Epratuzumab with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Approximately 60% of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) are curable with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemoimmunotherapy. Epratuzumab (E) is an unlabeled anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody with efficacy in relapsed DLBCL. This phase 2 trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining E with R-CHOP (ER-CHOP) in untreated DLBCL. A secondary aim was to assess the efficacy of interim positron emission tomography (PET) to predict outcome in DLBCL. Standard R-CHOP with the addition of E 360 mg/m(2) intravenously was administered for 6 cycles. A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. Toxicity was similar to standard R-CHOP. Overall response rate in the 81 eligible patients was 96% (74% CR/CRu) by computed tomography scan and 88% by PET. By intention to treat analysis, at a median follow-up of 43 months, the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in all 107 patients were 70% and 80%, respectively. Interim PET was not associated with EFS or OS. Comparison with a cohort of 215 patients who were treated with R-CHOP showed an improved EFS in the ER-CHOP patients. ER-CHOP is well tolerated and results appear promising as a combination therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00301821.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of baseline <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT quantitative parameters and interim treatment response, and to assess whether the combination of these could improve the predictive efficacy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving R-CHOP chemotherapy. PET/CT images and clinical data of 64 patients with DLBCL who had undergone <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT scan before and after 3 or 4 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The quantitative parameters including standardized uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum diameter of the maximum lesion (Dmax) were measured on baseline PET/CT images. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the influence of baseline PET/CT parameters, clinical indicators and interim treatment response on prognosis. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to estimate the predictive efficacy of the combination of baseline PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response. Ann Arbor stage, International Prognostic Index (IPI), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), necrosis, MTVmax, TLGmax, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year progression-free survival (PFS, P<0.05). LDH, necrosis, MTVmax, MTVsum, TLGmax, TLGsum, Dmax and interim treatment response showed association with 2-year overall survival (OS, P<0.05). Ann Arbor stage, Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year PFS (P<0.05), while Dmax and interim treatment response were found to be independent predictors of 2-year OS (P<0.05). The PFS and OS curves of Dmax <5.7 cm group and Dmax ?5.7 cm group, complete response (CR) group and non-CR group were significantly different, respectively (P<0.05). The baseline <sup>18</sup>F-FDG PET/CT parameters and interim treatment response have important prognostic values in DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy. Combined application of Dmax and interim treatment response improved the predictive efficacy of 2-year PFS. It may be helpful to identify patients who are at high-risk of relapse and to guide early clinical intervention of these patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Radiation therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has shown improvement in progression free survival. There is uncertainty about the optimal radiation dose, with heterogeneous doses being used, ranging from 30 to 55 Gy. This trial tests the efficacy of using reduced radiation dose in DLBCL without compromising on long-term outcomes.<h4>Aims</h4>The primary aim is to assess the noninferiority, as assessed by 2-year event free survival (EFS), of a dose de-escalated dose (36 Gy) for DLBCL as compared with a standard dose (45 Gy).<h4>Methods</h4>The Dose Optimization in B cell Lymphomas (DOBL) study is a randomized phase-III noninferiority trial in a uniform cohort of DLBCL patients receiving immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP). Patients with stages I to IV of DLBCL eligible for radiotherapy (RT) after completion of at least four cycles of R-CHOP will be included in the study. Patients will be randomized to standard RT dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions or reduced dose of 36 Gy in 20 fractions using involved site radiotherapy (ISRT) technique. It is a noninferiority design using a 7% noninferiority margin with a hazard ratio of 1.3, α of 0.05, and β of 0.80. A total of 760 patients will be accrued. Two-year EFS is the primary outcome measure that will be studied. The experimental arm will be stopped and switched over to control arm if on interim analysis, 25% events occur in the experimental arm.<h4>Discussion</h4>The study is designed to test the noninferiority of radiation dose de-escalation in a uniform cohort of patients diagnosed with DLBCL and treated with R-CHOP regimen in the post-positron emission tomography (PET) era. The trial is rigorously designed and is straightforward to implement. It is statistically powered to answer if reducing the radiation doses does not compromise the clinical outcome in the given patient cohort. This trial will effectively set the standards in radiotherapy doses for DLBCL in the contemporary era.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine whether interim 3'-deoxy-3'-[<sup>18</sup>F]fluorothymidine (iFLT) PET/CT is a superior predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) compared with interim <sup>18</sup>F-fluorodeoxyglucose (iFDG) PET/CT in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (R-EPOCH).<h4>Methods</h4>Ninety-two prospectively enrolled patients with DLBCL underwent both FLT-PET/CT and FDG-PET/CT 18-24 days after two cycles of R-CHOP/R-EPOCH. Deauville-criteria, PERCIST1.0, standardized uptake value (SUV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and metabolic tumor volume were used to interpret iFDG-PET/CT while dichotomous visual interpretation was used to interpret iFLT-PET/CT and the results were compared with the 3- and 5-year PFS.<h4>Results</h4>iFLT-PET/CT was negative in 67 (73%) and positive in 25 (27%) patients. iFDG-PET/CT by Deauville criteria was negative (Deauville scores [DS] of 1-3) in 53 (58%) and positive (DS = 4-5) in 39 (42%) patients. Of the 67 iFLT-PET/CT-negative patients, 7 (10.4%) progressed at a median of 14.1 months whereas 14/25 (56.0%) iFLT-PET/CT-positive patients progressed at a median of 7.8 months (P < .0001). Of the 53 Deauville-negative patients, 9 (17.0%) progressed at a median of 14.1 months whereas 12/39 (30.8%) Deauville-positive patients progressed at a median of 5.6 months (P = .11). In multivariate analysis, including iFLT-PET/CT, PERCIST, interim TLG, and interim SUV<sub>max</sub>, only iFLT-PET/CT was an independent predictor for 3- and 5-year PFS (P < .0001 and P = .001, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with DLBCL given R-CHOP/R-EPOCH, iFLT-PET/CT is a superior independent predictor of outcome compared with iFDG-PET/CT.
