Differential modulation of Beta-adrenergic receptor signaling by trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists.
ABSTRACT: Trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) are rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). TAAR are involved in modulation of neuronal, cardiac and vascular functions and they are potentially linked with neurological disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Subtype TAAR1, the best characterized TAAR so far, is promiscuous for a wide set of ligands and is activated by trace amines tyramine (TYR), phenylethylamine (PEA), octopamine (OA), but also by thyronamines, dopamine, and psycho-active drugs. Unfortunately, effects of trace amines on signaling of the two homologous ?-adrenergic receptors 1 (ADRB1) and 2 (ADRB2) have not been clarified yet in detail. We, therefore, tested TAAR1 agonists TYR, PEA and OA regarding their effects on ADRB1/2 signaling by co-stimulation studies. Surprisingly, trace amines TYR and PEA are partial allosteric antagonists at ADRB1/2, whereas OA is a partial orthosteric ADRB2-antagonist and ADRB1-agonist. To specify molecular reasons for TAAR1 ligand promiscuity and for observed differences in signaling effects on particular aminergic receptors we compared TAAR, tyramine (TAR) octopamine (OAR), ADRB1/2 and dopamine receptors at the structural level. We found especially for TAAR1 that the remarkable ligand promiscuity is likely based on high amino acid similarity in the ligand-binding region compared with further aminergic receptors. On the other hand few TAAR specific properties in the ligand-binding site might determine differences in ligand-induced effects compared to ADRB1/2. Taken together, this study points to molecular details of TAAR1-ligand promiscuity and identified specific trace amines as allosteric or orthosteric ligands of particular ?-adrenergic receptor subtypes.
Project description:Classical biogenic amines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and histamine) interact with specific families of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The term 'trace amines' is used when referring to p-tyramine, beta-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and octopamine, compounds that are present in mammalian tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. The pharmacological effects of trace amines are usually attributed to their interference with the aminergic pathways, but in 2001 a new gene was identified, that codes for a GPCR responding to p-tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine but not to classical biogenic amines. Several closely related genes were subsequently identified and designated as the trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Pharmacological investigations in vitro show that many TAAR subtypes may not respond to p-tyramine, beta-phenylethylamine, tryptamine or octopamine, suggesting the existence of additional endogenous ligands. A novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative, 3-iodothyronamine, has been found to interact with TAAR1 and possibly other TAAR subtypes. In vivo, micromolar concentrations of 3-iodothyronamine determine functional effects which are opposite to those produced on a longer time scale by thyroid hormones, including reduction in body temperature and decrease in cardiac contractility. Expression of all TAAR subtypes except TAAR1 has been reported in mouse olfactory epithelium, and several volatile amines were shown to interact with specific TAAR subtypes. In addition, there is evidence that TAAR1 is targeted by amphetamines and other psychotropic agents, while genetic linkage studies show a significant association between the TAAR gene family locus and susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder.
Project description:The family of trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) comprises 9 mammalian TAAR subtypes, with intact gene and pseudogene numbers differing considerably even between closely related species. To date the best characterized subtype is TAAR1, which activates the G(s) protein/adenylyl cyclase pathway upon stimulation by trace amines and psychoactive substances like MDMA or LSD. Recently, chemosensory function involving recognition of volatile amines was proposed for murine TAAR3, TAAR4 and TAAR5. Humans can smell volatile amines despite carrying open reading frame (ORF) disruptions in TAAR3 and TAAR4. Therefore, we set out to study the functional and structural evolution of these genes with a special focus on primates. Functional analyses showed that ligands activating the murine TAAR3, TAAR4 and TAAR5 do not activate intact primate and mammalian orthologs, although they evolve under purifying selection and hence must be functional. We also find little evidence for positive selection that could explain the functional differences between mouse and other mammals. Our findings rather suggest that the previously identified volatile amine TAAR3-5 agonists reflect the high agonist promiscuity of TAAR, and that the ligands driving purifying selection of these TAAR in mouse and other mammals still await discovery. More generally, our study points out how analyses in an evolutionary context can help to interpret functional data generated in single species.
