The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma.
ABSTRACT: The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma.We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study.119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p=0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p=0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p<0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p<0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness.Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608764.
Project description:Development of adult respiratory disease is influenced by events in childhood. The impact of childhood pneumonia on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well defined. We hypothesize that childhood pneumonia is a risk factor for reduced lung function and COPD in adult smokers.COPD cases and control smokers between 45-80 years old from the United States COPDGene Study were included. Childhood pneumonia was defined by self-report of pneumonia at <16 years. Subjects with lung disease other than COPD or asthma were excluded. Smokers with and without childhood pneumonia were compared on measures of respiratory disease, lung function, and quantitative analysis of chest CT scans.Of 10,192 adult smokers, 854 (8.4%) reported pneumonia in childhood. Childhood pneumonia was associated with COPD (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.17-1.66), chronic bronchitis, increased COPD exacerbations, and lower lung function: post-bronchodilator FEV1 (69.1 vs. 77.1% predicted), FVC (82.7 vs. 87.4% predicted), FEV1/FVC ratio (0.63 vs. 0.67; p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Childhood pneumonia was associated with increased airway wall thickness on CT, without significant difference in emphysema. Having both pneumonia and asthma in childhood further increased the risk of developing COPD (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.10-3.18).Children with pneumonia are at increased risk for future smoking-related lung disease including COPD and decreased lung function. This association is supported by airway changes on chest CT scans. Childhood pneumonia may be an important factor in the early origins of COPD, and the combination of pneumonia and asthma in childhood may pose the greatest risk.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00608764 (Active since January 28, 2008).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lung cancer is a leading cause of death and hospitalization for patients with COPD. A detailed understanding of which clinical features of COPD increase risk is needed. METHODS:We performed a nested case-control study of Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study subjects with and without lung cancer, age 45 to 80 years, who smoked at least 10-pack years to identify clinical and imaging features of smokers, with and without COPD, that are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The baseline evaluation included spirometry, high-resolution chest CT scanning, and respiratory questionnaires. New lung cancer diagnoses were identified over 8 years of longitudinal follow-up. Cases of lung cancer were matched 1:4 with control subjects for age, race, sex, and smoking history. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine features predictive of lung cancer. RESULTS:Features associated with a future risk of lung cancer included decreased FEV1/FVC (OR, 1.28 per 10% decrease [95% CI, 1.12-1.46]), visual severity of emphysema (OR, 2.31, none-trace vs mild-advanced [95% CI, 1.41-3.86]), and respiratory exacerbations prior to study entry (OR, 1.39 per increased events [0, 1, and ≥ 2] [95% CI, 1.04-1.85]). Respiratory exacerbations were also associated with small-cell lung cancer histology (OR, 3.57 [95% CI, 1.47-10]). CONCLUSIONS:The degree of COPD severity, including airflow obstruction, visual emphysema, and respiratory exacerbations, was independently predictive of lung cancer. These risk factors should be further studied as inclusion and exclusion criteria for the survival benefit of lung cancer screening. Studies are needed to determine if reduction in respiratory exacerbations among smokers can reduce the risk of lung cancer.
Project description:Rationale:There is limited knowledge on the effect of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) on lung cancer risk in COPD patients with and without a history of asthma. This study aims to examine whether AECOPD is associated with risk of lung cancer, and whether the effect depends on a history of asthma. Methods:In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 852 subjects with COPD performed spirometry, and filled out questionnaires on smoking habits, symptoms and disease history. These data were linked to lung cancer data from the Cancer Registry of Norway through 2013. AECOPD, measured at baseline was the main predictor. To quantify differences in lung cancer risk, we performed Cox-proportional hazards regression. We adjusted for sex, age, smoking variables, body mass index, and lung function. Measurements and results:During follow-up, 8.8% of the subjects with, and 5.9% of the subjects without exacerbations were diagnosed with lung cancer. Cox regression showed a significant increased risk of lung cancer with one or more exacerbations in COPD patients without a history of asthma, HRR = 2.77 (95% CI 1.39-5.52). We found a significant interaction between a history of asthma and AECOPD on lung cancer. Conclusions:AECOPD is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in COPD patients without a history of asthma.
