Monoclonal antibody cocktail as an enrichment tool for acetylome analysis.
ABSTRACT: The availability and robustness of methods to analyze phosphorylated proteins has greatly expanded our knowledge of phosphorylation based cell signaling. A key ingredient to the success of these studies is the ability to enrich phosphopeptides using antibodies or other chemical approaches. Most other post-translational modifications, such as lysine acetylation, are still poorly characterized because of the lack of availability of such enrichment methods. Recently, some groups have reported identification of acetylation sites in a global fashion by enriching acetylated peptides with a polyclonal antibody from a single source that was raised against pan-acetylated lysine. Instead of the use of this polyclonal antibody, we used a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies where each was directed against acetylated lysine in different contexts. Using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry, we observed that the majority of acetylated lysine residues identified using the monoclonal antibody cocktail were distinct from those enriched by the polyclonal antibody used by the other groups. Our study demonstrates that immunoaffinity enrichment of acetylated peptides is somewhat limited by substrate specificity and that an optimal yield of enrichment can be achieved by employing a broader array of affinity reagents.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes a number of species of medical and veterinary importance. Inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs) exhibit potent antiparasitic activity, suggesting that interference with lysine acetylation pathways holds promise for future drug targeting. Using high resolution LC-MS/MS to identify parasite peptides enriched by immunopurification with acetyl-lysine antibody, we recently produced an acetylome of the proliferative intracellular stage of Toxoplasma. In this study, we used similar approaches to greatly expand the Toxoplasma acetylome by identifying acetylated proteins in non-replicating extracellular tachyzoites. The functional breakdown of acetylated proteins in extracellular parasites is similar to intracellular parasites, with an enrichment of proteins involved in metabolism, translation, and chromatin biology. Altogether, we have now detected over 700 acetylation sites on a wide variety of parasite proteins of diverse function in multiple subcellular compartments. We found 96 proteins uniquely acetylated in intracellular parasites, 216 uniquely acetylated in extracellular parasites, and 177 proteins acetylated in both states. Our findings suggest that dramatic changes occur at the proteomic level as tachyzoites transition from the intracellular to the extracellular environment, similar to reports documenting significant changes in gene expression during this transition. The expanded dataset also allowed a thorough analysis of the degree of protein intrinsic disorder surrounding lysine residues targeted for this post-translational modification. These analyses indicate that acetylated lysines in proteins from extracellular and intracellular tachyzoites are largely located within similar local environments, and that lysine acetylation preferentially occurs in intrinsically disordered or flexible regions.
Project description:Partial desiccation treatment (PDT) promotes the germination capacity of conifer somatic embryos. Lysine acetylation (LysAc) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays a key role in many biological processes including metabolic pathways and stress response. To investigate the functional impact of LysAc in the response of Picea asperata somatic embryos to PDT, we performed a global lysine acetylome analysis. Here, combining antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified and validated 1079 acetylation sites in 556 acetylated proteins from P. asperata somatic embryos during PDT. These data represent a novel large-scale dataset of lysine-acetylated proteins from the conifer family. Intensive bioinformatics analysis of the Gene Ontology of molecular functions demonstrated that lysine-acetylated proteins were mainly associated with binding, catalytic activities, and structural molecular activities. Functional characterization of the acetylated proteins revealed that in the desiccated somatic embryos, LysAc is mainly involved in the response to stress and central metabolism. Accordingly, the majority of these interacting proteins were also highly enriched in ribosome, proteasome, spliceosome, and carbon metabolism clusters. This work provides the most comprehensive profile of LysAc for a coniferous species obtained to date and facilitates the systematic study of the physiological role of LysAc in desiccated somatic embryos of P. asperata.
Project description:The lysine acetylation of proteins is a reversible post-translational modification that plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tuberculosis. Increasing evidence shows that lysine acetylation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis. However, only a few acetylated proteins of M. tuberculosis are known, presenting a major obstacle to understanding the functional roles of reversible lysine acetylation in this pathogen. We performed a global acetylome analysis of M. tuberculosis H37Ra by combining protein/peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and LC-MS/MS. In total, we identified 226 acetylation sites in 137 proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Ra. The identified acetylated proteins were functionally categorized into an interaction map and shown to be involved in various biological processes. Consistent with previous reports, a large proportion of the acetylation sites were present on proteins involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, and fatty acid metabolism. A NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase (MRA_1161) deletion mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Ra was constructed and its characterization showed a different colony morphology, reduced biofilm formation, and increased tolerance of heat stress. Interestingly, lysine acetylation was found, for the first time, to block the immunogenicity of a peptide derived from a known immunogen, HspX, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays a regulatory role in immunogenicity. Our data provide the first global survey of lysine acetylation in M. tuberculosis. The dataset should be an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in M. tuberculosis and facilitate the clarification of the entire metabolic networks of this life-threatening pathogen.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes.
