Novel protein ADTRP regulates TFPI expression and function in human endothelial cells in normal conditions and in response to androgen.
ABSTRACT: Thrombosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent major causes of morbidity and mortality. Low androgen correlates with higher incidence of CVD/thrombosis. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI) is the major inhibitor of tissue factor-factor VIIa (TF-FVIIa)-dependent FXa generation. Because endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction leading to vascular disease correlates with low EC-associated TFPI, we sought to identify mechanisms that regulate the natural expression of TFPI. Data mining of NCBI's GEO microarrays revealed strong coexpression between TFPI and the uncharacterized protein encoded by C6ORF105, which is predicted to be multispan, palmitoylated and androgen-responsive. We demonstrate that this protein regulates both the native and androgen-enhanced TFPI expression and activity in cultured ECs, and we named it androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein (ADTRP). We confirm ADTRP expression and colocalization with TFPI and caveolin-1 in ECs. ADTRP-shRNA reduces, while over-expression of ADTRP enhances, TFPI mRNA and activity and the colocalization of TF-FVIIa-FXa-TFPI with caveolin-1. Imaging and Triton X-114-extraction confirm TFPI and ADTRP association with lipid rafts/caveolae. Dihydrotestosterone up-regulates TFPI and ADTRP expression, and increases FXa inhibition by TFPI in an ADTRP- and caveolin-1-dependent manner. We conclude that the ADTRP-dependent up-regulation of TFPI expression and activity by androgen represents a novel mechanism of increasing the anticoagulant protection of the endothelium.
Project description:Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that inhibits activated factor X (FXa) via a slow-tight binding mechanism and tissue factor-activated FVII (TF-FVIIa) via formation of a quaternary FXa-TFPI-TF-FVIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI enhances coagulation in hemophilia models. Using a library approach, we selected and subsequently optimized peptides that bind TFPI and block its anticoagulant activity. One peptide (termed compound 3), bound with high affinity to the Kunitz-1 (K1) domain of TFPI (Kd ?1 nM). We solved the crystal structure of this peptide in complex with the K1 of TFPI at 2.55-? resolution. The structure of compound 3 can be segmented into a N-terminal anchor; an ?-shaped loop; an intermediate segment; a tight glycine-loop; and a C-terminal ?-helix that is anchored to K1 at its reactive center loop and two-stranded ?-sheet. The contact surface has an overall hydrophobic character with some charged hot spots. In a model system, compound 3 blocked FXa inhibition by TFPI (EC50 = 11 nM) and inhibition of TF-FVIIa-catalyzed FX activation by TFPI (EC50 = 2 nM). The peptide prevented transition from the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex, but did not affect formation of the loose FXa-TFPI complex. The K1 domain of TFPI binds and inhibits FVIIa and the K2 domain similarly inhibits FXa. Because compound 3 binds to K1, our data show that K1 is not only important for FVIIa inhibition but also for FXa inhibition, i.e. for the transition of the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex. This mode of action translates into normalization of coagulation of hemophilia plasmas. Compound 3 thus bears potential to prevent bleeding in hemophilia patients.
Project description:Low androgen levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), thrombosis and myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that androgen has a protective role. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Our genome-wide association study identified the ADTRP gene encoding the androgen-dependent TFPI regulating protein as a susceptibility gene for CAD and MI. The expression level of ADTRP was regulated by androgen, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanism by which androgen regulates ADTRP expression and tested the hypothesis that androgen plays a protective role in cardiovascular disease by activating ADTRP expression. Luciferase assays with an ADTRP promoter luciferase reporter revealed that androgen regulated ADTRP transcription in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the effect was abolished by three different androgen inhibitors, including pyrvinium pamoate, bicalutamide, and cyproterone acetate. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation showed that the androgen receptor bound to a half androgen response element (ARE, TGTTCT) located at +324bp from the ADTRP transcription start site. The ARE is required for concentration-dependent transcriptional activation of ADTRP. HL-60 monocyte adhesion to EAhy926 endothelial cells (ECs) and transmigration across the EC layer, the two processes critical to development of CAD and MI, were inhibited by androgen, but the effect was rescued by ADTRP siRNA and exacerbated by overexpression of ADTRP and its downstream genes PIK3R3 and MIA3. These data suggest that one molecular mechanism by which androgen confers protection against CAD is stimulation of ADTRP expression.