Project description:Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5%?±?0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7%?±?3.8% of study population and 46.8%?±?3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4%?±?3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5%?±?2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1%?±?1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0%?±?1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3%?±?4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P?<?0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P?<?0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P?<?0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P?<?0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P?=?0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during COPD exacerbations is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The prognostic value of NT-proBNP measured during clinical stability has not been well characterized. METHODS:We studied SPIROMICS participants 40-80 years of age with COPD GOLD spirometric stages 1-4. The association between baseline NT-proBNP and incident COPD exacerbations within one year of follow-up was tested using zero-inflated Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, race, body mass index, current smoking status, smoking history, FEV1 percent predicted, COPD Assessment Test score, exacerbation history, total lung capacity on chest CT and cardiovascular disease (any of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure). RESULTS:Among 1051 participants (mean age 66.1 years, 41.4% women), mean NT-proBNP was 608.9?pg/ml. Subjects in GOLD stage D had the highest mean NT-proBNP. After one year of follow-up, 268 participants experienced one or more COPD exacerbations. One standard deviation increase in baseline NT-proBNP was associated with a 13% increase in the risk of incident exacerbations (incident risk ratio 1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.19; p?<?0.0001). This association was maintained in participants with and without cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION:Baseline NT-proBNP in COPD is an independent predictor of respiratory exacerbations, even in individuals without overt cardiac disease. The impact of detection and treatment of early cardiovascular dysfunction on COPD exacerbation frequency warrants further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have established a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COPD, but the relationship between vitamin D levels and COPD exacerbations remains controversial. In addition, the effect of vitamin D levels on imaging characteristics remains mostly unexplored. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal follow up data from the COPDGene Study, we assessed the association between vitamin D levels on respiratory symptoms, exacerbations, and imaging characteristics. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency will be associated with worse respiratory-related outcomes. METHODS:Current and former smokers between ages 45-80 were enrolled the COPDGene Study. Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry, six-minute walk test, and chest computed tomography scans. A subset of subjects had measurement of serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum concentration less than 20?ng/mL. Longitudinal follow up was conducted via a web-based or telephone questionnaire. RESULTS:Vitamin D levels were measured on 1544 current and former smokers, of which 981 subjects had sufficient vitamin D levels and 563 subjects had vitamin D deficiency. Subjects with vitamin D deficiency were younger with increased likelihood of being African American, being current smokers, having a lower percent predicted FEV1, and having COPD. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse quality of life, increased dyspnea, decreased exercise tolerance, and increased frequency of severe exacerbations. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with increased segmental airway wall thickness on chest CT scans. CONCLUSION:Vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased respiratory symptoms, decreased functional status, increased frequency of severe exacerbations, as well as airway wall thickening on chest CT scans. Further research is needed to determine the potential impact of vitamin D supplementation to improve disease outcomes.
Project description:Despite being a major cause of morbidity and mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently undiagnosed. Yet the burden of disease among the undiagnosed is significant, as these individuals experience symptoms, exacerbations, and excess mortality compared to those without COPD. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening of asymptomatic individuals with spirometry. Hence, case-finding approaches are needed. A recently developed instrument, the five-item COPD Assessment in Primary Care to Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk questionnaire plus peak expiratory flow, demonstrates good sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing cases from control subjects and is being studied prospectively in primary care settings to determine its impact on patient outcomes. However, finding the undiagnosed is only half the battle. Mounting evidence suggests significant COPD-like respiratory burden among individuals without airflow obstruction. Many experience dyspnea, mucus production, and exacerbation events and have emphysema and airway abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the chest. However, it is still unclear how to best treat these individuals and which individuals go on to develop spirometric obstruction. These challenges underline the importance of defining what constitutes "early disease." A recently proposed definition characterizes early COPD as either: 1) airflow limitation, 2) compatible CT imaging abnormalities, or 3) accelerated forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline in persons younger than 50 years and with greater than a 10 pack-year smoking history. Although it is recognized that this definition does not encompass all individuals who will develop COPD, it is an attempt to identify a group of individuals with most rapid decline to better understand mechanisms of disease development and where disease-modifying interventions are most likely to be successful. Ultimately, leveraging tools such as chest CT imaging, the electronic medical record, and machine learning algorithms may aid in the identification of such individuals.
