Predictors and outcomes of limited resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
ABSTRACT: Lobectomy is considered the standard treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, more limited resections are commonly performed. We examined patient and surgeon factors associated with limited resection and compared postoperative and long-term outcomes between sublobar and lobar resections.A population- and health system-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2003 and 2005 in five geographically defined regions, five integrated health-care delivery systems, and 15 Veterans Affairs hospitals was observed for a median of 55 months, through May 31, 2010. Predictors of limited resection and postoperative outcomes were compared using unadjusted and propensity score-weighted analyses. All P values are from two-sided tests.One hundred fifty-five (23%) patients underwent limited resection and 524 (77%) underwent lobectomy. In adjusted analyses of patient-specific factors, smaller tumor size (P = .004), coverage by Medicare or Medicaid, no insurance or unknown insurance (P = .02), more severe lung disease (P < .001), and a history of stroke (P = .049) were associated with receipt of limited resection. In adjusted analyses of surgeon characteristics, thoracic surgery specialty (P = .02), non-fee-for-service compensation (P = .008), and National Cancer Institute cancer center designation (P = .006) were associated with higher odds of limited resection. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was higher with limited resection than with lobectomy (7.1% vs 1.9%, difference = 5.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5% to 10.8%, P = .003), and the adjusted difference was not statistically significant (6.5% vs 2.9%, difference = 3.6%, 95% CI = -.1% to 9.2%, P = .09). Postoperative complications did not differ by type of surgery (all P > .05). Over the course of the study, a non-statistically significant trend toward improved long-term survival was evident for lobectomy, compared with limited resection, in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio of death = 1.35 for limited resection, 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.84, P = .05).Evidence is statistically inconclusive but suggestive that lobectomy, compared with limited resection, is associated with increased long-term survival for early-stage lung cancer. Clinical, socioeconomic, and surgeon factors appear to be associated with the choice of surgical resection.
Project description:Limited resection has been increasingly used in older patients with stage IA lung cancer. However, the equivalency of limited resection versus lobectomy according to histology is unknown.We identified patients older than 65 years with stage IA invasive adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma ? 2 cm who were treated with limited resection (wedge or segmentectomy) or lobectomy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. We estimated propensity scores that predicted the use of limited resection and compared survival of patients treated with limited resection versus lobectomy. Treatments were considered equivalent if the upper 95th percentile of the hazard ratio (HR) for limited resection was ? 1.25.Overall, 27% of 2,008 patients with adenocarcinoma and 32% of 1,139 patients with squamous cell carcinoma underwent limited resection. Survival analyses, adjusted for propensity score by using inverse probability weighting, showed that limited resection was not equivalent to lobectomy in patients with adenocarcinoma (HR, 1.21; upper 95% CI,1.34) or squamous cell carcinoma (HR, 1.21; upper 95% CI, 1.39). Although patients with adenocarcinomas treated with segmentectomy had equivalent survival rates to those treated with lobectomy (HR, 0.97; upper 95% CI, 1.07), outcomes of those treated with wedge resection (HR, 1.29; upper 95% CI, 1.42) did not. Among patients with squamous cell carcinoma, neither wedge resection (HR, 1.34; upper 95% CI, 1.53) nor segmentectomy (HR, 1.19; upper 95% CI, 1.36) were equivalent to lobectomy.We found generally that limited resection is not equivalent to lobectomy in older patients with invasive non-small-cell lung cancer ? 2 cm in size, although segmentectomy may be equivalent in patients with adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Background To investigate postoperative temporary consequences of the enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Patients and Methods We analyzed the clinical data of patients with lung adenocarcinoma admitted by the same surgical team of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from July 2019 to December 2019. Statistical methods including propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was used to analyze the differences among them. Results A total of 108 patients were enrolled, including 50 patients with sublobar resection and 58 patients with lobectomy. Before PSM, there were statistically significant differences in age (p=0.015), hospitalization costs (p=0.042), lymphadenectomy (p=0.000), pathological staging (p=0.000), number of lymph nodes removed (p=0.000), number of positive lymph nodes (p=0.034), chest drainage duration (p=0.000), total chest drainage (p=0.000), length of postoperative hospital stays (p=0.000), postoperative D-dimer level (p=0.030) and perioperative lymphocyte margin (LM) (p=0.003) between sublobar resection and lobectomy. After PSM, there were statistical differences in number of lymph nodes removed (p=0.000), chest drainage duration (p=0.031) and total chest drainage (p=0.002) between sublobar resection and lobectomy. Whether with PSM analysis or not, there were no significant differences in other blood test results, such as inflammation indicators, postoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), albumin level, perioperative activity of daily living (ADL) scale scoring margin, complications, postoperative admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and readmission within 30 days. NLR was associated with total chest drainage (p=0.000), length of postoperative hospital stays (p=0.000), postoperative D-dimer level (p=0.050) and ADL scale scoring margin (p=0.003) between sublobar resection and lobectomy. Conclusion Sublobar resection, including wedge resection and segmentectomy, was as safe and feasible as lobectomy in our study, and they shared similar short-term outcomes. Postoperative NLR could be used to detect the clinical outcomes of patients. Secondary resectability of pulmonary function (SRPF) should be the main purpose of sublobar resection.