Project description:A genomic variant in the human ADTRP [androgen-dependent tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) regulating protein] gene increases the risk of coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. TFPI is the TF pathway inhibitor that is involved in coagulation. Here, we report that adtrp and tfpi form a regulatory axis that specifies primitive myelopoiesis and definitive hematopoiesis, but not primitive erythropoiesis or vasculogenesis. In zebrafish, there are 2 paralogues for adtrp (i.e., adtrp1 and adtrp2). Knockdown of adtrp1 expression inhibits the specification of hemangioblasts, as shown by decreased expression of the hemangioblast markers, etsrp, fli1a, and scl; blocks primitive hematopoiesis, as shown by decreased expression of pu.1, mpo, and l-plastin; and disrupts the specification of hematopoietic stem cells (definitive hematopoiesis), as shown by decreased expression of runx1 and c-myb However, adtrp1 knockdown does not affect erythropoiesis during primitive hematopoiesis (no effect on gata1 or h-bae1) or vasculogenesis (no effect on kdrl, ephb2a, notch3, dab2, or flt4). Knockdown of adtrp2 expression does not have apparent effects on all markers tested. Knockdown of adtrp1 reduced the expression of tfpi, and hematopoietic defects in adtrp1 morphants were rescued by tfpi overexpression. These data suggest that the regulation of tfpi expression is one potential mechanism by which adtrp1 regulates primitive myelopoiesis and definitive hematopoiesis.-Wang, L., Wang, X., Wang, L., Yousaf, M., Li, J., Zuo, M., Yang, Z., Gou, D., Bao, B., Li, L., Xiang, N., Jia, H., Xu, C., Chen, Q., Wang, Q. K. Identification of a new adtrp1-tfpi regulatory axis for the specification of primitive myelopoiesis and definitive hematopoiesis.
Project description:Hookworms are hematophagous nematodes that infect a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. There has been speculation for nearly a century as to the identity of the anticoagulant substances) used by these organisms to subvert host hemostasis. Using molecular cloning, we describe a family of potent small protein (75-84 amino acids) anticoagulants from the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum termed AcAP (A. caninum anticoagulant protein). Two recombinant AcAP members (AcAP5 and AcAP6) directly inhibited the catalytic activity of blood coagulation factor Xa (fXa), while a third form (AcAPc2) predominantly inhibited the catalytic activity of a complex composed of blood coagulation factor VIIa and tissue factor (fVIIa/TF). The inhibition of fVIIa/TF was by a unique mechanism that required the initial formation of a binary complex of the inhibitor with fXa at a site on the enzyme that is distinct from the catalytic center (exo-site). The sequence of AcAPc2 as well as the utilization of an exo-site on fXa distinguishes this inhibitor from the mammalian anticoagulant TFPI (tissue factor pathway inhibitor), which is functionally equivalent with respect to fXa-dependent inhibition of fIIa/TF. The relative sequence positions of the reactive site residues determined for AcAP5 with the homologous regions in AcAP6 and AcAPc2 as well as the pattern of 10 cysteine residues present in each of the inhibitors suggest that the AcAPs are distantly related to the family of small protein serine protease inhibitors found in the nonhematophagous nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum.
Project description:Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the blood coagulation cascade after interaction with the activated factor VII (FVIIa). Moreover, the TF/FVIIa complex also activates intracellular signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines. The TF/FVIIa complex is inhibited by the tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a transcription factor that, together with PPAR? and PPAR?/?, controls macrophage functions. However, whether PPAR? activation modulates the expression of TFP1-1 in human macrophages is not known. Here we report that PPAR? activation increases the expression of TFPI-1 in human macrophages in vitro as well as in vivo in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The induction of TFPI-1 expression by PPAR? ligands, an effect shared by the activation of PPAR? and PPAR?/?, occurs also in proinflammatory M1 and in anti-inflammatory M2 polarized macrophages. As a functional consequence, treatment with PPAR? ligands significantly reduces the inflammatory response induced by FVIIa, as measured by variations in the IL-8, MMP-2, and MCP-1 expression. These data identify a novel role for PPAR? in the control of TF the pathway.
Project description:Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is the major regulator of tissue factor (TF)-induced coagulation. It down regulates coagulation by binding to the TF/fVIIa complex in a fXa dependent manner. It is predominantly produced by microvascular endothelial cells, though it is also found in platelets, monocytes, smooth muscle cells, and plasma. Its physiological importance is demonstrated by the embryonic lethality observed in TFPI knockout mice and by the increase in thrombotic burden that occurs when heterozygous TFPI mice are bred with mice carrying genetic risk factors for thrombotic disease, such as factor V Leiden. Multiple TFPI isoforms, termed TFPIalpha, TFPIbeta, and TFPIdelta in humans and TFPIalpha, TFPIbeta, and TFPIgamma in mice, have been described, which differ in their domain structure and method for cell surface attachment. A significant functional difference between these isoforms has yet to be described in vivo. Both human and mouse tissues produce, on average, approximately 10 times more TFPIalpha message when compared to that of TFPIbeta. Consistent with this finding, several lines of evidence suggest that TFPIalpha is the predominant protein isoform in humans. In contrast, recent work from our laboratory demonstrates that TFPIbeta is the major protein isoform produced in adult mice, suggesting that TFPI isoform production is translationally regulated.
