Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis). Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM), Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice (a model of postmenopausal women). OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas) and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6), were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.
Project description:To study the mechanism of protective effect by White Button Mushroom (WBM) for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in ovariectomized mice (model for postmenopausal women). The ovariectomized mice were fed WBM diet for 3 month, sacrificed to harvest liver. 4 mice for control diet and 4 mice for WBM diet.
Project description:<b>Backgroud/objectives: </b>Hepatic steatosis is the most common liver disorder, particularly in postmenopausal women. This study investigated the protective effects of standardized rice bran extract (RBS) on ovariectomized (OVX)-induced hepatic steatosis in rats.<br><br><b>Materials/methods: </b>HepG2 cells were incubated with 200 µM oleic acid to induce lipid accumulation with or without RBS and ?-oryzanol. OVX rats were separated into three groups and fed a normal diet (ND) or the ND containing 17?-estradiol (E2; 10 µg/kg) and RBS (500 mg/kg) for 16 weeks.<br><br><b>Results: </b>RBS supplementation improved serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in OVX rats. Histological analysis showed that RBS significantly attenuated hepatic fat accumulation and decreased hepatic lipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Additionally, RBS suppressed the estrogen deficiency-induced upregulation of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (<i>SREBP1</i>), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>RBS and ?-oryzanol effectively reduced lipid accumulation in a HepG2 cell hepatic steatosis model. RBS improves OVX-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating the <i>SREBP1</i>-mediated activation of lipogenic genes, suggesting the benefits of RBS in preventing fatty liver in postmenopausal women.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that can develop into liver cirrhosis and cancer. Elongation of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVL) family member 6 (Elovl6) is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs). We have previously shown that Elovl6 plays an important role in the development of hepatic insulin resistance and NASH by modifying FA composition. Recent studies have linked altered hepatic cholesterol homeostasis and cholesterol accumulation to the pathogenesis of NASH. In the present study, we further investigated the role of Elovl6 in the progression of lithogenic diet (LD)-induced steatohepatitis. We showed that the absence of Elovl6 suppresses hepatic lipid accumulation, plasma total cholesterol and total bile acid (BA) levels in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice challenged with a LD. The absence of Elovl6 also decreases hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and liver injury, but increases the formation of cholesterol crystals in the less dilated gallbladder. These findings suggest that Elovl6-mediated changes in hepatic FA composition, especially oleic acid (C18:1n-9), control handling of hepatic cholesterol and BA, which protects against hepatotoxicity and steatohepatitis, but promotes gallstone formation in LD-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue. Ovarian senescence facilitates both the development of massive hepatic steatosis and the fibrotic progression of liver disease in an experimental overfed zebrafish model. Consistently, estrogen deficiency, by potentiating hepatic inflammatory changes, hastens the progression of disease in a dietary model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) developing in ovariectomized mice fed a high-fat diet. In humans, NAFLD more often affects men; and premenopausal women are equally protected from developing NAFLD as they are from cardiovascular disease. It would be expected that early menarche, definitely associated with estrogen activation, would produce protection against the risk of NAFLD. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that early menarche may confer an increased risk of NAFLD in adulthood, excess adiposity being the primary culprit of this association. Fertile age may be associated with more severe hepatocyte injury and inflammation, but also with a decreased risk of liver fibrosis compared to men and postmenopausal status. Later in life, ovarian senescence is strongly associated with severe steatosis and fibrosing NASH, which may occur in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deficiency is deemed to be responsible for these findings via the development of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. Estrogen supplementation may at least theoretically protect from NAFLD development and progression, as suggested by some studies exploring the effect of hormonal replacement therapy on postmenopausal women, but the variable impact of different sex hormones in NAFLD (i.e., the pro-inflammatory effect of progesterone) should be carefully considered.
Project description:AIM:Hormonal and nutritional disorders are the main causes of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, especially in the elderly and in postmenopausal women. Although physical activity might alleviate these disorders, the elderly may often have difficulty in carrying out physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of knee loading, a new form of physical stimulation, on the symptoms of obesity and fatty liver. METHODS:Using ovariectomized mice fed a high-fat diet, we evaluated the effect of knee loading that applies gentle cyclic loads to the knee. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups: control (SCD), high-fat diet (HF), HF with loading (HF?+?L), HF with ovariectomy (HF?+?OVX), and HF?+?OVX with loading (HF?+?OVX?+?L). Except for SCD, mice underwent sham operation or ovariectomy and were maintained on HF diet. After 6 weeks, the mice in the HF?+?L and HF?+?OVX?+?L groups were treated with knee loading for 6 weeks. RESULTS:Compared to the obesity groups (HF and HF?+?OVX), knee loading significantly decreased a gain in body weight, liver weight, and white adipose tissue (all P <?0.01). It also reduced the lipid level in the serum (P <?0.01) and histological severity of hepatic steatosis (P <?0.01). Furthermore, knee loading downregulated biomarkers related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (GRP78, p-eIF2?, and ATF4) and altered biomarkers in autophagy (LC3 and p62). CONCLUSIONS:Knee loading suppressed obesity-associated metabolic alterations and hepatic steatosis. These effects with knee loading might be associated with suppression of ER stress and promotion of autophagy.
