Taken together, these studies suggest that KSHV has evolved to exploit ANG for its advantage via a so-far-unexplored PLC-? pathway for maintaining its latency.
Project description:Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes stable latent infection in B-lymphocytes and pleural effusion lymphomas (PELs). During latency, the viral genome persists as an epigenetically constrained episome with restricted gene expression programs. To identify epigenetic regulators of KSHV latency, we screened a focused small molecule library containing known inhibitors of epigenetic factors. We identified JQ1, a Bromodomain and Extended Terminal (BET) protein inhibitor, as a potent activator of KSHV lytic reactivation from B-cells carrying episomal KSHV. We validated that JQ1 and other BET inhibitors efficiently stimulated reactivation of KSHV from latently infected PEL cells. We found that BET proteins BRD2 and BRD4 localize to several regions of the viral genome, including the LANA binding sites within the terminal repeats (TR), as well as at CTCF-cohesin sites in the latent and lytic control regions. JQ1 did not disrupt the interaction of BRD4 or BRD2 with LANA, but did reduce the binding of LANA with KSHV TR. We have previously demonstrated a cohesin-dependent DNA-loop interaction between the latent and lytic control regions that restrict expression of ORF50/RTA and ORF45 immediate early gene transcripts. JQ1 reduced binding of cohesin subunit Rad21 with the CTCF binding sites in the latency and lytic control regions. JQ1 also reduced DNA-loop interaction between latent and lytic control regions. These findings implicate BET proteins BRD2 and BRD4 in the maintenance of KSHV chromatin architecture during latency and reveal BET inhibitors as potent activators of KSHV reactivation from latency.
Project description:KSHV effectively binds, enters and establishes infection in THP-1 cells with initial concurrent expression of latent ORF73 and lytic ORF50 genes and subsequent persistence of ORF73. KSHV genome persisted for 30 days and lytic cycle could be activated. KSHV utilized heparan sulfate for binding to THP-1 cells and primary monocytes. Blocking DC-SIGN did not inhibit KSHV binding; however, virus entry in THP-1 cells and in primary monocytes was reduced. In addition to the previously identified integrins alpha3beta1, alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5, integrin alpha5beta1 was also utilized for infection. KSHV entered THP-1 cells via clathrin and caveolin mediated endocytosis and did not utilize macropinocytosis as in human dermal endothelial cells, and required an endosomal acidification. Infection also induced phosphorylation of FAK, Src, PI3K, NF-kappaB and ERK1/2 signaling molecules, and entry was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. These findings suggest that THP-1 cells are highly useful model for studying KSHV infection of monocytes.
Project description:Like other herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also designated human herpesvirus 8) can establish a latent infection in the infected host. During latency a small number of genes are expressed. One of those genes encodes latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which is constitutively expressed in cells during latent as well as lytic infection. LANA has previously been shown to be important for the establishment of latent episome maintenance through tethering of the viral genome to the host chromosomes. Under specific conditions, KSHV can undergo lytic replication, with the production of viral progeny. The immediate-early Rta, encoded by open reading frame 50 of KSHV, has been shown to play a critical role in switching from viral latent replication to lytic replication. Overexpression of Rta from a heterologous promoter is sufficient for driving KSHV lytic replication and the production of viral progeny. In the present study, we show that LANA down-modulates Rta's promoter activity in transient reporter assays, thus repressing Rta-mediated transactivation. This results in a decrease in the production of KSHV progeny virions. We also found that LANA interacts physically with Rta both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LANA can inhibit viral lytic replication by inhibiting expression as well as antagonizing the function of Rta. This suggests that LANA may play a critical role in maintaining latency by controlling the switch between viral latency and lytic replication.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and several other malignancies. The lack of an efficient infection system has impeded the understanding of KSHV-related pathogenesis. A genetic approach was used to isolate infectious KSHV. Recombinant bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) KSHV containing hygromycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) markers was generated by homologous recombination in KSHV-infected BCBL-1 cells. Recombinant KSHV genomes from cell clones that were resistant to hygromycin, expressed GFP, and produced infectious virions after induction with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) were rescued in Escherichia coli and reconstituted in 293 cells. Several 293 cell lines resulting from infection with recombinant virions induced from a full-length recombinant KSHV genome, named BAC36, were obtained. BAC36 virions established stable latent infection in 293 cells, harboring 1 to 2 copies of viral genome per cell and expressing viral latent proteins, with approximately 0.5% of cells undergoing spontaneous lytic replication, which is reminiscent of KSHV infection in Kaposi's sarcoma tumors. TPA treatment induced BAC36-infected 293 cell lines into productive lytic replication, expressing lytic proteins and producing virions that efficiently infected normal 293 cells with a approximately 50% primary infection rate. BAC36 virions were also infectious to HeLa and E6E7-immortalized human endothelial cells. Since BAC36 can be efficiently shuttled between bacteria and mammalian cells, it is useful for KSHV genetic analysis. The feasibility of the system was illustrated through the generation of a KSHV mutant with the vIRF gene deleted. This cellular model is useful for the investigation of KSHV infection and pathogenesis.
Project description:In the latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), its 160-kb circularized episomal DNA is replicated and maintained in the host nucleus. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a key factor for maintaining viral latency. LANA binds to the terminal repeat (TR) DNA of the viral genome, leading to its localization to specific dot structures in the nucleus. In such an infected cell, the expression of the viral genes is restricted by a mechanism that is still unclear. Here, we found that LANA interacts with SUV39H1 histone methyltransferase, a key component of heterochromatin formation, as determined by use of a DNA pull-down assay with a biotinylated DNA fragment that contained a LANA-specific binding sequence and a maltose-binding protein pull-down assay. The diffuse localization of LANA on the chromosomes of uninfected cells changed to a punctate one with the introduction of a bacterial artificial chromosome containing most of the TR region, and SUV39H1 clearly colocalized with the LANA-associated dots. Thus, the LANA foci in KSHV-infected cells seemed to include SUV39H1 as well as heterochromatin protein 1. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that the TR and the open reading frame (ORF) K1 and ORF50/RTA genes, but not the ORF73/LANA gene, lay within the heterochromatin during KSHV latency. Taken together, these observations indicate that LANA recruits heterochromatin components to the viral genome, which may lead to the establishment of viral latency and govern the transcription program.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus responsible for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the burden of these diseases there are few treatment options for afflicted individuals, due in part to our limited understanding of virus-host interactions. Tip60, a histone aceytltransferase (HAT) has been previously shown to interact with both the KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen protein (LANA), which is the main factor in maintaining the viral latent state, and ORF36, a viral kinase expressed in the lytic phase. We further investigated Tip60-virus interaction to ascertain Tip60's role in the viral life cycle and its potential as a target for future therapeutics. Through modulation of Tip60 expression in HEK293T cells harboring a plasmid containing the KSHV viral episome, Bac36, we found that Tip60 is vital for both lytic replication as well as efficient expression of latent genes. Interestingly, Tip60 small molecule inhibitors, MG149 and NU9056, similarly inhibited latent and lytic genes, and reduced virion production in wild-type KSHV+/EBV- PEL, BCBL-1 cells. Long-term treatment with these Tip60 inhibitors selectively decreased the viability of KSHV-infected B lymphoma cells compared to uninfected cells. From this study, we conclude that Tip60 is important for KSHV infection and its associated cancer development, and Tip60 is therefore a potential target for future antiviral and anticancer therapeutics.