Project description:RATIONALE:Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and open lobectomy are both standard of care for the treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) because of equivalent long-term survival. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate whether the improved perioperative outcomes associated with VATS lobectomy are explained by surgeon characteristics, including case volume and specialty training. METHODS:We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked registry to identify stage I-II NSCLC in patients above 65 years of age. We used a propensity score model to adjust for differences in patient characteristics undergoing VATS versus open lobectomy. Perioperative complications, extended length of stay, and perioperative mortality among patients were compared after adjustment for surgeon's volume and specialty using linear mixed models. We compared survival using a Cox model with robust standard errors. RESULTS:We identified 9,508 patients in the registry who underwent lobectomy for early-stage NSCLC. VATS lobectomies were more commonly performed by high-volume surgeons (P?<?0.001) and thoracic surgeons (P?=?0.01). VATS lobectomy was associated with decreased adjusted odds of cardiovascular complications (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47-0.90), thromboembolic complications (OR?=?0.47; 95% CI?=?0.38-0.58), extrapulmonary infections (OR?=?0.75; 95% CI?=?0.61-0.94), extended length of stay (OR?=?0.47; 95% CI?=?0.40-0.56), and perioperative mortality (OR?=?0.33; 95% CI?=?0.23-0.48) even after controlling for differences in surgeon volume and specialty. Long-term survival was equivalent for VATS and open lobectomy (hazard ratio?=?0.95; 95% CI?=?0.85-1.08) after controlling for patient and tumor characteristics, surgeon volume, and specialization. CONCLUSIONS:VATS lobectomy for NSCLC is associated with better postoperative outcomes, but similar long-term survival, compared with open lobectomy among older adults, even after controlling for surgeon experience.
Project description:Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) causes less postoperative pain than thoracotomy; however, adequate analgesia remains vital. As part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesia, a continuous surgeon-placed extrapleural block catheter is an option. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of a continuous extrapleural block as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen after VATS in general, and VATS lobectomy and wedge resection in particular. Methods: Case records for patients having undergone VATS surgery and been provided a multi-level continuous extrapleural block with an elastomeric pump infusing levobupivacaine 2.7 mg/ml at a rate of 5 ml/h during 2015 and 2016 were reviewed. Pain (Numeric Rating Scale) at rest and mobilisation as well as opioid requirement (daily, postoperative days 0-3, as well as accumulated) were analysed. Results: In all, 454 records were reviewed: 150 wedge resections, 264 lobectomies and 40 miscellaneous cases. At rest, pain was mild median NRS rated 3-3-1-1 for postoperative day (POD) 0 to 3, during movement, pain was rated moderate during POD 0 and 1 and mild the remaining days (median NRS 4-4-3-3 for POD 0-3). The proportion of patients exhibiting mild pain at rest increased from 55% on POD 0 to 81 % on POD 3. The percentage of patients experiencing severe pain at rest decreased from 15% to 6%. Median oxycodone consumption was 10 mg per day for POD 1-3. Pain after VATS wedge resection was significantly lower at POD 1 and 3 compared to pain after VATS lobectomy. Conclusion: We found a continuous surgeon-placed extrapleural catheter block to be a valuable and seemingly safe addition to our multimodal procedure specific analgesia after VATS. Whether the efficacy of the block can be improved by increasing local anaesthetic and/or adding adjuncts warrants further investigation.