Project description:STAT3 regulates cell growth by up-regulating downstream targets, such as Myc. The frequency of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) and Myc expression and their prognostic relevance is unknown within diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) germinal center B-cell (GCB) and non-GCB subtypes. pSTAT3 and Myc were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tumors from 40 DLBCL patients uniformly treated on a clinical trial of epratuzumab/rituximab-CHOP. A total of 35% of cases were pSTAT3-positive, and pSTAT3 positivity was more frequent in the non-GCB (P = .06) type but did not correlate with event-free survival (EFS). Myc expression was observed in 50% of cases and was more frequent in non-GCB type (P = .07). Myc-positive cases had inferior EFS in all patients, including the GCB and pSTAT3-positive cases, were more likely to express Myc (P = .06). Myc translocations involving the major breakpoint regions were found in 10% (3 of 29) of cases, and all 3 cases were GCB and had an inferior EFS (P = .09). pSTAT3, but not Myc expression, was correlated with elevated pretreatment serum cytokines, such as IL-10 (P = .05), G-CSF (P = .03), and TNF-? (P = .04). pSTAT3 IHC in DLBCL tumors has the potential to identify patients for STAT3 pathway-directed therapy; Myc IHC is a potential marker for inferior EFS in GCB patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Most relapses occur in the first 2 years after diagnosis. Early response assessment with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) may facilitate early change of treatment, thereby preventing ineffective treatment and unnecessary side effects. We aimed to assess the predictive value of visually-assessed interim 18F-FDG PET on progression-free survival (PFS) or event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL patients treated with first-line immuno-chemotherapy regimens. METHODS:For this systematic review and meta-analysis Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched until July 11, 2017. Prospective and retrospective studies investigating qualitative interim PET response assessment without treatment adaptation based on the interim PET result were eligible. The primary outcome was two-year PFS or EFS. Prognostic and diagnostic measures were extracted and analysed with pooled hazard ratios and Hierarchical Summary Receiver Operator Characteristic Curves, respectively. Meta-regression was used to study covariate effects. RESULTS:The pooled hazard ratio for 18 studies comprising 2,255 patients was 3.13 (95%CI 2.52-3.89) with a 95% prediction interval of 1.68-5.83. In 19 studies with 2,366 patients, the negative predictive value for progression generally exceeded 80% (64-95), but sensitivity (33-87), specificity (49-94), and positive predictive values (20-74) ranged widely. CONCLUSIONS:These findings showed that interim 18F-FDG PET has predictive value in DLBCL patients. However, (subgroup) analyses were limited by lack of information and small sample sizes. Some diagnostic test characteristics were not satisfactory, especially the positive predictive value should be improved, before a successful risk stratified treatment approach can be implemented in clinical practice.
Project description:18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL.We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated.The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUVmean of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p?=?0.019). SUVmean of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUVmean of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r?=?-0.547, p?<?0.001; r?=?-0.502, p?<?0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake.The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver.
Project description:PURPOSE:We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We evaluated the R-CHOP cohort of 221 DLBCL cases with gene expression profiling data. BCL2 protein (n = 169), mRNA (n = 221) expression, and t(14;18) (n = 144) were correlated with clinical outcome. The CHOP cohort (n = 181) was used for comparative analysis. RESULTS:BCL2 protein expression has significant impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL (OS, P = 0.009; EFS, P = 0.001) and GCB-DLBCL (OS, P = 0.03; EFS, P = 0.002) but not in ABC-DLBCL in the R-CHOP cohort. The survival differences for EFS in GCB-DLBCL were still observed in multivariate analysis. At the mRNA level, this correlation was observed in EFS in DLBCL (P = 0.006), but only a trend was observed in GCB-DLBCL (P = 0.09). The t(14;18) was detected in 34% of GCB-DLBCL but was not associated with significant differences in survival. Gene enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment of the DLBCL "stromal-1" signatures and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1-?) signature in BCL2(-)GCB-DLBCL, whereas T(FH) cell signatures were enriched in BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL. CONCLUSION:The prognostic significance of BCL2 has changed after inclusion of rituximab in the treatment protocol and is observed in the GCB-DLBCL rather than the ABC-DLBCL. Although rituximab has benefited patients in both DLBCL subgroups, the BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL seems to receive less benefit from this treatment and may require other novel therapeutic intervention.