Project description:Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) belong to the class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and are evolutionary related to aminergic receptors. TAARs have been identified to mediate effects of trace amines. TAAR1 signaling is mainly mediated via activation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase pathway. In addition to classical trace amines, TAAR1 can also be activated by the thyroid hormone derivative 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM). Pharmacological doses of 3-T1AM induced metabolic and anapyrexic effects, which might be centrally mediated in the hypothalamus in rodents. However, the observed anapyrexic effect of 3-T1AM persists in Taar1 knock-out mice which raises the question whether further GPCRs are potential targets for 3-T1AM and mediate the observed physiological effect. Anapyrexia has been observed to be related to action on aminergic receptors such as the serotonin receptor 1b (5-HT1b). This receptor primarily activates the Gi/o mediated pathway and PLC signaling through the G?? of Gi/o. Since the expression profiles of TAAR1 and 5-HT1b overlap, we questioned whether 3-T1AM may activate 5-HT1b. Finally, we also evaluated heteromerization between these two GPCRs and tested signaling under co-expressed conditions. In this study, we showed, that 3-T1AM can induce Gi/o signaling through 5-HT1b in a concentration of 10 ?M. Strikingly, at 5-HT1b the ligand 3-T1AM only activates the Gi/o mediated reduction of cAMP accumulation, but not PLC activation. Co-stimulation of 5-HT1b by both ligands did not lead to additive or synergistic signaling effects. In addition, we confirmed the capacity for heteromerization between TAAR1 and 5-HT1b. Under co-expression of TAAR1 and HTR1b, 3-T1AM action is only mediated via TAAR1 and activation of 5-HT1b is abrogated. In conclusion, we found evidence for 5-HT1b as a new receptor target for 3-T1AM, albeit with a different signaling effect than the endogenous ligand. Altogether, this indicates a complex interrelation of signaling effects between the investigated GPCRs and respective ligands.
Project description:Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) in mammals recently have been shown to function as olfactory receptors. We have delineated the taar gene family in jawless, cartilaginous, and bony fish (zero, 2, and >100 genes, respectively). We conclude that taar genes are evolutionary much younger than the related OR and ORA/V1R olfactory receptor families, which are present already in lamprey, a jawless vertebrate. The 2 cartilaginous fish genes appear to be ancestral for 2 taar classes, each with mammalian and bony fish (teleost) representatives. Unexpectedly, a whole new clade, class III, of taar genes originated even later, within the teleost lineage. Taar genes from all 3 classes are expressed in subsets of zebrafish olfactory receptor neurons, supporting their function as olfactory receptors. The highly conserved TAAR1 (shark, mammalian, and teleost orthologs) is not expressed in the olfactory epithelium and may constitute the sole remnant of a primordial, nonolfactory function of this family. Class III comprises three-fourths of all teleost taar genes and is characterized by the complete loss of the aminergic ligand-binding motif, stringently conserved in the other 2 classes. Two independent intron gains in class III taar genes represent extraordinary evolutionary dynamics, considering the virtual absence of intron gains during vertebrate evolution. The d(N)/d(S) analysis suggests both minimal global negative selection and an unparalleled degree of local positive selection as another hallmark of class III genes. The accelerated evolution of class III teleost taar genes conceivably might mark the birth of another olfactory receptor gene family.
Project description:Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are known to be expressed in olfactory sensory neurons. A limited number of molecular evolutionary studies have been done for TAARs so far. To elucidate how lineage-specific evolution contributed to their functional divergence, we examined 30 metazoan genomes. In total, 493 TAAR gene candidates (including 84 pseudogenes) were identified from 26 vertebrate genomes. TAARs were not identified from non-vertebrate genomes. An ancestral-type TAAR-like gene appeared to have emerged in lamprey. We found four therian-specific TAAR subfamilies (one eutherian-specific and three metatherian-specific) in addition to previously known nine subfamilies. Many species-specific TAAR gene duplications and losses contributed to a large variation of TAAR gene numbers among mammals, ranging from 0 in dolphin to 26 in flying fox. TAARs are classified into two groups based on binding preferences for primary or tertiary amines as well as their sequence similarities. Primary amine-detecting TAARs (TAAR1-4) have emerged earlier, generally have single-copy orthologs (very few duplication or loss), and have evolved under strong functional constraints. In contrast, tertiary amine-detecting TAARs (TAAR5-9) have emerged more recently and the majority of them experienced higher rates of gene duplications. Protein members that belong to the tertiary amine-detecting TAAR group also showed the patterns of positive selection especially in the area surrounding the ligand-binding pocket, which could have affected ligand-binding activities and specificities. Expansions of the tertiary amine-detecting TAAR gene family may have played important roles in terrestrial adaptations of therian mammals. Molecular evolution of the TAAR gene family appears to be governed by a complex, species-specific, interplay between environmental and evolutionary factors.