Project description:Mammary tumors and malignant breast cancer cell lines over-express the coagulation factor, tissue factor (TF). High expression of TF is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), the endogenous inhibitor of TF, is constitutively expressed on the endothelium. We hypothesized that TF-expressing tumor cells can bind to immobilized recombinant TFPI, leading to arrest of the tumor cells under shear in vitro. We evaluated the adhesion of breast cancer cells to immobilized TFPI under static and shear conditions (0.35 - 1.3 dyn/cm2). We found that high-TF-expressing breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 (with a TF density of 460,000/cell), but not low TF-expressing MCF-7 (with a TF density of 1,400/cell), adhered to recombinant TFPI, under static and shear conditions. Adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to TFPI required activated factor VII (FVIIa), but not FX, and was inhibited by a factor VIIa-blocking anti-TF antibody. Under shear, adhesion to TFPI was dependent on the TFPI-coating concentration, FVIIa concentration and shear stress, with no observed adhesion at shear stresses greater than 1.0 dyn/cm2. This is the first study showing that TF-expressing tumor cells can be captured by immobilized TFPI, a ligand constitutively expressed on the endothelium, under low shear in vitro. Based on our results, we hypothesize that TFPI could be a novel ligand mediating the arrest of TF-expressing tumor cells in high TFPI-expressing vessels under conditions of low shear during metastasis.
Project description:Safe and effective antithrombotic therapy requires understanding of mechanisms that contribute to pathological thrombosis but have a lesser impact on hemostasis. We found that the extrinsic tissue factor (TF) coagulation initiation complex can selectively activate the antihemophilic cofactor, FVIII, triggering the hemostatic intrinsic coagulation pathway independently of thrombin feedback loops. In a mouse model with a relatively mild thrombogenic lesion, TF-dependent FVIII activation sets the threshold for thrombus formation through contact phase-generated FIXa. In vitro, FXa stably associated with TF-FVIIa activates FVIII, but not FV. Moreover, nascent FXa product of TF-FVIIa can transiently escape the slow kinetics of Kunitz-type inhibition by TF pathway inhibitor and preferentially activates FVIII over FV. Thus, TF synergistically primes FIXa-dependent thrombin generation independently of cofactor activation by thrombin. Accordingly, FVIIa mutants deficient in direct TF-dependent thrombin generation, but preserving FVIIIa generation by nascent FXa, can support intrinsic pathway coagulation. In ex vivo flowing blood, a TF-FVIIa mutant complex with impaired free FXa generation but activating both FVIII and FIX supports efficient FVIII-dependent thrombus formation. Thus, a previously unrecognized TF-initiated pathway directly yielding FVIIIa-FIXa intrinsic tenase complex may be prohemostatic before further coagulation amplification by thrombin-dependent feedback loops enhances the risk of thrombosis.
Project description:The ADTRP gene encodes the androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein and is a susceptibility gene for contrary artery disease (CAD). We performed global gene expression profiling for ADTRP knock-down using microarrays in human HepG2 cells. Follow-up real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ADTRP knock-down regulates a diverse set of genes, including upregulation of seven histone genes, downregulation of multiple cell cycle genes (CCND1, CDK4, and CDKN1A), and upregulation of apoptosis genes (CASP7 and PDCD2) in HepG2 cells and endothelial cells. Consistently, ADTRP increases the number of S phase cells during cell cycle, promotes cell proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis. Our study provides novel insights into the function of ADTRP and biological pathways involving ADTRP, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAD.
Project description:Tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a well-characterized activated factor X (FXa)-dependent inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation produced in two alternatively spliced isoforms, TFPI? and TFPI?. The TFPI? C terminus has a basic sequence nearly identical to a portion of the factor V (FV) B domain necessary for maintaining FV in an inactive conformation via interaction with an acidic region of the B domain. We demonstrate rapid inhibition of prothrombinase by TFPI? mediated through a high-affinity exosite interaction between the basic region of TFPI? and the FV acidic region, which is retained in FXa-activated FVa and platelet FVa. This inhibitory activity is not mediated by TFPI? and is lost upon removal of the acidic region of FVa by thrombin. The data identify a previously undescribed, isoform-specific anticoagulant function for TFPI? and are a unique description of physiologically relevant inhibition of prothrombinase. These findings, combined with previous descriptions of differential expression patterns of TFPI? and TFPI? in platelets and endothelial cells, suggest that the TFPI isoforms may act through distinct mechanisms to inhibit the initial stages of intravascular coagulation, with TFPI? acting to dampen TF expressed on the surface of vascular cells, whereas TFPI? dampens the initial prothrombinase formed on the activated platelet surface.