Project description:Male infertility is a medical condition that has been on the rise globally. Lysine acetylation of human sperm, an essential posttranslational modification involved in the etiology of sperm abnormality, is not fully understood. Therefore, we first generated a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody to characterize the global lysine acetylation of uncapacitated normal human sperm with a proteomics approach. With high enrichment ratios that were up to 31%, 973 lysine-acetylated sites that matched to 456 human sperm proteins, including 671 novel lysine acetylation sites and 205 novel lysine-acetylated proteins, were identified. These proteins exhibited conserved motifs XXXKYXXX, XXXKFXXX, and XXXKHXXX, were annotated to function in multiple metabolic processes, and were localized predominantly in the mitochondrion and cytoplasmic fractions. Between the uncapacitated and capacitated sperm, different acetylation profiles in regard to functional proteins involved in sperm capacitation, sperm-egg recognition, sperm-egg plasma fusion, and fertilization were observed, indicating that acetylation of functional proteins may be required during sperm capacitation. Bioinformatics analysis revealed association of acetylated proteins with diseases and drugs. Novel acetylation of voltage-dependent anion channel proteins was also found. With clinical sperm samples, we observed differed lysine acetyltransferases and lysine deacetylases expression between normal sperm and abnormal sperm of asthenospermia or necrospermia. Furthermore, with sperm samples impaired by epigallocatechin gallate to mimic asthenospermia, we observed that inhibition of sperm motility was partly through the blockade of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 Lys-74 acetylation combined with reduced ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we obtained a qualified pan-anti-acetyllysine monoclonal antibody, analyzed the acetylproteome of uncapacitated human sperm, and revealed associations between functional protein acetylation and sperm functions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat, barley and other small grain cereals. During plant infection, the pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is harmful to human and livestock. FgGCN5 encodes a GCN5 acetyltransferase. The gene deletion mutant Fggcn5 failed to produce DON. We assumed that lysine acetylation might play a key regulatory role in DON biosynthesis in the fungus. RESULTS:In this study, the acetylome comparison between Fggcn5 mutant and wild-type strain PH-1 was performed by using affinity enrichment and high resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Totally, 1875 acetylated proteins were identified in Fggcn5 mutant and PH-1. Among them, 224 and 267 acetylated proteins were identified exclusively in Fggcn5 mutant and PH-1, respectively. Moreover, 95 differentially acetylated proteins were detected at a significantly different level in the gene deletion mutant:43 were up-regulated and 52 were down-regulated. GO enrichment and KEGG-pathways enrichment analyses revealed that acetylation plays a key role in metabolism process in F. graminearum. CONCLUSIONS:Seeing that the gens playing critical roles in DON biosynthesis either in Fggcn5 mutant or PH-1. Therefore, we can draw the conclusion that the regulatory roles of lysine acetylation in DON biosynthesis in F. graminearum results from the positive and negative regulation of the related genes. The study would be a foundation to insight into the regulatory mechanism of lysine acetylation on DON biosynthesis.
Project description:Seed germination is the first stage in wheat growth and development, directly affecting grain yield and quality. As an important post-translation modification, lysine acetylation participates in diverse biological functions. However, little is known regarding the quantitative acetylproteome characterization during wheat seed germination. In this study, we generated the first comparative proteomes and lysine acetylomes during wheat seed germination. In total, 5,639 proteins and 1,301 acetylated sites on 722 proteins were identified at 0, 12 and 24 h after imbibitions. Several particularly preferred amino acids were found near acetylation sites, including KacS, KacT, KacK, KacR, KacH, KacF, KacN, Kac*E, FKac and Kac*D, in the embryos during seed germination. Among them, KacH, KacF, FKac and KacK were conserved in wheat. Biosynthetic process, transcriptional regulation, ribosome and proteasome pathway related proteins were significantly enriched in both differentially expressed proteins and differentially acetylated proteins through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis. We also revealed that histone acetylation was differentially involved in epigenetic regulation during seed germination. Meanwhile, abscisic acid and stress related proteins were found with acetylation changes. In addition, we focused on 8 enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and found they were differentially acetylated during seed germination. Finally, a putative metabolic pathway was proposed to dissect the roles of protein acetylation during wheat seed germination. These results not only demonstrate that lysine acetylation may play key roles in seed germination of wheat but also reveal insights into the molecular mechanism of seed germination in this crop.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite capable of infecting a large number of warm-blooded animals and causes serious health complications in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii infection of the feline small intestine is critical for the completion of the life cycle and transmission of T. gondii. Protein acetylation is an important posttranslational modification, which plays roles in the regulation of various cellular processes. Therefore, understanding of how T. gondii reprograms the protein acetylation status of feline definitive host can help to thwart the production and spread of T. gondii. Here, we used affinity enrichment and high-resolution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to profile the alterations of the acetylome in cat small intestine 10 days after infection by T. gondii Prugniuad (Pru) strain. Our analysis showed that T. gondii induced significant changes in the acetylation of proteins in the cat intestine. We identified 2606 unique lysine acetylation sites in 1357 acetylated proteins. The levels of 334 acetylated peptides were downregulated, while the levels of 82 acetylated peptides were increased in the infected small intestine. The proteins with differentially acetylated peptides were particularly enriched in the bioenergetics-related processes, such as tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and oxidation-reduction. These results provide the first baseline of the global acetylome of feline small intestine following T. gondii infection and should facilitate further analysis of the role of acetylated protein in the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection in its definitive host.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation, a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, metabolism, enzymatic activities, and protein interactions. Brenneria nigrifluens is a pathogen of walnut trees with shallow bark canker and can cause serious disease in walnut trees. Until now, a little has been known about the roles of lysine acetylation in plant pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the lysine acetylome of B. nigrifluens was determined by high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, we identified 1,866 lysine acetylation sites distributed in 737 acetylated proteins. Bioinformatics results indicated that acetylated proteins participate in many different biological functions in B. nigrifluens. Four conserved motifs, namely, LKac , Kac *F, I*Kac , and L*Kac , were identified in this bacterium. Protein interaction network analysis indicated that all kinds of interactions are modulated by protein lysine acetylation. Overall, 12 acetylated proteins were related to the virulence of B. nigrifluens.