Project description:The incidence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among the elderly is expected to rise dramatically owing to demographic trends and increased computed tomographic screening. However, to our knowledge, no modern trials have compared the most common treatments for NSCLC.To determine clinical characteristics and survival outcomes associated with the 3 most commonly used definitive therapies for early-stage NSCLC in the elderly.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database linked to Medicare was used to determine the baseline characteristics and outcomes of 9093 patients with early-stage, node-negative NSCLC who underwent definitive treatment consisting of lobectomy, sublobar resection, or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009.Overall and lung cancer-specific survival were compared using Medicare claims through December 31, 2012. We used proportional hazards regression and propensity score matching to adjust outcomes for key patient, tumor, and practice environment factors.The median age was 75 years, and treatment distribution was 79.3% for lobectomy, 16.5% for sublobar resection, and 4.2% for SABR. Unadjusted 90-day mortality was highest for lobectomy (4.0%) followed by sublobar resection (3.7%; P = .79) and SABR (1.3%; P = .008). At 3 years, unadjusted mortality was lowest for lobectomy (25.0%), followed by sublobar resection (35.3%; P < .001) and SABR (45.1%; P < .001). Proportional hazards regression demonstrated that sublobar resection was associated with worse overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.20-1.44]; P < .001) and lung cancer-specific survival (AHR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.29-1.75]; P < .001) compared with lobectomy. Propensity score-matching analysis reiterated these findings for overall survival (AHR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.17-1.58]; P < .001) and lung cancer-specific survival (AHR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.13-1.90]; P = .004). In proportional hazards regression, SABR was associated with better overall survival than lobectomy in the first 6 months after diagnosis (AHR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.27-0.75]; P < .001) but worse survival thereafter (AHR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.39-1.99]; P < .001). Propensity score-matching analysis of well-matched SABR and lobectomy cohorts demonstrated similar overall survival in both groups (AHR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.74-1.38]; P = .94).Lobectomy was associated with better outcomes than sublobar resection in elderly patients with early-stage NSCLC. Propensity score matching suggests that SABR may be a good option among patients with very advanced age and multiple comorbidities.
Project description:To assess the mediation of smoking-associated postoperative mortality by postoperative complications.Observational cohort study.Using data from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Surgical Quality Improvement Programme, a quality assurance programme for major surgical procedures in the VA healthcare system, we assessed the association of current smoking at the time of the surgery with 6-month and 1-year mortality.Using mediation analyses, we calculated the relative contribution of each smoking-associated complication to smoking-associated postoperative mortality, both unadjusted and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, work relative value unit of the operation, surgeon specialty, American Society of Anesthesiologists class and year of surgery. Smoking-associated complications included surgical site infection (SSI), cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest and/or stroke) and pulmonary complications (pneumonia, failure to wean and/or reintubation).There were 186 632 never smokers and 135 741 current smokers. The association of smoking and mortality was mediated by smoking-related complications with varying effects. In unadjusted analyses, the proportions of mediation of smoking to 6-month mortality explained by the complications were as follows: SSIs 22%, cardiovascular complications 12% and pulmonary complications 89%. In adjusted analyses, the per cents mediated by each complication were as follows: SSIs 2%, cardiovascular complications 4% and pulmonary complications 22%. In adjusted analyses for 1-year mortality, respective per cents mediated were 2%, 3% and 16%.Pulmonary complications, followed by cardiovascular complications and SSIs were mediators of smoking-associated 6-month and 1-year mortality. Interventions targeting smoking cessation and prevention and early treatment of pulmonary complications has the likelihood of reducing postoperative mortality after elective surgery.
Project description:Background:The development of minimally invasive surgical approaches has revolutionized surgical care and greatly improved surgical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a powered vascular stapler (PVS) during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy. Methods:This prospective, multi-center, post-market clinical study in China enrolled 50 patients with either a suspected or formal diagnosis of clinical stage IA to IIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) scheduled for VATS lobectomy. The clinical effectiveness of the PVS for successful pulmonary artery (PA)/pulmonary vein (PV) transection was evaluated. In addition, the surgeon's stress, device usability, and surgeon satisfaction were measured using multiple questionnaires. Results:A total of 167 PAs/PVs were transected with 3 (1.8%) requiring intra-operative intervention. Fourteen of the 50 patients (28.0%) experienced at least one adverse event (AE), among whom 5 (10.0%) suffered from serious AEs. There were no postoperative hemorrhagic complications related to transection of the PA/PV with PVS. Surgeon satisfaction was surveyed by questionnaire after each of the 50 procedures resulting in a 96% reported satisfaction with device usability, specifically related to a low stress load and an increase in work efficiency. Conclusions:For VATS lobectomy, the PVS demonstrated a positive surgical effectiveness and value in cognitive and physical distress reduction. Complications following VATS lobectomy to treat NSCLC were generally low and as expected. Intraoperative complications were few and there were no postoperative complications related to the transection of the PA and PV during VATS lobectomy. Favorable results were reported on the surgeon satisfaction questionnaire regarding usability and surgeon stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In early-stage lung adenocarcinomas, spread through air spaces (STAS) are reported to be a prognostic