Emerging new uses of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases.
ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic degradation of cyclic GMP - an essential intracellular second messenger that modulates diverse biological processes in living cells. Three selective inhibitors of PDE-5 - sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil - have been successfully used by millions of men worldwide for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Also, sildenafil and tadalafil are currently approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Recent powerful basic science data and clinical studies suggest potential nonurological applications of PDE-5 inhibitors, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and other circulatory disorders including Raynaud's phenomenon. Future carefully controlled clinical trials would hopefully expedite their expanding therapeutic use in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nitrergic neurons are important for erectile responses in the corpus cavernosum and impaired signalling results in erectile dysfunction, today treated successfully by oral administration of the selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil. Although the importance of nitrergic neurons in urogenital function has become evident, it has not been investigated if the PDE 5 inhibitors affect the nerve-induced release of nitric oxide (NO). In a previous study we found that the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway might modulate nerve-induced release of NO in isolated cavernous tissue. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Electrical field stimulation (EFS 5 Hz, 40 V, 0.3 ms pulse duration, 25 pulses at intervals of 2 min) of rabbit isolated cavernous tissue elicited reproducible, nerve-mediated relaxations in the presence of scopolamine (10(-5) M), guanethidine (10(-5) M) and phenylephrine (3 x 10(-6) M). In superfusion experiments, nerve stimulation (20 Hz, 40 V, 1 ms) of the cavernous tissue evoked release of NO/NO2-, measured by chemiluminescence. KEY RESULTS: Sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil decreased the muscular tone and prolonged the relaxations to nerve stimulation. The evoked release of NO decreased to 72+/-11%, 55+/-16% and 61+/-14% of control, respectively after addition of sildenafil, tadalafil or vardenafil (all 10(-4) M, n=6-8, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Selective PDE 5 inhibitors influence the nerve-induced release of NO, probably via cGMP-mediated negative feedback. This negative feedback might explain why priapism is not seen during monotherapy with the PDE inhibitors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There are no randomised and properly blinded trials directly comparing one PDE-5 inhibitor with another in a normal home setting. Valid indirect comparisons with a common comparator must examine equivalent doses, similar duration, similar populations, with the same outcomes reported in the same way. METHODS: Published randomised, double-blind trials of oral PDE-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction were sought from reference lists in previous reviews and electronic searching. Analyses of efficacy and harm were carried out for each treatment, and results compared where there was a common comparator and consistency of outcome reporting, using equivalent doses. RESULTS: Analysis was limited by differential reporting of outcomes. Sildenafil trials were clinically and geographically more diverse. Tadalafil and vardenafil trials tended to use enriched enrollment. Using all trials, the three interventions were similar for consistently reported efficacy outcomes. Rates of successful intercourse for sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil were 65%, 62%, and 59%, with placebo rates of 23-28%. The rates of improved erections were 76%, 75% and 71%, respectively, with placebo rates of 22-24%, and NNTs of 1.9 or 2.0. Reporting of withdrawals was less consistent, but all-cause withdrawals for sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil were 8% 13% and 20%. All three drugs were well tolerated, with headache being the most commonly reported event at 13-17%. There were few serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: There were differences between trials in outcomes reported, limiting comparisons, and the most useful outcomes were not reported. For common outcomes there was similar efficacy between PDE-5 inhibitors.
Project description:Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Recently, several groups have evaluated the ability of PDE5 inhibitors for their anticancer activities. Previously, we had shown that sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil could reverse P-glycoprotein (ATP-binding cassette B1)-mediated MDR. In the present study, we determined whether these PDE5 inhibitors have the potential to reverse multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7; ATP-binding cassette C10)-mediated MDR. We found that sildenafil and vardenafil dose-dependently enhanced the sensitivity of MRP7-transfected HEK293 cells to paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine, while tadalafil had only a minimal effect. Accumulation and efflux experiments demonstrated that sildenafil and vardenafil increased the intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-paclitaxel by inhibiting the efflux of [(3 H]-paclitaxel in HEK/MRP7 cells. In addition, immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses indicated that no significant alterations of MRP7 protein expression and localization in plasma membranes were found after treatment with sildenafil, vardenafil or tadalafil. These results demonstrate that sildenafil and vardenafil reverse MRP7-mediated a MDR through inhibition of the drug efflux function of MRP7. Our findings indicate a potentially novel use of PDE5 inhibitors as an adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent in clinical practice.