Project description:The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR(1)) is an aminergic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) potently activated by 3-iodothyronamine (1), an endogenous derivative of thyroid hormone. Structure-activity relationship studies on 1 and related agonists showed that the rat and mouse species of TAAR(1) accommodated structural modifications and functional groups on the ethylamine portion and the biaryl ether moiety of the molecule. However, the two receptors clearly exhibited distinct, species-specific ligand preferences despite being remarkably similar with 93% sequence similarity. In this study, we generated single and double mutants of rat and mouse TAAR(1) to probe the molecular recognition of agonists and the underlying basis for the ligand selectivity of rat and mouse TAAR(1). Key, nonconserved specificity determinant residues in transmembranes helices 4 and 7 within the ligand binding site appear to be the primary source of a number of the observed ligand preferences. Residue 7.39 in transmembrane 7 dictated the preference for a beta-phenyl ring, while residue 4.56 in transmembrane 4 was partially responsible for the lower potency of 1 and tyramine for the mouse receptor. Additionally, 1 and tyramine were found to have the same binding mode in rat TAAR(1) despite structure-activity relationship data suggesting the possibility of each molecule having different binding orientations. These findings provide valuable insights into the critical binding site residues involved in the ligand-receptor interaction that can influence compound selectivity and functional activity of aminergic GPCRs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (Taar1) is a Gs protein-coupled receptor activated by trace amines, such as ?-phenylethylamine (?-PEA) and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). T1AM is an endogenous biogenic amine and thyroid hormone derivative that exerts several biological functions. However, the physiological relevance of T1AM acting via Taar1 is still under discussion. Therefore, we studied the structural and functional evolution of Taar1 in vertebrates to provide evidence for a conserved Taar1-mediated T1AM function. STUDY DESIGN:We searched public sequence databases to retrieve Taar1 sequence information from vertebrates. We cloned and functionally characterized Taar1 from selected vertebrate species using cAMP assays to determine the evolutionary conservation of T1AM action at Taar1. RESULTS:We found intact open reading frames of Taar1 in more than 100 vertebrate species, including mammals, sauropsids and amphibians. Evolutionary conservation analyses of Taar1 protein sequences revealed a high variation in amino acid residues proposed to be involved in agonist binding, especially in rodent Taar1 orthologs. Functional characterization showed that T1AM, ?-PEA and p-tyramine (p-Tyr) act as agonists at all tested orthologs, but EC50 values of T1AM at rat Taar1 differed significantly when compared to all other tested vertebrate Taar1. CONCLUSIONS:The high structural conservation of Taar1 throughout vertebrate evolution highlights the physiological relevance of Taar1, but species-specific differences in T1AM potency at Taar1 orthologs suggest a specialization of rat Taar1 for T1AM recognition. In contrast, ?-PEA and p-Tyr potencies were rather conserved throughout all tested Taar1 orthologs. We provide evidence that the observed differences in potency are related to differences in constraint during Taar1 evolution.
Project description:AIMS:The trace amine-associated receptor (Taar) family displays high species- and subtype-specific pharmacology. Several trace amines such as ?-phenylethylamine (?-PEA), p-tyramine and tryptamine are agonists at TA(1) but poorly activate rat and mouse Taar4. PRINCIPAL RESULTS:Using rat TA(1) and Taar4 chimera, we identified determinants in transmembrane helices 3 and 6, which, when replaced by the corresponding portion of rat TA(1) , can rescue cell surface expression of rat Taar4. When expressed at the cell surface, rat Taar4 pharmacology was very similar to that of TA(1) and coupled to the G?(s) -protein/AC pathway. Our data suggest that binding pockets of Taar for surrogate agonists overlap between paralogs. CONCLUSIONS:This implicates that the repertoire of Taar ensures functional redundancy, tissue- and cell-specific expression and/or different downstream signalling rather than different agonist specificity.
Project description:The trace amine associated receptor family is a diverse array of GPCRs that arose before the first vertebrates walked on land. Trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a wide spectrum aminergic receptor that acts as a modulator in brain monoaminergic systems. Other trace amine associated receptors appear to relate to environmental perception and show a birth-and-death pattern in mammals similar to olfactory receptors.Across mammals, avians, and amphibians, the TAAR1 gene is intact and appears to be under strong purifying selection based on rates of amino acid fixation compared to neutral mutations. We have found that in dogs it has become a pseudogene. Our analyses using a comparative genetics approach revealed that the pseudogenization event predated the emergence of the Canini tribe rather than being coincident with canine domestication. By assessing the effects of the TAAR1 agonist beta-phenylethylamine on [3H]dopamine uptake in canine striatal synaptosomes and comparing the degree and pattern of uptake inhibition to that seen in other mammals, including TAAR1 knockout mice, wild type mice and rhesus monkey, we found that the TAAR1 pseudogenization event resulted in an uncompensated loss of function.The gene family has seen expansions among certain mammals, notably rodents, and reductions in others, including primates. By placing the trace amine associated receptors in an evolutionary context we can better understand their function and their potential associations with behavior and neurological disease.
Project description:Olfactory stimuli are detected by over 1,000 odorant receptors in mice, with each receptor being mapped to specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. The trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a small family of evolutionarily conserved olfactory receptors whose contribution to olfaction remains enigmatic. Here, we show that a majority of the TAARs are mapped to a discrete subset of glomeruli in the dorsal olfactory bulb of the mouse. This TAAR projection is distinct from the previously described class I and class II domains, and is formed by a sensory neuron population that is restricted to express TAAR genes prior to choice. We also show that the dorsal TAAR glomeruli are selectively activated by amines at low concentrations. Our data uncover a hard-wired, parallel input stream in the main olfactory pathway that is specialized for the detection of volatile amines.