Project description:Molecular mechanisms underpinning nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are not well understood. The earliest step of NAFLD is hepatic steatosis, which is one of the main characteristics of aging liver. Here, we present a molecular scenario of age-related liver steatosis. We show that C/EBP?-S193D knockin mice have age-associated epigenetic changes and develop hepatic steatosis at 2 months of age. The underlying mechanism of the hepatic steatosis in old wild-type (WT) mice and in young S193D mice includes increased amounts of tripartite p300-C/EBP?/? complexes that activate promoters of five genes that drive triglyceride synthesis. Knockdown of p300 in old WT mice inhibits hepatic steatosis. Indeed, transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative p300 have fewer C/EBP?/?-p300 complexes and do not develop age-dependent hepatic steatosis. Notably, the p300-C/EBP?/? pathway is activated in the livers of patients with NAFLD. Thus, our results show that p300 and C/EBP proteins are essential participants in hepatic steatosis.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in developed countries. NAFLD describes a wide range of liver pathologies from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is distinguished from simple steatosis by inflammation, cell death and fibrosis. In this study we found that mice lacking triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH, also known as carboxylesterase 3 or carboxylesterase 1d) are protected from high-fat diet (HFD) - induced hepatic steatosis via decreased lipogenesis, increased fatty acid oxidation and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. To examine the effect of the loss of TGH function on the more severe NAFLD form NASH, we ablated Tgh expression in two independent NASH mouse models, Pemt(-/-) mice fed HFD and Ldlr(-/-) mice fed high-fat, high-cholesterol Western-type diet (WTD). TGH deficiency reduced liver inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis in Pemt(-/-) mice. TGH deficiency also decreased NASH in Ldlr(-/-) mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that TGH deficiency attenuated both simple hepatic steatosis and irreversible NASH.
Project description:KEY POINTS:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized in part by elevated liver triglycerides (i.e. hepatic steatosis), is a growing health problem. In this study, we found that hepatic steatosis is associated with robust hepatic sympathetic overactivity. Removal of hepatic sympathetic nerves reduced obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. Liver sympathetic innervation modulated hepatic lipid acquisition pathways during obesity. ABSTRACT:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 1 in 3 Americans and is a significant risk factor for type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and hepatic carcinoma. Characterized in part by excessive hepatic triglyceride accumulation (i.e. hepatic steatosis), the incidence of NAFLD is increasing - in line with the growing obesity epidemic. The role of the autonomic nervous system in NAFLD remains unclear. Here, we show that chronic hepatic sympathetic overactivity mediates hepatic steatosis. Direct multiunit recordings of hepatic sympathetic nerve activity were obtained in high fat diet and normal chow fed male C57BL/6J mice. To reduce hepatic sympathetic nerve activity we utilized two approaches including pharmacological ablation of the sympathetic nerves and phenol-based hepatic sympathetic nerve denervation. Diet-induced NAFLD was associated with a nearly doubled firing rate of the hepatic sympathetic nerves, which was largely due to an increase in efferent nerve traffic. Furthermore, established high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis was effectively reduced with pharmacological or phenol-based removal of the hepatic sympathetic nerves, independent of changes in body weight, caloric intake or adiposity. Ablation of liver sympathetic nerves was also associated with improvements in liver triglyceride accumulation pathways including free fatty acid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. These findings highlight an unrecognized pathogenic link between liver sympathetic outflow and hepatic steatosis and suggest that manipulation of the liver sympathetic nerves may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for NAFLD.
Project description:Obesity predisposes to cancer and a virtual universality of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the impact of hepatic steatosis on liver metastasis is enigmatic. We find that while control mice were relatively resistant to hepatic metastasis, those which were lipodystrophic or obese, with NAFLD, had a dramatic increase in breast cancer and melanoma liver metastases. NAFLD promotes liver metastasis by reciprocal activation initiated by tumor-induced triglyceride lipolysis in juxtaposed hepatocytes. The lipolytic products are transferred to cancer cells via fatty acid transporter protein 1, where they are metabolized by mitochondrial oxidation to promote tumor growth. The histology of human liver metastasis indicated the same occurs in humans. Furthermore, comparison of isolates of normal and fatty liver established that steatotic lipids had enhanced tumor-stimulating capacity. Normalization of glucose metabolism by metformin did not reduce steatosis-induced metastasis, establishing the process is not mediated by the metabolic syndrome. Alternatively, eradication of NAFLD in lipodystrophic mice by adipose tissue transplantation reduced breast cancer metastasis to that of control mice, indicating the steatosis-induced predisposition is reversible.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) results from increased hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and is closely linked to liver one-carbon (C1) metabolism. We assessed in C57BL6/N mice whether NAFLD induced by a high-fat (HF) diet over 8 weeks can be reversed by additional 4 weeks of a dietary methyl-donor supplementation (MDS). MDS in the obese mice failed to reverse NAFLD, but prevented the progression of hepatic steatosis associated with major changes in key hepatic C1-metabolites, e.g. S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine. Increased phosphorylation of AMPK-? together with enhanced ?-HAD activity suggested an increased flux through fatty acid oxidation pathways. This was supported by concomitantly decreased hepatic free fatty acid and acyl-carnitines levels. Although HF diet changed the hepatic phospholipid pattern, MDS did not. Our findings suggest that dietary methyl-donors activate AMPK, a key enzyme in fatty acid ?-oxidation control, that mediates increased fatty acid utilization and thereby prevents further hepatic lipid accumulation.