Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic.
Project description:The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) was tested as a potential therapeutic for Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) using in vivo and in vitro IBC models. IBC is a lethal and aggressive form of breast cancer that manifests itself without a typical tumor mass. Studies show that IBC tissue biopsies overexpress E-cadherin and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), two proteins that are partially responsible for the unique pathological properties of this disease. IBC is treated with a multimodal approach that includes non-targeted systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Because of its non-toxic and selective anti-cancer activity, medicinal mushroom extracts have received attention for their use in cancer therapy. Our previous studies demonstrate these selective anti-cancer effects of Reishi, where IBC cell viability and invasion, as well as the expression of key IBC molecules, including eIF4G is compromised. Thus, herein we define the mechanistic effects of Reishi focusing on the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a regulator of cell survival and growth. The present study demonstrates that Reishi treated IBC SUM-149 cells have reduced expression of mTOR downstream effectors at early treatment times, as we observe reduced eIF4G levels coupled with increased levels of eIF4E bound to 4E-BP, with consequential protein synthesis reduction. Severe combined immunodeficient mice injected with IBC cells treated with Reishi for 13 weeks show reduced tumor growth and weight by ?50%, and Reishi treated tumors showed reduced expression of E-cadherin, mTOR, eIF4G, and p70S6K, and activity of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Our results provide evidence that Reishi suppresses protein synthesis and tumor growth by affecting survival and proliferative signaling pathways that act on translation, suggesting that Reishi is a potential natural therapeutic for breast and other cancers.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is one of the most lethal breast cancer variants; with existing therapy, 5-yr survival rate is only 35%. Current barriers to successful treatment of IBC include frequent infiltration and the presence of tumor cell clusters, termed tumor emboli, within the breast parenchyma and lymphatics. Prior studies have identified the role of anti-apoptotic signaling, in particular hyperactivation of NF?B and its target genes, in IBC pathobiology and therapeutic resistance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if IBC tumor emboli express anti-apoptotic proteins and (2) develop a high content, multiparametric assay to assess the morphology of the IBC 3D spheroids and to optimize a high throughput format to screen for compounds that can inhibit the formation of the IBC tumor clusters/embolic structures. Immunohistochemical analysis of IBC patient tumor samples with documented tumor emboli revealed high NF?B (p65) staining along with expression of XIAP, a potent anti-apoptotic protein known to interact with NF?B signaling in enhancing survival of malignant cells. Subsequently, the high content assay developed allowed for simultaneous imaging and morphometric analysis, including count and viability of spheroids derived from SUM149, rSUM149 and SUM190 cells and its application to evaluate XIAP and NF?B inhibitory agents. We demonstrate the efficacy of the off-patent drug disulfiram when chelated with copper, which we had previously reported to inhibit NF?B signaling, was highly effective in disrupting both IBC spheroids and emboli grown in vitro. Taken together, these results identify a high-throughput approach to target tumor spheroid formation for drug discovery. Finally, disulfiram is a safe and approved drug for management of alcohol abuse, warranting its evaluation for repurposing in IBC therapy.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal form of breast cancer, but the basis for its aggressive properties are not fully understood. In this study, we report that high tumoral expression of TIG1 (RARRES1), a functionally undefined membrane protein, confers shorter survival in patients with IBC. TIG1 depletion decreased IBC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibited tumor growth of IBC cells in vivo. We identified the receptor tyrosine kinase, Axl, as a TIG1-binding protein. TIG1 interaction stablilized Axl by inhibiting its proteasome-dependent degradation. TIG1-depleted IBC cells exhibited reduced Axl expression, inactivation of NF-?B, and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9, indicating that TIG1 regulates invasion of IBC cells by supporting the Axl signaling pathway in IBC cells. Consistent with these results, treatment of IBC cells with the Axl inhibitor SGI-7079 decreased their malignant properties in vitro. Finally, TIG1 expression correlated positively with Axl expression in primary human IBC specimens. Our findings establish that TIG1 positively modifies the malignant properties of IBC by supporting Axl function, advancing understanding of its development and rationalizing TIG1 and Axl as promising therapeutic targets in IBC treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long noncoding RNAs have been known to be involved in multiple types of malignancies, including invasive breast cancer (IBC). This study aimed to explore the role of long noncoding RNAs in IBC and elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms. METHODS:Using TCGA microarray data analysis, we identified a long noncoding RNA, MIR210HG, highly expressed in IBC. Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The gain-of-function experiments were performed to assess the function of MIR210HG in IBC invasion and migration in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Bioinformatic analysis as well as luciferase reporter assay, rescue experiments and western blot assay revealed the mode of action of MIR210HG. RESULTS:The aberrantly enhanced MiR210HG expression predicted poor prognosis and lower survival rate. Knockdown of MiR210HG suppressed IBC cell invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. MiR-1226-3p was identified and validated to be the target miRNA of MiR210HG. Furthermore, MiR210HG functions as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) which sponges miR-1226-3p, therefore upregulates the expression of mucin1 (MUC1-C). CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrated that MiR210HG sponges miR-1226-3p to facilitate invasive breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis by regulating mucin-1c and EMT pathway, revealing the oncogenic role of MiR210HG in IBC cells.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a clinically distinct and highly aggressive form of breast cancer with rapid onset and a strong propensity to metastasize. The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressiveness and metastatic propensity of IBC are largely unknown. Herein, we report that decorin (DCN), a small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycan, is downregulated in tumors from patients with IBC. Overexpression of DCN in IBC cells markedly decreased migration, invasion, and cancer stem cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in IBC xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, DCN functioned as a suppressor of invasion and tumor growth in IBC by destabilizing E-cadherin and inhibiting EGFR/ERK signaling. DCN physically binds E-cadherin in IBC cells and accelerates its degradation through an autophagy-linked lysosomal pathway. We established that DCN inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis in IBC cells by negatively regulating the E-cadherin/EGFR/ERK axis. Our findings offer a potential therapeutic strategy for IBC, and provide a novel mechanism for IBC pathobiology.
