Phase I feasibility study of intraperitoneal cisplatin and intravenous paclitaxel followed by intraperitoneal paclitaxel in untreated ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma: a gynecologic oncology group study.
ABSTRACT: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown a survival advantage over intravenous chemotherapy for women with newly diagnosed optimally debulked epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. However, significant toxicity has limited its acceptance. In an effort to reduce toxicity, the Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the feasibility of day 1 intravenous (IV) paclitaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin followed by day 8 IP paclitaxel on an every 21-day cycle.Patients with Stage IIB-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal carcinomas or carcinosarcoma received paclitaxel 135mg/m(2) IV over 3h followed by cisplatin 75mg/m(2) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) IP on day 8 of a 21 day cycle with 6 cycles planned. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as febrile neutropenia or dose-delay of greater than 2 weeks due to failure to recover counts, or Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicity occurring within the first 4 cycles of treatment.Twenty of 23 patients enrolled were evaluable and nineteen (95%) completed all six cycles of therapy. Three patients experienced a DLT consisting of infection with normal absolute neutrophil count, grade 3 hyperglycemia, and grade 4 abdominal pain.This modified IP regimen which administers both IV paclitaxel and IP cisplatin on day one, followed by IP paclitaxel on day eight, of a twenty-one day cycle appears feasible and is an attractive alternative to the intraperitoneal treatment regimen administered in GOG-0172.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the impact of two different intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy regimens on progression-free survival (PFS) among women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian carcinoma. METHODS:Eligible patients were randomly assigned to six cycles of IV paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once per week with intravenous (IV) carboplatin area under the curve 6 (IV carboplatin) versus IV paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once per week with IP carboplatin area under the curve 6 (IP carboplatin) versus once every 3 weeks IV paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 over 3 hours day 1, IP cisplatin 75 mg/m2 day 2, and IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 day 8 (IP cisplatin). All participants received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks in cycles 2 to 22. RESULTS:A total of 1,560 participants were enrolled and had 84.8 months of follow-up. The median PFS duration was 24.9 months in the IV carboplatin arm, 27.4 months in the IP carboplatin arm, and 26.2 months in the IP cisplatin arm. For the subgroup of 1,380 patients with stage II/III and residual disease of 1 cm or less, median PFS was 26.9 (IV-carboplatin), 28.7 (IP-carboplatin), and 27.8 months (IP cisplatin), respectively. Median PFS for patients with stage II/III and no residual disease was 35.9, 38.8, and 35.5 months, respectively. Median overall survival for all enrolled was 75.5, 78.9, and 72.9 months, respectively, and median overall survival for stage II/III with no gross residual disease was 98.8 months, 104.8 months, and not reached. Mean patient-reported Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy neurotoxicity scores (Gynecologic Oncology Group) were similar for all arms, but the mean Trial Outcome Index of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovary scores during chemotherapy were statistically worse in the IP cisplatin arm. CONCLUSION:Compared with the IV carboplatin reference arm, the duration of PFS was not significantly increased with either IP regimen when combined with bevacizumab and was better tolerated than IP cisplatin.
Project description:Breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) is a tumour-suppressor gene associated with familial epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Reduced BRCA1 expression is associated with enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. We sought to examine the prognostic relevance of BRCA1 expression in EOC patients treated with intraperitoneal platinum/taxane.The GOG-172 was a phase III, multi-institutional randomised trial of intravenous paclitaxel and cisplatin (IV therapy) vs intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal cisplatin plus paclitaxel (IP therapy) in patients with optimally resected stage III EOC. The BRCA1 expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining blinded to clinical outcome in archival tumour specimens. Slides with 10% staining were defined as aberrant and >10% as normal. Correlations between BRCA1 expression and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.Of the 393 patients, 189 tumours had aberrant expression, and 204 had normal BRCA1 expression. There was an interaction between BRCA1 expression and route of administration on OS (P=0.014) but not PFS (P=0.054). In tumours with normal BRCA1 expression, the median OS was 58 months for IP group vs 50 months for IV group (P=0.818). In tumours with aberrant BRCA1 expression, the median OS was 84 vs 47 months in the IP vs IV group, respectively (P=0.0002). Aberrant BRCA1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for better survival in women randomised to IP therapy (hazard ratio (HR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.47-0.97, P=0.032). Similar survival was observed in the IV and IP patients with normal BRCA1 expression. Multivariate but not univariate modelling demonstrated that IV patients with aberrant vs normal BRCA1 expression had worse survival.Decreased BRCA1 expression is associated with a 36-month survival improvement in patients with EOC treated with IP chemotherapy. Although these results merit validation in future studies, the results suggest that decreased BRCA1 expression predicts for improved response to cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel.