Project description:The prognosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is heterogenous. Baseline or interim imaging characteristics may inform risk-adapted treatment paradigms. We identified 112 patients with PTCL who were consecutively treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP)/CHOP-like regimens with the intent to consolidate with an autologous transplant. Baseline (n = 93) and interim (after 4 cycles, n = 99) positron emission tomography (PET) images were reevaluated, and we calculated baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV). Interim PET (iPET) responses were graded visually by 5-point score (i5PS) and by percentage change of standardized uptake value. By univariate analysis, predictors of event-free survival (EFS) included Prognostic Index for Peripheral TCL (PIT) higher than 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; <i>P</i> = .021), International Prognostic Index (IPI) higher than 3 (HR, 2.01; <i>P</i> = .021), high TMTV (>125 cm<sup>3</sup>; HR, 3.92; <i>P</i> = .003), and positive iPET (HR, 3.57; <i>P</i> < .001). By multivariate analysis, high baseline TMTV predicted worse overall survival (OS; HR, 6.025; <i>P</i> = .022) and EFS (HR, 3.861; <i>P</i> = .005). Patients with i5PS of 1 to 3 had a longer median OS and EFS (104 months, 64 months) than those with i5PS of 4 to 5 (19 months, 11 months; <i>P</i> < .001). Four-year OS and EFS for patients with i5PS of 1 to 3 and PIT of 1 or less were 85% and 62%, respectively. However, 4-year OS and EFS for those with i5PS of 4 to 5 and PIT higher than 1 were both 0% (<i>P</i> < .001). In multivariate analysis, after controlling for IPI and PIT, i5PS was independently prognostic for EFS (HR, 3.400 95% confidence interval, 1.750-6.750; <i>P</i> < .001) and OS (HR, 10.243; 95% confidence interval, 4.052-25.891; <i>P</i> < .001). In conjunction with clinical parameters, iPET helps risk stratify patients with PTCL and could inform risk-adapted treatment strategies. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:Interim 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (Interim-18F-FDG-PET, hereafter I-PET) has the potential to guide treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) if the prognostic value is known. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal timing and response criteria for evaluating prognosis with I-PET in DLBCL. Individual patient data from 1692 patients with de novo DLBCL were combined and scans were harmonized. I-PET was performed at various time points during treatment with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. Scans were interpreted using the Deauville score (DS) and change in maximum standardized uptake value (ΔSUVmax). Multilevel Cox proportional hazards models corrected for International Prognostic Index (IPI) score were used to study the effects of timing and response criteria on 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). I-PET after 2 cycles (I-PET2) and I-PET4 significantly discriminated good responders from poor responders, with the highest hazard ratios (HRs) for I-PET4. Multivariable HRs for a PET-positive result at I-PET2 and I-PET4 were 1.71 and 2.95 using DS4-5, 4.91 and 6.20 using DS5, and 2.93 and 4.65 using ΔSUVmax, respectively. ΔSUVmax identified a larger proportion of poor responders than DS5 did. For all criteria, the negative predictive value was >80%, and positive predictive values ranged from 30% to 70% at I-PET2 and I-PET4. Unlike I-PET1, I-PET3 discriminated good responders from poor responders using DS4-5 and DS5 thresholds (HRs, 2.94 and 4.67, respectively). I-PET2 and I-PET4 predict good response equally during R-CHOP therapy in DLBCL. Optimal timing and response criteria depend on the clinical context. Good response at I-PET2 is suggested for de-escalation trials, and poor response using ΔSUVmax at I-PET4 is suggested for randomized trials that are evaluating new therapies.
Project description:The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic value of the interim PET (iPET)-computed tomography (CT) (iPET-CT) after two cycles of immunochemotherapy with the R-CHOP protocol in patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with a curative intent in combination with the neoplastic cell origin defined by Hans's immunohistochemstry algorithm followed in a reference center for cancer treatment in Brazil.We prospectively evaluated 147 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP-21 to assess the value of the International Prognostic Index, iPET-CT, and cell of origin by immunohistochemistry as prognostic markers in the rituximab era. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT was performed after two cycles (iPET-CT) and at the end of treatment in 111 patients. Lymphoma cases were categorized into germinal center (GC) and nongerminal center subtypes by immunohistochemistry according to Hans's algorithm.The median age of GC-DLBCL patients (52.7 years) was lower than that of nongerminal center-DLBCL patients (59.4 years) (P=0.021); in addition, it was lower in patients with negative iPET-CT findings (52.7 years) versus positive findings (59.4 years) (P=0.031). The overall survival at 48 months was 100% for iPET-CT-negative GC-DLBCL patients and 61.2% for iPET-CT-positive GC-DLBCL patients (P=0.002). Progression-free survival at 30 months was 100% for iPET-CT-negative GC-DLBCL patients and 60.3% for iPET-CT-positive GC-DLBCL patients (P=0.001).We conclude that iPET-CT associated with cell origin identified a very good prognostic group in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. Video Abstract: http://links.lww.com/NMC/A59.