Prostaglandin E2 receptors are differentially expressed in subpopulations of granulosa cells from primate periovulatory follicles.
ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates many effects of the midcycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge within the periovulatory follicle. Differential expression of the four PGE2 (EP) receptors may contribute to the specialized functions of each granulosa cell subpopulation. To determine if EP receptors are differentially expressed in granulosa cells, monkeys received gonadotropins to stimulate ovarian follicular development. Periovulatory events were initiated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); granulosa cells and whole ovaries were collected before (0 h) and after (24-36 h) hCG to span the 40-h primate periovulatory interval. EP receptor mRNA and protein levels were quantified in granulosa cell subpopulations. Cumulus cells expressed higher levels of EP2 and EP3 mRNA compared with mural cells 36 h after hCG. Cumulus cell EP2 and EP3 protein levels also increased between 0 and 36 h after hCG. Overall, mural granulosa cells expressed low levels of EP1 protein at 0 h and higher levels 24-36 h after hCG. However, EP1 protein levels were higher in granulosa cells away from the follicle apex compared with apex cells 36 h after hCG. Higher levels of PAI-1 protein were measured in nonapex cells, consistent with a previous study showing EP1-stimulated PAI-1 protein expression in monkey granulosa cells. EP4 protein levels were low in all subpopulations. In summary, cumulus cells likely respond to PGE2 via EP2 and EP3, whereas PGE2 controls rupture of a specific region of the follicle via EP1. Therefore, differential expression of EP receptors may permit each granulosa cell subpopulation to generate a unique response to PGE2 during the process of ovulation.
Project description:The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates estradiol-induced masculinization of sexual behavior in the rat during a perinatal sensitive period. PGE2 induces formation of dendritic spines on preoptic area (POA) neurons and this synaptic pattern change is associated with the ability to express male sexual behavior as an adult. Whether PGE2 is released from astrocytes or neurons in the developing POA is unknown. To further understanding of how PGE2 induces dendritic spine formation at the cellular level, we have explored the PGE2 receptor subtype mediating this response. There are four receptors for PGE2, EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4, each having unique but interacting signal transduction profiles. Treatment of newborn female rats with the EP receptor agonists iloprost, butaprost and sulprostone indicated that stimulation of both the EP2 and EP3 receptors significantly increased spinophilin, a protein whose levels positively correlate to the presence of dendritic spines and masculinization of the POA. Use of antisense oligonucleotides against the mRNA for each receptor reveals that either EP2 or EP3 receptor knockdown reduces spinophilin in PGE2- or estradiol-treated females, whereas reducing EP1 or EP4 receptor levels by the same means has a smaller but also significant effect. A developmental profile of EP receptor expression indicates EP1 in particular is elevated for the first few days of life, corresponding to the critical period for masculinization, whereas mRNA levels for the other three receptors remain relatively constant.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in bone development and metabolism. To interfere therapeutically in the PGE2 pathway, however, knowledge about the involved enzymes (cyclooxygenases) and receptors (PGE2 receptors) is essential. We therefore examined the production of PGE2 in cultured growth plate chondrocytes in vitro and the effects of exogenously added PGE2 on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we analysed the expression and spatial distribution of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 and PGE2 receptor types EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 in the growth plate in situ and in vitro. PGE2 synthesis was determined by mass spectrometry, cell proliferation by DNA [3H]-thymidine incorporation, mRNA expression of cyclooxygenases and EP receptors by RT-PCR on cultured cells and in homogenized growth plates. To determine cellular expression, frozen sections of rat tibial growth plate and primary chondrocyte cultures were stained using immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies directed towards COX-1, COX-2, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Cultured growth plate chondrocytes transiently secreted PGE2 into the culture medium. Although both enzymes were expressed in chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo, it