Project description:In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), intraperitoneal (IP) administration of chemotherapy is an effective first-line treatment and may improve outcomes, compared with intravenous (IV) chemotherapy. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to compare long-term survival between propensity score-matched patients with advanced EOC receiving IP (n = 34) vs. IV (n = 68) chemotherapy. Additionally, clinical features associated with carboplatin-based (n = 21) and cisplatin-based (n = 16) IP chemotherapy were analyzed and compared with those associated with IV chemotherapy. The IP and IV chemotherapy groups had a median follow-up duration of 67 (range, 3-131) and 62 (range, 0-126) months, respectively, with no significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.735) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.776). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the IV (91.2%) than in the IP (67.6%) chemotherapy group (P = 0.004) received ? 6 cycles. However, the frequency of toxic events (anemia, granulocytopenia, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatotoxicity, neuromuscular effects) was significantly higher in the IP than in the IV group. Within the IP group, no significant differences were observed in PFS (P = 0.533) and OS (P = 0.210) between the cisplatin-based and carboplatin-based chemotherapy subgroups. The 10-year OS was 28.6% and 49.2% in carboplatin-based and cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy groups, respectively. Toxic events (granulocytopenia, leukopenia, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatotoxicity, neuromuscular effects) were significantly more common in the cisplatin-based subgroup. In patients with EOC, cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy may be an acceptable alternative to IV chemotherapy regarding long-term survival, but toxicity must be addressed.
Project description:This study aimed to determine the first-cycle maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intraperitoneal carboplatin in combination with intravenous paclitaxel and then assess the feasibility of this dose over multiple cycles.Beginning at an intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin dose area under the curve (AUC) of 5 and a fixed intravenous dose of 175mg/m(2) paclitaxel, patients were entered on a dose-escalating phase evaluating first-cycle dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). After estimating the MTD, cohorts of 20 patients were then entered in an expanded phase to evaluate DLT over four cycles.Twenty-one patients were entered on the dose-escalating phase. A first-cycle MTD of carboplatin at AUC 8 was tolerated although thrombocytopenia was dose-limiting over multiple cycles. An additional 69 patients were treated in expanded cohorts. Only 5/90 (5.6%) patients discontinued treatment because of a port problem. Four-cycle DLT required de-escalation to a carboplatin AUC of 6, and even at that dose, there were 14 dose-limiting toxic effects in 40 patients (35%). Seven dose-limiting toxicities were due to neutropenia, and 6 were due to grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. Six cycles of therapy were completed in 75% of eligible patients, but dose adjustments were required.The first-cycle MTD did not predict the tolerability of this regimen over multiple cycles. Using an IP carboplatin dose of AUC 6 in combination with paclitaxel, the regimen can be administered with a high completion rate over multiple cycles. Because neutropenia is a frequent DLT, the addition of hematopoietic growth factors may permit a high completion rate while maintaining this dose.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal (IP) perioperative chemotherapy with cisplatin is an interesting option in ovarian cancer treatment. A combination of cisplatin with IP epinephrine (already shown to improve IP and decrease systemic platinum (Pt) exposure) was evaluated using a population pharmacokinetic analysis. METHODS: Data from 55 patients treated with cisplatin-based IP perioperative chemotherapy with (n=26) or without (n=29) epinephrine were analysed using NONMEM. RESULTS: Epinephrine halves clearance between peritoneum and serum (IPCL) and increases the Pt central volume of distribution, IP exposure and penetration in tissue. IPCL has a better predictive value than any other parameter with respect to renal toxicity. CONCLUSION: This confirms that IPCL could be useful in assessing renal toxicity. As IPCL is also linked to tissue penetration and IP exposure, it may be proposed as biomarker. In addition to a Bayesian estimation, we propose a single-sample calculation-way to assess it. Prospective studies are needed to validate IPCL as a biomarker in this context.