Project description:The coexistence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and COPD has been recognized, but there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the impact of GERD on COPD-related health status and patient-centered outcomes.Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 4,483 participants in the COPDGene cohort who met GOLD criteria for COPD. Physician-diagnosed GERD was ascertained by questionnaire. Clinical features, spirometry and imaging were compared between COPD subjects without versus with GERD. We evaluated the relationship between GERD and symptoms, exacerbations and markers of microaspiration in univariate and multivariate models. Associations were additionally tested for the confounding effect of covariates associated with a diagnosis of GERD and the use of proton-pump inhibitor medications (PPIs). To determine whether GERD is simply a marker for the presence of other conditions independently associated with worse COPD outcomes, we also tested models incorporating a GERD propensity score.GERD was reported by 29% of subjects with female predominance. Subjects with GERD were more likely to have chronic bronchitis symptoms, higher prevalence of prior cardiovascular events (combined myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease and stroke 21.3% vs. 13.4.0%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with GERD also had more severe dyspnea (MMRC score 2.2 vs. 1.8, p < 0.0001), and poorer quality of life (QOL) scores (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score 41.8 vs. 34.9, p < 0.0001; SF36 Physical Component Score 38.2 vs. 41.4, p < 0.0001). In multivariate models, a significant relationship was detected between GERD and SGRQ (3.4 points difference, p < 0.001) and frequent exacerbations at baseline (≥2 exacerbation per annum at inclusion OR 1.40, p = 0.006). During a mean follow-up time of two years, GERD was also associated with frequent (≥2/year exacerbations OR 1.40, p = 0.006), even in models in which PPIs, GERD-PPI interactions and a GERD propensity score were included. PPI use was associated with frequent exacerbator phenotype, but did not meaningfully influence the GERD-exacerbation association.In COPD the presence of physician-diagnosed GERD is associated with increased symptoms, poorer QOL and increased frequency of exacerbations at baseline and during follow-up. These associations are maintained after controlling for PPI use. The PPI-exacerbations association could result from confounding-by-indication.
Project description:Studies have shown that family history is a risk factor for COPD, but have not accounted for family history of smoking. Therefore, we sought to identify the effects of family history of smoking and family history of COPD on COPD susceptibility.We compared 821 patients with COPD to 776 control smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study. Questionnaires captured parental histories of smoking and COPD, as well as childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Socioeconomic status was defined by educational achievement.Parental history of smoking (85.5% case patients, 82.9% control subjects) was more common than parental history of COPD (43.0% case patients, 30.8% control subjects). In a logistic regression model, parental history of COPD (OR, 1.73; P < .0001) and educational level (OR, 0.48 for some college vs no college; P < .0001) were significant predictors of COPD, but parental history of smoking and childhood ETS exposure were not significant. The population-attributable risk from COPD family history was 18.6%. Patients with COPD with a parental history had more severe disease, with lower lung function, worse quality of life, and more frequent exacerbations. There were nonsignificant trends for more severe emphysema and airway disease on quantitative chest CT scans.Family history of COPD is a strong risk factor for COPD, independent of family history of smoking, personal lifetime smoking, or childhood ETS exposure. Although further studies are required to identify genetic variants that influence COPD susceptibility, clinicians should question all smokers, especially those with known or suspected COPD, regarding COPD family history.
Project description:Quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema have been shown to be associated with increased mortality in humans, but genetic variants affecting the quantitative parameters of chest CT that measure degree of emphysema have not yet been examined. In this study, using available chest CT data from a total of 344 emphysema patients, we assessed the correlations between five chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility variants in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic (CHRN) genes and the degree of emphysema and chest CT manifestations. We verified that most of the parameters were significantly correlated with the degree of emphysema. Compared to rs76071148AA and TT genotype carriers, the rs76071148AT genotype carriers exhibited a decreased probability of having severe emphysema (odds ratio [OR] =0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.40-0.99), whereas the variant rs8040868C allele was negatively correlated with the emphysema index (P=0.002). Interestingly, further stratification analysis grouped by spirometry-diagnosed COPD status revealed that the variant rs8040868C (CT + CC) genotypes exerted a protective effect against severe emphysema with borderline significance (OR =0.41, 95% CI =0.16-1.05) and affected the mean lung density, emphysema index, ratio of airway wall thickness to airway dimensions (AWT/AD), and AWT grade in spirometry-diagnosed non-COPD subjects. The rs76071148 variant was also significantly associated with AWT/AD and AWT grade in those individuals. In summary, we determined that rs8040868 and rs76071148 are promising indicators of the degree of emphysema and chest CT manifestations, especially in spirometry-diagnosed non-COPD subjects.