Project description:Erectile dysfunction (ED) affected the lives of more than 300 million men worldwide. Erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), known as phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), have been used for treatment of ED. It has been shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of erectile dysfunction. Oxidative stress can be alleviated or decreased by antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase as well as protein expression of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase after treatment of male rats with a daily dose of sildenafil (1.48 mg/kg), tadalafil (0.285 mg/kg) and vardenafil (0.285 mg/kg) for three weeks. In addition, levels of reduced glutathione and malondialdyhyde (MDA) were assayed. The present study showed that sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil treatments significantly decreased the levels of glutathione, MDA and the activity of glutathione reductase. In addition, vardenafil and sildenafil increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Interestingly, western immunoblotting data showed that vardenafil induced the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and its protein expression, whereas tadalafil and sildenafil inhibited such enzyme activity and its protein expression. In addition, the protein expression of GST ? isozyme was markedly reduced after treatment of rats with sildenafil. It is concluded that ED drugs induced the activities of both SOD and catalase which consequently decreased MDA level. Therefore, decrement in MDA levels could increase nitric oxide-cGMP level which in turn promotes the erection mechanism.
Project description:The Erectile Dysfunction Observational Study (EDOS) is a 6-months observational prospective multicentric study enrolling men with erectile dysfunction (ED) who asked, to be started on a treatment or to change a previous treatment. Aims of the study were to analyse the pattern of treatment and compare the efficacy of treatments used. Patients were enrolled during a normal hospital visit and were prescribed a treatment for ED. They were asked at baseline and after 3 and 6 months, to answer a set of questions from the International Index of Erectile Function, Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) and Short Form of the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationships Scale questionnaires (SF-PAIRS). Clinicians were free to prescribe any therapy for ED available in the market, and to change therapy at any time during the study. Out of 1 338 patients, available for analysis at 6 months, 624 (47%) changed their treatment during the study and 714 (53%) continued with the drug prescribed at baseline. Patients assuming tadalafil had a significantly higher probability of maintaining the same treatment compared to sildenafil or vardenafil. There was no clinically significant difference in terms of efficacy, patient satisfaction, self-confidence and spontaneity between the different inhibitors of PDE5. The 'time concerns' domain score of SF-PAIRS, was statistically better in patients assuming tadalafil. In conclusion sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil show similar efficacy in the clinical practice. However, patients receiving tadalafil display a lower risk to discontinue or change the treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors constitute a novel and important therapeutic option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. The effects of the PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil on rabbit isolated pulmonary artery ring preparations and on intracellular Ca2+ concentration of thrombin-stimulated human platelets were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rabbit pulmonary artery rings were mounted in 10 mL organ bath containing Krebs solution. Tissues were connected to force-displacement transducers, and changes in isometric force were recorded. Ca2+ flux in human washed platelets was measured. KEY RESULTS: Sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil (0.0001-10 microM) concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded pulmonary artery rings. Endothelium denudation caused rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves to sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil (9-, 12- and 123-fold, respectively). Incubation with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 microM) or ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one) (10 microM) caused similar reductions of PDE5-induced vasorelaxations in intact rings. Sildenafil and tadalafil did not affect the phenylephrine-induced contractions, whereas vardenafil reduced the maximal responses, and shifted the phenylephrine-induced contraction curves to the right in endothelium-denuded rings (5- and 19-fold for 1 and 10 microM, respectively). Vardenafil (but neither sildenafil nor tadalafil) caused a marked rightward shift and a decrease of maximal contractile response to CaCl2. Vardenafil, but neither sildenafil nor tadalafil, significantly reduced the Ca2+ mobilization and Ca2+ influx in thrombin-stimulated washed platelets. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our results indicate that vardenafil, in contrast to sildenafil or tadalafil, also blocked Ca2+ fluxes, thus enhancing its vasorelaxation of the pulmonary artery.
Project description:The essential biological function of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type enzymes is to regulate the cytoplasmic levels of intracellular second messengers, 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and/or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). PDE targets have 11 isoenzymes. Of these enzymes, PDE5 has attracted a special attention over the years after its recognition as being the target enzyme in treating erectile dysfunction. Due to the amino acid sequence and the secondary structural similarity of PDE6 and PDE11 with the catalytic domain of PDE5, first-generation PDE5 inhibitors (i.e. sildenafil and vardenafil) are also competitive inhibitors of PDE6 and PDE11. Since the major challenge of designing novel PDE5 inhibitors is to decrease their cross-reactivity with PDE6 and PDE11, in this study, we attempt to identify potent tadalafil-like PDE5 inhibitors that have PDE5/PDE6 and PDE5/PDE11 selectivity. For this aim, the similarity-based virtual screening protocol is applied for the "clean drug-like subset of ZINC database" that contains more than 20 million small compounds. Moreover, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of selected hits complexed with PDE5 and off-targets were performed in order to get insights for structural and dynamical behaviors of the selected molecules as selective PDE5 inhibitors. Since tadalafil blocks hERG1 K channels in concentration dependent manner, the cardiotoxicity prediction of the hit molecules was also tested. Results of this study can be useful for designing of novel, safe and selective PDE5 inhibitors.
