ABSTRACT: Cellular polyploidy has been widely reported in nature, yet its developmental mechanism and function remain poorly understood. In the present study, to better define the aspects of decidual cell polyploidy, we isolated pure polyploid and non-polyploid decidual cell populations from the in vivo decidual bed. Three independent RNA pools prepared for each population were then subjected to the Affymetrix gene chip analysis for the whole mouse genome transcripts. Our data revealed up-regulation of 1015 genes and down-regulation of 1207 genes in the polyploid populations, as compared to the non-polyploid group. Comparative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization results indeed confirmed differential expressional regulation of several genes between the two populations. Based on functional enrichment analyses, up-regulated polyploidy genes appeared to implicate several functions, which primarily include cell/nuclear division, ATP binding, metabolic process, and mitochondrial activity, whereas that of down-regulated genes primarily included apoptosis and immune processes. Further analyses of genes that are related to mitochondria and bi-nucleation showed differential and regional expression within the decidual bed, consistent with the pattern of polyploidy. Consistently, studies revealed a marked induction of mitochondrial mass and ATP production in polyploid cells. The inhibition of mitochondrial activity by various pharmacological inhibitors, as well as by gene-specific targeting using siRNA-mediated technology showed a dramatic attenuation of polyploidy and bi-nucleation development during in vitro stromal cell decidualization, suggesting mitochondria play a major role in positive regulation of decidual cell polyploidization. Collectively, analyses of unique polyploidy markers and molecular signaling networks may be useful to further characterize functional aspects of decidual cell polyploidy at the site of implantation.
Project description:In the present study, to better define the aspects of decidual cell polyploidy, we isolated pure polyploid and non-polyploid decidual cell populations from the in vivo decidual bed. Three independent RNA pools prepared for each population were then subjected to the Affymetrix gene chip analysis for the whole mouse genome transcripts. Our data revealed up-regulation of 1015 genes and down-regulation of 1207 genes in the polyploid populations, as compared to the non-polyploid group. We analyzed whole gnenome transcription from non-polyploid and polyploid cell populations using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array . 3 replicates were performed.
Project description:Appropriate regulation of regional uterine stromal cell decidualization in implantation, at the mesometrial triangle and secondary decidual zone (SDZ) locations, is critical for successful pregnancy, although the regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this regard, the available animal models that would specifically allow mechanistic analysis of site-specific decidualization are strikingly limited. Our study found that heightened expression of FoxM1, a Forkhead box transcription factor, is regulated during decidualization, and its conditional deletion in mice reveals failure of implantation with regional decidualization defects such as a much smaller mesometrial decidua with enlarged SDZ. Analysis of cell cycle progression during decidualization both in vivo and in vitro demonstrates that the loss of FoxM1 elicits diploid cell deficiency with enhanced arrests prior to mitosis and concomitant upregulation of polyploidy. We further showed that Hoxa10 and cyclin D3, two decidual markers, control transcriptional regulation and intra-nuclear protein translocation of FoxM1 in polyploid cells, respectively. Overall, we suggest that proper regional decidualization and polyploidy development requires FoxM1 signaling downstream of Hoxa10 and cyclin D3.
Project description:Uterine stromal cell decidualization is an essential part of the reproductive process. Decidual tissue development requires a highly regulated control of the extracellular tissue remodeling; however the mechanism of this regulation remains unknown. Through systematic expression studies, we detected that Cbx4/2, Rybp, and Ring1B [components of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)] are predominantly utilized in antimesometrial decidualization with polyploidy. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that PRC1 members are co-localized with its functional histone modifier H2AK119ub1 (mono ubiquitination of histone-H2A at lysine-119) in polyploid cell. A potent small-molecule inhibitor of Ring1A/B E3-ubiquitin ligase or siRNA-mediated suppression of Cbx4 caused inhibition of H2AK119ub1, in conjunction with perturbation of decidualization and polyploidy development, suggesting a role for Cbx4/Ring1B-containing PRC1 in these processes. Analyses of genetic signatures by RNA-seq studies showed that the inhibition of PRC1 function affects 238 genes (154 up and 84 down) during decidualization. Functional enrichment analyses identified that about 38% genes primarily involved in extracellular processes are specifically targeted by PRC1. Furthermore, ~15% of upregulated genes exhibited a significant overlap with the upregulated Bmp2 null-induced genes in mice. Overall, Cbx4/Ring1B-containing PRC1 controls decidualization via regulation of extracellular gene remodeling functions and sheds new insights into underlying molecular mechanism(s) through transcriptional repression regulation.
Project description:Megakaryocytes are naturally polyploid cells that increase their ploidy by endomitosis. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism by which they escape the tetraploid checkpoint to become polyploid. Recently, it has been shown that the tetraploid checkpoint was regulated by the Hippo-p53 pathway in response to a downregulation of Rho activity. We therefore analyzed the role of Hippo-p53 pathway in the regulation of human megakaryocyte polyploidy. Our results revealed that Hippo-p53 signaling pathway proteins are present and are functional in megakaryocytes. Although this pathway responds to the genotoxic stress agent etoposide, it is not activated in tetraploid or polyploid megakaryocytes. Furthermore, Hippo pathway was observed to be uncoupled from Rho activity. Additionally, polyploid megakaryocytes showed increased expression of YAP target genes when compared to diploid and tetraploid megakaryocytes. Although p53 knockdown increased both modal ploidy and proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes, YAP knockdown caused no significant change in ploidy while moderately affecting proplatelet formation. Interestingly, YAP knockdown reduced the mitochondrial mass in polyploid megakaryocytes and decreased expression of PGC1?, an important mitochondrial biogenesis regulator. Thus, the Hippo pathway is functional in megakaryocytes, but is not induced by tetraploidy. Additionally, YAP regulates the mitochondrial mass in polyploid megakaryocytes.