Project description:Intraperitoneal (IP)-based chemotherapy following primary debulking surgery (PDS), although associated with substantial toxicity, is supported by a strong evidence base. We sought to determine feasibility and outcomes of IP chemotherapy after interval debulking surgery (IDS) among patients deemed ineligible for PDS.We identified all patients with high-grade, stage III/IV ovarian cancer treated at our institution with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by IDS and postoperative chemotherapy from 1/2008-5/2013. IP and intravenous (IV) regimens were defined; demographic and clinical data were analyzed using appropriate statistics.Of 128 evaluable patients, 118 (92%) achieved ?1cm residual disease at IDS and 74 (58%) achieved a complete gross resection (CGR). An IP port was placed in 54/128 patients (42%), with 89% port utilization. Forty-eight (38%) of 128 patients received IP chemotherapy, 17 (13%) weekly IV paclitaxel/q3week carboplatin, and 63 (49%) q3week IV carboplatin/paclitaxel. Patients completed a median of 3 IP cycles (range, 2-6), with 3 (5.5%) of 54 ports removed due to complications. Overall survival (OS) for patients with a CGR treated with IP and weekly IV chemotherapy was 53.2months (range, 24.7-NE), and 44.2months (range, 30.2-NE) with any visible residual disease (p<0.001). Median OS was 53.2months (range, 44.5-NE) for IP-, not reached for weekly IV-, and 34.2months (range, 27.5-49.8) for q3week IV-treated patients (p=0.1).Patients administered IP after IDS had a high rate of successful port utilization, with few regimen switches. Oncologic outcomes were optimal in patients with a CGR at IDS, regardless of chemotherapy used.
Project description:Studies have demonstrated improved ovarian cancer survival with the administration of a combination of intravenous (IV) and intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy following optimal cytoreduction. Despite this, IV/IP chemotherapy is not uniformly used. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the documented reasons for giving IV-only chemotherapy.All patients who had optimal primary cytoreductive surgery for stage III ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma, met eligibility criteria for GOG-172, and received primary chemotherapy at our institution between 2006 and 2013 were identified. Patients who received at least one cycle of adjuvant IV/IP therapy were included in the IP group. Patient characteristics, treatment information, and reason cited for not administering IP therapy were collected.Of the patients evaluated, 330 met inclusion criteria. The majority (n=261, 79%) received at least one IV/IP cycle (median, 6; range, 1-6), and 62% completed 6cycles. The most common reason for giving IV-only therapy was postoperative status (i.e., delayed wound healing, performance status), accounting for 18 (26%) of the 69 IV-only patients (5% of the entire cohort). Other cited reasons were baseline comorbidities (15%) and IP port complications (12%). Receipt of ?1cycle of IP chemotherapy (HR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80) and no gross residual disease (HR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.71) were associated with improved overall survival.Potentially modifiable factors identified as leading to the use of IV-only chemotherapy were postoperative status and IP port complications, which if altered, could potentially lead to increased IP chemotherapy use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This phase I/II study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab (®)-paclitaxel) plus cisplatin as treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS:Patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 dose cohorts, each with 21-day treatment cycles: 1) intravenous (IV) nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) on day 1; 2) IV nab-paclitaxel 140 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8; 3) IV nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15. All patients received IV cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1. Treatment continued for 4-6 cycles, or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. If more than one-third of the patients in a cohort experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), the dose used in the previous cohort would be designated the MTD. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression was detected by immunohistochemistry staining. RESULTS:Sixty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 64 and 67 were eligible for efficacy and safety analysis, respectively. Two DLTs occurred in cohort 1 (grade 4 febrile neutropenia, grade 3 myalgia), none occurred in cohort 2, and 2 occurred in cohort 3 (both grade 3 fatigue). The MTD was not reached. Partial responses were achieved by 42 patients, 15 had stable disease, and 7 had progressive disease, giving an overall response rate of 66 %. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (95 % CI, 6-12 months). Grade???3 adverse events were mainly hematologic. There was no significant difference between the 3 cohorts with respect to efficacy or safety. Biomarker analyses indicated that stromal, rather than tumoral, SPARC may predict the response to nab-paclitaxel in NPC. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that nab-paclitaxel plus cisplatin is a highly active regimen with moderate toxicity for the treatment of metastatic NPC, which warrants further investigation in a phase III study. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS:ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01735409 . The trial was registered on November 20th, 2012.