appears that mainly COX-2 contributed to PGE2-dependent proliferation. Exogenously added PGE2 stimulated DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion and gave a bell-shaped curve with a maximum at 10-8 M. The EP1/EP3 specific agonist sulprostone and the EP1-selective agonist ONO-D1-004 increased DNA synthesis. The effect of PGE2 was suppressed by ONO-8711. The expression of EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors in situ and in vitro was observed; EP2 was homogenously expressed in all zones of the growth plate in situ, whereas EP1 expression was inhomogenous, with spared cells in the reserve zone. In cultured cells these four receptors were expressed in a subset of cells only. The most intense staining for the EP1 receptor was found in polygonal cells surrounded by matrix. Expression of receptor protein for EP3 and EP4 was observed also in rat growth plates. In cultured chrondrocytes, however, only weak expression of EP3 and EP4 receptor was detected. We suggest that in growth plate chondrocytes, COX-2 is responsible for PGE2 release, which stimulates cell proliferation via the EP1 receptor.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates the organization of male rat sexual behavior and medial preoptic area (MPOA) neuroanatomy during a sensitive perinatal window. PGE2 is up-regulated in response to estradiol, and initiates a two-fold increase in dendritic spines densities on neurons. All the four receptors for PGE2 and EP1-4 are present in developing POA, a critical region controlling male sexual behavior. Previous studies explored that EP receptors are involved in PGE2-induction of neonatal levels of spinophilin protein, a surrogate marker for dendritic spine formation, but did not assess behavioral masculinization. Here, we used two approaches, suppression of EP receptor expression with antisense oligonucleotides and activation of EP receptors with selective agonists, to test which receptors are necessary and sufficient, respectively, for the effects of PGE2 on behavior and neuronal morphology. In female rats, neonatal treatment with antisense oligonucleotides against EP2 or EP4 but not EP1 or EP3 completely prevented the expression of adult behavior organized by PGE2 exposure. The effects of ONO-DI-004, ONO-AE-259-01, ONO-AE-248, and ONO-AE1-329 (EP1-4 agonists respectively) were equivalent to PGE2 treatment, which suggests activating any EP receptor neonatally suffices in masculinizing sex behavior. When given alone, not all EP agonists increased neonatal POA spinophilin levels; yet giving each agonist neonatally increased adult levels. Moreover, adult spinophilin levels significantly correlated with two measures of male sexual behavior. The body of evidence suggests that EP2 and EP4 are both necessary and sufficient for PGE2-induced masculinization of sex behavior, whereas EP1 and EP3 provide redundant roles.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been identified as a PG necessary for ovulation, but the ovulatory gonadotropin surge also increases PGF2 alpha levels in primate periovulatory follicles. To better understand the role of PGF2 alpha in ovulation, pathways utilized for PGF2 alpha synthesis by the primate follicle were examined. Monkeys were treated with gonadotropins to stimulate multiple follicular development; follicular aspirates and whole ovaries were removed before and at specific times after administration of an ovulatory dose of hCG to span the 40 h periovulatory interval. Human granulosa cells were also obtained (typically 34-36 h after hCG) from in vitro fertilization patients. PGF2 alpha can be synthesized from PGH2 via the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3. AKR1C3 mRNA and protein levels in monkey granulosa cells were low before hCG and peaked 24-36 h after hCG administration. Human granulosa cells converted PGD2 into 11 beta-PGF2 alpha, confirming that these cells possess AKR1C3 activity. PGF2 alpha can also be synthesized from PGE2 via the enzymes AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. Monkey granulosa cell levels of AKR1C1/AKR1C2 mRNA was low 0-12 h, peaked at 24 h, and returned to low levels by 36 h after hCG administration. Human granulosa cell conversion of [(3)H]PGE2 into [(3)H]PGF2 alpha was reduced by an AKR1C2-selective inhibitor, supporting the concept that granulosa cells preferentially express AKR1C2 over AKR1C1. In summary, the ovulatory gonadotropin surge increases granulosa cell expression of AKR1C1/AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Both of these enzyme activities are present in periovulatory granulosa cells. These data support the concept that follicular PGF2 alpha can be synthesized via two pathways during the periovulatory interval.