factor in patients who have undergone sublobar resection, but not lobectomy. In contrast, reports have also shown that STAS is significantly associated with poor survival outcomes after lobectomy, but not after limited resection. Thus, the prognostic impact of STAS differs according to published reports. METHODS:A total of 82 patients with early-stage adenocarcinomas who underwent limited resection and whose STAS status could be examined were enrolled in this retrospective study. We evaluated the association between STAS and clinicopathological characteristics and postoperative survival. RESULTS:Among 82 patients, 31 (37.8%) were positive for STAS, while 51 (62.2%) were negative. STAS was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (P < 0.01), lower histological differentiation (P = 0.01), and the presence of pleural invasion (P = 0.01). Patients with STAS had significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those without STAS (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). According to multivariate analysis, positivity for STAS was an independent prognostic parameter for RFS (P < 0.01), but not OS (P = 0.45). Three patients who developed surgical margin recurrence and one patient who developed distant recurrence were all positive for STAS. CONCLUSIONS:STAS was predictive of poor postoperative survival in patients with early-stage adenocarcinomas treated with limited resection and was associated with surgical margin recurrence.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The influence of obesity on the outcomes of curative liver resection for malignancies remains controversial. We aimed to compare the in-hospital outcomes of liver resection for malignancy between obese and non-obese patients. DESIGN:This was a population-based, retrospective, observational study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), the largest all-payer US inpatient care database. SETTING:Hospitalisations of adults ≥18 years old with diagnoses of primary hepatobiliary malignancy or secondary malignant neoplasms of liver in the USA were identified from the NIS database between 2005 and 2014. PARTICIPANTS:Data of 18 398 patients ≥18 years old and underwent liver resection without pancreatic resection in the NIS were extracted. All included subjects had primary hepatobiliary malignancy or secondary malignant neoplasms of the liver. Patients were divided into obese and non-obese groups. These groups were compared with respect to postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and hospital cost according to surgical extent and approach. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were undergoing lobectomy of liver or partial hepatectomy. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary endpoints of this study were postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and hospital cost. RESULTS:After adjustment, obese patients were significantly more likely to experience postoperative complications than were non-obese patients (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.42), regardless of whether lobectomy or partial hepatectomy was performed. Furthermore, obesity was significantly associated with increased risk of postoperative complications in patients who underwent open liver resection, but not laparoscopic resection. No significant difference was observed in length of hospital stay or total hospital costs between obese and non-obese patients. CONCLUSIONS:After adjustment for preoperative comorbidities and other potential confounders, obesity is significantly associated with greater risk of complications in patients undergoing open liver resection for malignancy, but not laparoscopic resection.
Project description:Robotic rectal cancer surgery is gaining popularity, but limited data are available regarding safety and efficacy.To compare robotic-assisted vs conventional laparoscopic surgery for risk of conversion to open laparotomy among patients undergoing resection for rectal cancer.Randomized clinical trial comparing robotic-assisted vs conventional laparoscopic surgery among 471 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma suitable for curative resection conducted at 29 sites across 10 countries, including 40 surgeons. Recruitment of patients was from January 7, 2011, to September 30, 2014, follow-up was conducted at 30 days and 6 months, and final follow-up was on June 16, 2015.Patients were randomized to robotic-assisted (n?=?237) or conventional (n?=?234) laparoscopic rectal cancer resection, performed by either high (upper rectum) or low (total rectum) anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection (rectum and perineum).The primary outcome was conversion to open laparotomy. Secondary end points included intraoperative and postoperative complications, circumferential resection margin positivity (CRM+) and other pathological outcomes, quality of life (36-Item Short Form Survey and 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), bladder and sexual dysfunction (International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function, and Female Sexual Function Index), and oncological outcomes.Among 471 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [11.0] years; 320 [67.9%] men), 466 (98.9%) completed the study. The overall rate of conversion to open laparotomy was 10.1%: 19 of 236 patients (8.1%) in the robotic-assisted laparoscopic group and 28 of 230 patients (12.2%) in the conventional laparoscopic group (unadjusted risk difference?=?4.1% [95% CI, -1.4% to 9.6%]; adjusted odds ratio?=?0.61 [95% CI, 0.31 to 1.21]; P?=?.16). The overall CRM+ rate was 5.7%; CRM+ occurred in 14 (6.3%) of 224 patients in the conventional laparoscopic group and 12 (5.1%) of 235 patients in the robotic-assisted laparoscopic group (unadjusted risk difference?=?1.1% [95% CI, -3.1% to 5.4%]; adjusted odds ratio?=?0.78 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.76]; P?=?.56). Of the other 8 reported prespecified secondary end points, including intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, plane of surgery, 30-day mortality, bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction, none showed a statistically significant difference between groups.Among patients with rectal adenocarcinoma suitable for curative resection, robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, as compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery, did not significantly reduce the risk of conversion to open laparotomy. These findings suggest that robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, when performed by surgeons with varying experience with robotic surgery, does not confer an advantage in rectal cancer resection.isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN80500123.