Project description:PURPOSE:Intraperitoneal (IP) therapy improves survival compared to intravenous (IV) treatment for women with newly diagnosed, optimally cytoreduced, ovarian cancer. However, the role of IP therapy in recurrent disease is unknown. Preclinical data demonstrated IP administration of the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib prior to IP carboplatin increased tumor platinum accumulation resulting in synergistic cytotoxicity. We conducted this phase I trial of IP bortezomib and carboplatin in women with recurrent disease. METHODS:Women with recurrent ovarian cancer were treated with escalating doses of IP bortezomib - in combination with IP carboplatin (AUC 4 or 5) every 21days for 6cycles. Pharmacokinetics of both agents were evaluated in cycle 1. RESULTS:Thirty-three women participated; 32 were evaluable for safety. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) at the first dose level (carboplatin AUC 5, bortezomib 0.5mg/m2), prompting carboplatin reduction to AUC 4 for subsequent dose levels. With carboplatin dose fixed at AUC 4, bortezomib was escalated from 0.5 to 2.5mg/m2 without DLT. Grade 3/4 related toxicities included abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea which were infrequent. The overall response rate in patients with measurable disease (n=21) was 19% (1 complete, 3 partial). Cmax and AUC in peritoneal fluid and plasma increased linearly with dose, with a favorable exposure ratio of the peritoneal cavity relative to peripheral blood plasma. CONCLUSION:IP administration of this novel combination was feasible and showed promising activity in this phase I trial of heavily pre-treated women with ovarian cancer. Further evaluation of this IP combination should be conducted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer tends to be chemosensitive and confine itself to the surface of the peritoneal cavity for much of its natural history. These features have made it an obvious target for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is usually given as an intravenous (IV) infusion repeatedly over five to eight cycles. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given by infusion of the chemotherapeutic agent directly into the peritoneal cavity. There are biological reasons why this might increase the anticancer effect and reduce some systemic adverse effects in comparison to IV therapy. OBJECTIVES:To determine if adding a component of the chemotherapy regime into the peritoneal cavity affects overall survival, progression-free survival, quality of life (QOL) and toxicity in the primary treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Gynaecological Cancer Review Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2011, MEDLINE (1951 to May 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to May 2011). We updated these searches in February 2007, August 2010 and May 2011. In addition, we handsearched and cascade searched the major gynaecological oncology journals. SELECTION CRITERIA:The analysis was restricted to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing women with a new diagnosis of primary epithelial ovarian cancer, of any FIGO stage, following primary cytoreductive surgery. Standard IV chemotherapy was compared with chemotherapy that included a component of IP administration. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We extracted data on overall survival, disease-free survival, adverse events and QOL and performed meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HR) for time-to-event variables and relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes using RevMan software. MAIN RESULTS:Nine randomised trials studied 2119 women receiving primary treatment for ovarian cancer. We considered six trials to be of high quality. Women were less likely to die if they received an IP component to chemotherapy (eight studies, 2026 women; HR = 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72 to 0.90). Intraperitoneal component chemotherapy prolonged the disease-free interval (five studies, 1311 women; HR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.70 to 0.86). There was greater serious toxicity with regard to gastrointestinal effects, pain, fever and infection but less ototoxicity with the IP than the IV route. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Intraperitoneal chemotherapy increases overall survival and progression-free survival from advanced ovarian cancer. The results of this meta-analysis provide the most reliable estimates of the relative survival benefits of IP over IV therapy and should be used as part of the decision making process. However, the potential for catheter related complications and toxicity needs to be considered when deciding on the most appropriate treatment for each individual woman. The optimal dose, timing and mechanism of administration cannot be addressed from this meta-analysis. This needs to be addressed in the next phase of clinical trials.