Project description:Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans.
Project description:Most cells in the liver are polyploid, but the functional role of polyploidy is unknown. Polyploidization occurs through cytokinesis failure and endoreduplication around the time of weaning. To interrogate polyploidy while avoiding irreversible manipulations of essential cell-cycle genes, we developed orthogonal mouse models to transiently and potently alter liver ploidy. Premature weaning, as well as knockdown of E2f8 or Anln, allowed us to toggle between diploid and polyploid states. While there was no detectable impact of ploidy alterations on liver function, metabolism, or regeneration, mice with more polyploid hepatocytes suppressed tumorigenesis and mice with more diploid hepatocytes accelerated tumorigenesis in mutagen- and high-fat-induced models. Mechanistically, the diploid state was more susceptible to Cas9-mediated tumor-suppressor loss but was similarly susceptible to MYC oncogene activation, indicating that polyploidy differentially protected the liver from distinct genomic aberrations. This suggests that polyploidy evolved in part to prevent malignant outcomes of liver injury.
Project description:The dependence of cancer on overexpressed c-MYC and its predisposition for polyploidy represents a double puzzle. We address this conundrum by cross-species transcription analysis of c-MYC interacting genes in polyploid vs. diploid tissues and cells, including human vs. mouse heart, mouse vs. human liver and purified 4n vs. 2n mouse decidua cells. Gene-by-gene transcriptome comparison and principal component analysis indicated that c-MYC interactants are significantly overrepresented among ploidy-associated genes. Protein interaction networks and gene module analysis revealed that the most upregulated genes relate to growth, stress response, proliferation, stemness and unicellularity, as well as to the pathways of cancer supported by MAPK and RAS coordinated pathways. A surprising feature was the up-regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) modules embodied by the N-cadherin pathway and EMT regulators from SNAIL and TWIST families. Metabolic pathway analysis also revealed the EMT-linked features, such as global proteome remodeling, oxidative stress, DNA repair and Warburg-like energy metabolism. Genes associated with apoptosis, immunity, energy demand and tumour suppression were mostly down-regulated. Noteworthy, despite the association between polyploidy and ample features of cancer, polyploidy does not trigger it. Possibly it occurs because normal polyploidy does not go that far in embryonalisation and linked genome destabilisation. In general, the analysis of polyploid transcriptome explained the evolutionary relation of c-MYC and polyploidy to cancer.
Project description:Polyploidy is a fundamental process in plant evolution. Understanding the polyploidy-associated effects on plant reproduction is essential for polyploid breeding program. In the present study, our cytological analysis firstly demonstrated that an overall course of meiosis was apparently distorted in the synthetic polyploid Brassica rapa in comparison with its diploid progenitor. To elucidate genetic basis of this irregular meiosis at a molecular level, the comparative RNA-seq analysis was further used to investigate differential genetic regulation of developing floral buds identified at meiosis between autotetraploid and diploid B. rapa. In total, compared to its diploid counterparts, among all 40,927 expressed genes revealed, 4,601 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the floral buds of autotetraploid B. rapa, among which 288 DEGs annotated were involved in meiosis. Notably, DMC1 identified as one previously known meiosis-specific gene involved in inter-homologous chromosome dependent repair of DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs), was significantly down-regulated in autotetraploid B. rapa, which presumably contributed to abnormal progression during meiosis I. Although certain DEGs associated with RNA helicase, cell cycling, and somatic DNA repair were up-regulated after genome duplication, genes associated with meiotic DSB repair were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, the expression of randomly selected DEGs by RNA-seq analysis was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis in both B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results firstly account for adverse effects of polyploidy on an entire course of meiosis at both cytological and transcriptomic levels, and allow for a comprehensive understanding of the uniformity and differences in the transcriptome of floral buds at meiosis between diploid and polyploid B. rapa as well.
Project description:Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) deficiency alters tissue homeostasis. However, how AhR regulates organ maturation and differentiation remains mostly unknown. Liver differentiation entails a polyploidization process fundamental for cell growth, metabolism, and stress responses. Here, we report that AhR regulates polyploidization during the preweaning-to-adult mouse liver maturation. Preweaning AhR-null (AhR-/-) livers had smaller hepatocytes, hypercellularity, altered cell cycle regulation, and enhanced proliferation. Those phenotypes persisted in adult AhR-/- mice and correlated with compromised polyploidy, predominance of diploid hepatocytes, and enlarged centrosomes. Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Wnt/?-catenin signaling remained upregulated from preweaning to adult AhR-null liver, likely increasing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Metabolomics revealed the deregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation intermediates succinate and fumarate in AhR-/- liver. Consistently, PI3K, ERK, and Wnt/?-catenin inhibition partially rescued polyploidy in AhR-/- mice. Thus, AhR may integrate survival, proliferation, and metabolism for liver polyploidization. Since tumor cells tend to be polyploid, AhR modulation could have therapeutic value in the liver.