Project description:Normal and malignant breast tissue contains a rare population of multi-potent cells with the capacity to self-renew, referred to as stem cells, or tumor initiating cells (TIC). These cells can be enriched by growth as "mammospheres" in three-dimensional cultures.We tested the hypothesis that human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which are known to support tumor growth and metastasis, increase mammosphere formation.We found that MSC increased human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) mammosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase in sphere formation was seen in human inflammatory (SUM149) and non-inflammatory breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) but not in primary inflammatory breast cancer cells (MDA-IBC-3). We determined that increased mammosphere formation can be mediated by secreted factors as MSC conditioned media from MSC spheroids significantly increased HMEC, MCF-7 and SUM149 mammosphere formation by 6.4 to 21-fold. Mammospheres grown in MSC conditioned media had lower levels of the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and increased expression of N-cadherin in SUM149 and HMEC cells, characteristic of a pro-invasive mesenchymal phenotype. Co-injection with MSC in vivo resulted in a reduced latency time to develop detectable MCF-7 and MDA-IBC-3 tumors and increased the growth of MDA-IBC-3 tumors. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression was decreased in MDA-IBC-3 xenografts with co-injection of MSC.MSC increase the efficiency of primary mammosphere formation in normal and malignant breast cells and decrease E-cadherin expression, a biologic event associated with breast cancer progression and resistance to therapy.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and very aggressive subtype of breast cancer with clinical manifestations similar to acute inflammation. The prognosis of IBC is still poor even though combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, and target therapy, mainly due to a lack of fully understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of IBC pathogenesis and progression. In the present article, we have comprehensively reviewed the connection of the pathogenesis of IBC and inflammation, immune reaction and cancer, particularly focused on the role and mechanism of tumor microenvironment related to IBC formation, tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis as well as the clinical manifestations of IBC. As the diverse cells including inflammatory cells, immune cells, and tumor cells and the soluble molecules produced by these cells in the microenvironment play an essential role in IBC development and progression. Therefore, anti-inflammatory therapy and immunotherapy with available agents warrant further investigation in the treatment of IBC.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most insidious form of locally advanced breast cancer; about a third of patients have distant metastasis at initial staging. Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the tumor microenvironment may interact with underlying IBC cells to make them aggressive. It is unknown whether immune cells associated to the IBC microenvironment play a role in this scenario to transiently promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by activated immune cells can induce an EMT in IBC and thus promote metastasis. In a pilot study of 16 breast cancer patients, TNF-? production by peripheral blood T cells was correlated with the detection of circulating tumor cells expressing EMT markers. In a variety of IBC model cell lines, soluble factors from activated T cells induced expression of EMT-related genes, including FN1, VIM, TGM2, ZEB1. Interestingly, although IBC cells exhibited increased invasion and migration following exposure to immune factors, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), a cell adhesion molecule, increased uniquely in IBC cell lines but not in non-IBC cell lines. A combination of TNF-?, IL-6, and TGF-? was able to recapitulate EMT induction in IBC, and conditioned media preloaded with neutralizing antibodies against these factors exhibited decreased EMT. These data suggest that release of cytokines by activated immune cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of IBC and highlight these factors as potential target mediators of immune-IBC interaction.
Project description:Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive, metastatic and highly angiogenic form of locally advanced breast cancer with a relatively poor three-year survival rate. Breast cancer invasion has been linked to proteolytic activity at the tumor cell surface. Here we explored a role for active cathepsin B on the cell surface in the invasiveness of IBC.We examined expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B and the serine protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor uPAR and caveolin-1 in two IBC cell lines: SUM149 and SUM190. We utilized a live cell proteolysis assay to localize in real time the degradation of type IV collagen by IBC cells. IBC patient biopsies were examined for expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1.Both cell lines expressed comparable levels of cathepsin B and uPA. In contrast, levels of caveolin-1 and uPAR were greater in SUM149 cells. We observed that uPA, uPAR and enzymatically active cathepsin B were colocalized in caveolae fractions isolated from SUM149 cells. Using a live-cell proteolysis assay, we demonstrated that both IBC cell lines degrade type IV collagen. The SUM149 cells exhibit predominantly pericellular proteolysis, consistent with localization of proteolytic pathway constitutents to caveolar membrane microdomains. A functional role for cathepsin B was confirmed by the ability of CA074, a cell impermeable and highly selective cathepsin B inhibitor, to significantly reduce pericellular proteolysis and invasion by SUM149 cells. A statistically significant co-expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1 was found in IBC patient biopsies, thus validating our in vitro data.Our study is the first to show that the proteolytic activity of cathepsin B and its co-expression with caveolin-1 contributes to the aggressiveness of IBC.