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Fixation of oligosaccharides to a surface may increase the susceptibility to human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, or 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase.

ABSTRACT: The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) both binds (H) and cleaves (N) oligosaccharides that contain N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). H is thought to correspond to receptor binding and N to receptor-destroying activity. At present, N's role in infection remains unclear: does it destroy only receptors, or are there other targets? We previously demonstrated that hPIV1 and 3 HNs bind to oligosaccharides containing the motif Neu5Ac?2-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc (M. Amonsen, D. F. Smith, R. D. Cummings, and G. M. Air, J. Virol. 81:8341-8345, 2007). In the present study, we tested the binding specificity of hPIV2 on the Consortium for Functional Glycomics' glycan array and found that hPIV2 binds to oligosaccharides containing the same motif. We determined the specificities of N on red blood cells, soluble small-molecule and glycoprotein substrates, and the glycan array and compared them to the specificities of H. hPIV2 and -3, but not hPIV1, cleaved their ligands on red blood cells. hPIV1, -2, and -3 cleaved their NeuAc?2-3 ligands on the glycan array; hPIV2 and -3 also cleaved NeuAc?2-6 ligands bound by influenza A virus. While all three HNs exhibited similar affinities for all cleavable soluble substrates, their activities were 5- to 10-fold higher on small molecules than on glycoproteins. In addition, some soluble glycoproteins were not cleaved, despite containing oligosaccharides that were cleaved on the glycan array. We conclude that the susceptibility of an oligosaccharide substrate to N increases when the substrate is fixed to a surface. These findings suggest that HN may undergo a conformational change that activates N upon receptor binding at a cell surface.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC3209406 | BioStudies | 2011-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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