Project description:Vardenafil has higher affinity to phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) than sildenafil and lower administered dosage for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, the molecular basis for these differences is puzzling because two drugs have similar chemical structures. Reported here is a crystal structure of the fully active and nonmutated PDE5A1 catalytic domain in complex with vardenafil. The structure shows that the conformation of the H-loop in the PDE5A1-vardenafil complex is different from those of any known structures of the unliganded PDE5 and its complexes with the inhibitors. In addition, the molecular configuration of vardenafil differs from that of sildenafil when bound to PDE5. It is noteworthy that the binding of vardenafil causes loss of the divalent metal ions that have been observed in all the previously published PDE structures. The conformational variation of both PDE5 and the inhibitors provides structural insight into the different potencies of the drugs.
Project description:Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that degrade cellular cAMP and cGMP and are thus essential for regulating the cyclic nucleotides. At least 11 families of PDEs have been identified, each with a distinctive structure, activity, expression, and tissue distribution. The PDE type-3, -4, and -5 (PDE3, PDE4, PDE5) are localized to specific regions of the cardiomyocyte, such as the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Z-disc, where they are likely to influence cAMP/cGMP signaling to the end effectors of contractility. Several PDE inhibitors exhibit remarkable hemodynamic and inotropic properties that may be valuable to clinical practice. In particular, PDE3 inhibitors have potent cardiotonic effects that can be used for short-term inotropic support, especially in situations where adrenergic stimulation is insufficient. Most relevant to this review, PDE inhibitors have also been found to have cytoprotective effects in the heart. For example, PDE3 inhibitors have been shown to be cardioprotective when given before ischemic attack, whereas PDE5 inhibitors, which include three widely used erectile dysfunction drugs (sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil), can induce remarkable cardioprotection when administered either prior to ischemia or upon reperfusion. This article provides an overview of the current laboratory and clinical evidence, as well as the cellular mechanisms by which the inhibitors of PDE3, PDE4 and PDE5 exert their beneficial effects on normal and ischemic hearts. It seems that PDE inhibitors hold great promise as clinically applicable agents that can improve cardiac performance and cell survival under critical situations, such as ischemic heart attack, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, and heart failure.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Infertility is a global health problem with about 15 percent of couples involved. About half of the cases of infertility are related to male-related factors. A major cause of infertility in men is oxidative stress, which refers to an imbalance between levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. Erectile dysfunction drugs (EDD), known as phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), have been used for the treatment of ED. It has been shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of erectile dysfunction. Oxidative stress can be alleviated or decreased by non-antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. The present study was undertaken to determine if these compounds could have a role in the incidence of infertility, especially after long-term use. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of EDD on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, free radical levels as well as the protein expression of different cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the steroidogenesis of different hormones. In addition, the activity of both 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-ketosteroid reductase were assayed. The architectures of both livers and testes cells were investigated under the influence of EDD. METHODS:A daily dose of Sildenafil (1.48 mg/kg), Tadalafil (0.285 mg/kg) and Vardenafil (0.285 mg/kg) were administered orally to male rabbits for 12 week. Western immunoblotting, ELISA, spectrophotometric and histopathological techniques were used in this study. RESULTS:The present study showed that Sildenafil, Vardenafil, and Tadalafil treatments significantly decreased the levels of glutathione and free radicals in both livers and testes of rabbits. Also, Vardenafil and Sildenafil induced the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase whereas, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activities inhibited in livers of rabbits. The protein expression of cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP 11A1, 21A2, and 19C) which are involved in the steroidogenesis was markedly changed in both livers and testes of rabbits after their treatments for 12 weeks. After the treatment of rabbits with these medication, the protein expression of CYP11A1 was slightly down-regulated in both livers and testes except Sildenafil up-regulated such protein expression. In addition, the protein expressions of CYP11A1 and CYP 19C in both livers and testes were down-regulated after treatment of rabbits with Sildenafil, Vardenafil, and Tadalafil for 12 weeks. Also, these drugs inhibited the activity of both 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-ketosteroid reductase in testes of rabbits. Moreover, Sildenafil, Vardenafil, and Tadalafil-treated rabbits showed a decrease in spermatocytes and the number of sperms in the testes. CONCLUSIONS:It is concluded that ED drugs induced the activities of both SOD and catalase which consequently decreased MDA level. Decrement in MDA levels and oxidative stress could therefore sustain the erection for a long period of time. On the other hand, it is not advised to use these drugs for a long-term since the protein expressions of CYP isozymes involved in steroidogenesis as well as the numbers of spermatocytes in testes were decreased.