Project description:PGE2 is a major prostanoid that regulates inflammation by stimulating EP1-4 receptors. However, how PGE2 induces an initial inflammatory response to vascular hyper-permeability remains unknown. Here we investigated the role of the PGE2 -EP receptor signal in modulating vascular permeability both in vivo and in vitro.We used a modified Miles assay and intravital microscopy to examine vascular permeability in vivo. Endothelial barrier property was assessed by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) in vitro.Local administration of PGE2 , an EP2 or EP4 receptor agonist into FVB/NJcl mouse ear skin caused vascular leakage, indicated by dye extravasation. Intravital microscopy and laser Doppler blood-flow imaging revealed that these treatments dilated peripheral vessels and increased local blood flow. Pretreatment with the vasoconstrictor phenylephrine inhibited the PGE2 -induced blood flow increase and vascular leakage. In contrast to the EP2 and EP4 receptor agonists, administration of an EP3 receptor agonist suppressed vascular leakage without altering vascular diameter or blood flow. In isolated HUVECs, the EP3 receptor agonist elevated TER and blocked thrombin-induced dextran passage. Inhibiting PKA restored the hypo-permeability induced by the EP3 receptor agonist.Activation of the PGE2 -EP2 or -EP4 receptor signal induces vasodilatation in mural cells, resulting in increased local blood flow and hyper-permeability. In contrast, activation of the PGE2 -EP3 receptor signal induces a cAMP-dependent enhancement of the endothelial barrier, leading to hypo-permeability. We provide the first evidence that endothelial cells and mural cells cooperate to modulate vascular permeability.
Project description:During the early phase of ANG II-dependent hypertension, tubular PGE2 is increased. Renin synthesis and secretion in the collecting duct (CD) are upregulated by ANG II, contributing to further intratubular ANG II formation. However, what happens first and whether the triggering mechanism is independent of tubular ANG II remain unknown. PGE2 stimulates renin synthesis in juxtaglomerular cells via E-prostanoid (EP) receptors through the cAMP/cAMP-responsive element-binding (CREB) pathway. EP receptors are also expressed in the CD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that renin is upregulated by PGE2 in CD cells. The M-1 CD cell line expressed EP1, EP3, and EP4 but not EP2. Dose-response experiments, in the presence of ANG II type 1 receptor blockade with candesartan, demonstrated that 10-6 M PGE2 maximally increases renin mRNA (approximately 4-fold) and prorenin/renin protein levels (approximately 2-fold). This response was prevented by micromolar doses of SC-19220 (EP1 antagonist), attenuated by the EP4 antagonist, L-161982, and exacerbated by the highly selective EP3 antagonist, L-798106 (~10-fold increase). To evaluate further the signaling pathway involved, we used the PKC inhibitor calphostin C and transfections with PKCα dominant negative. Both strategies blunted the PGE2-induced increases in cAMP levels, CREB phosphorylation, and augmentation of renin. Knockdown of the EP1 receptor and CREB also prevented renin upregulation. These results indicate that PGE2 increases CD renin expression through the EP1 receptor via the PKC/cAMP/CREB pathway. Therefore, we conclude that during the early stages of ANG II-dependent hypertension, there is augmentation of PGE2 that stimulates renin in the CD, resulting in increased tubular ANG II formation and further stimulation of renin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The regulatory mechanisms of the expression of connective tissue growth factor/CCN family member 2 (CTGF/CCN2) in human articular chondrocytes have not been clarified. We investigated the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on CTGF/CCN2 expression in chondrocytes. FINDINGS: Articular cartilage samples were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. Chondrocytes were stimulated with PGE2, PGE receptor (EP)-specific agonists, or interleukin (IL)-1. CTGF expression was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The inhibitory effects of EP receptor antagonists (for EP2 and EP4) against PGE2 stimulation were also investigated. Stimulation of chondrocytes with PGE2 or IL-1 significantly suppressed CTGF expression. The suppressive effect of PGE2 was reproduced by EP2/EP4 receptor agonists but not by EP1/EP3 receptor agonists, and was partially blocked by an EP4 receptor antagonist, suggesting that the EP4 receptor has a dominant role. CONCLUSIONS: PGE2 may be involved in the regulation of CTGF/CCN2 expression in human articular chondrocytes via the EP4 receptor. Elucidation of EP4-mediated signaling in chondrocytes may contribute to a better understanding of the effects of PGE2 in arthritis.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of KS, a chronic inflammation-associated malignancy. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), two pivotal proinflammatory/oncogeneic molecules, are proposed to play roles in the expression of major KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1). Microsomal PGE2 synthase, PGE2, and its receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) were detected in KS lesions with the distinct staining of EP2/EP4 in KS lesions. In latently infected endothelial TIVE-LTC cells, EP receptor antagonists downregulated LANA-1 expression as well as Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB, which are also some of the signal molecules proposed to be important in KS pathogenesis. Exogenous PGE2 and EP receptor agonists induced the LANA-1 promoter in 293 cells, and YY1, Sp1, Oct-1, Oct-6, C/EBP, and c-Jun transcription factors seem to be involved in this induction. PGE2/EP receptor-induced LANA-1 promoter activity was downregulated significantly by the inhibition of Ca(2+), p-Src, p-PI3K, p-PKCzeta/lambda, and p-NF-kappaB. These findings implicate the inflammatory PGE2/EP receptors and the associated signal molecules in herpes virus latency and uncover a novel paradigm that shows the evolution of KSHV genome plasticity to use inflammatory response for its survival advantage of maintaining latent gene expression. These data also suggest that potential use of anti-COX-2 and anti-EP receptor therapy may not only ameliorate the chronic inflammation associated with KS but could also lead to elimination of the KSHV latent infection and the associated KS lesions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Different inflammatory reactions have been observed in the polyp tissues of nonsmokers and smokers with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). E-prostanoid (EP) receptors play a role in the inflammatory processes. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure regulates EP-receptor expression levels promoting inflammatory mediator release from various inflammatory cells. In this study, we characterize the EP-receptor expression profiles in the polyps of nonsmoking and smoking CRS patients to explore the possible role of CS in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). METHODS:Polyp biopsies were obtained from 28 non-smoking and 21 smoking CRSwNP patients. Histopathological characteristics were observed under a light microscope. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-?, and IL-8 contents in polyp tissues were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunostaining was used to locate EP receptors in polyps. Messenger RNA and protein expression of EP receptors were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS:More severe inflammatory reactions occurred in polyp tissues of smoking CRSwNP patients. The PGE2, TNF-?, and IL-8 in tissue homogenate levels were significantly higher in smoking CRSwNP patients than those in nonsmoking CRSwNP patients. Moreover, the distribution of each EP receptor subtype was similar in both groups. Compared with the EP-receptor expression in nonsmokers, messenger RNA and protein of EP2 and EP4 receptor were significantly down-expressed in smoking patients, but EP1 and EP3 receptors did not show significant differences. CONCLUSION:CS exposure downregulates the expression levels of EP2 and EP4 receptors and stimulates the production of PGE2 and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 and TNF-? in polyp tissues of CRS patients. The down-expressed EP2 and EP4 receptors might be associated with severe inflammatory reactions in smoking CRSwNP patients.
Project description:In this work, the characterization of endoprotease (EP) isoenzymes in peroxisomes is reported for the first time in cell organelles purified from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.). A comparative analysis of the endo-proteolytic activity in peroxisomes purified from young (15-day-old) and senescent (50-day-old) leaves was carried out. Peroxisomes purified from senescent leaves showed a much higher endo-proteolytic activity than organelles from young plants. A 16 h incubation with exogenous substrates was the threshold time for the detection of a linear increase in the endo-proteolytic activity of peroxisomes from senescent leaves. Three EP isoenzymes (EP2, EP4 and EP5), having molecular masses of 88, 64 and 50 kDa respectively, were found in young plants by using SDS/polyacrylamide-gradient gels co-polymerized with gelatin. However, four additional isoenzymes (EP1, EP3, EP6 and EP7), with molecular masses of 220, 76, 46 and 34 kDa respectively, were detected in senescent plants. All the isoenzymes detected in peroxisomes from both young and senescent leaves were neutral proteases. By using different class-specific inhibitors, the electrophoretically separated EP isoenzymes were characterized as three serine-proteinases (EP1, EP3 and EP4), two cysteine-proteinases (EP2 and EP6) and a metallo-proteinase (EP7), and EP5 might be a metal-dependent serine-proteinase. Moreover, a peroxisomal polypeptide of 64 kDa was recognized by an antibody against a thiol-protease. The serine-proteinase isoenzymes (EP1, EP3 and EP4), which represent approx. 70% of the total EP activity of peroxisomes, showed a notable thermal stability, not being inhibited by incubation at 50 degrees C for 1 h.