A mutation in the UBIAD1 gene in a Han Chinese family with Schnyder corneal dystrophy.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify the molecular defect in the UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1) gene in a four-generation Chinese family with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD). METHODS: A four-generation Chinese family with SCD and 50 unrelated normal individuals as controls were enrolled in. The complete ophthalmic examination was performed and blood samples were taken for subsequent genetic analysis. Mutation screening of UBIAD1 was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The missense mutation N102S in UBIAD1 was identified in this pedigree from the mainland of China for the first time. The molecular defect cosegregates with the affected individuals, whereas not found in unaffected family members or normal controls. CONCLUSIONS: The nonsynonymous mutation, N102S, in UBIAD1 detected in this family confirms that it is a mutation hot spot not only in Caucasian but also in Chinese. This finding adds support to the proposal that N102S has been independently mutated and argues against the likelihood of a founder effect.
Project description:PURPOSE: To identify the molecular defect causing Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy (SCCD) in a Chinese family with bilateral corneal abnormalities. METHODS: The Chinese SCCD family was subjected to a complete ophthalmic examination that included slit-lamp examination and slit-lamp photography to assess and document the crystalline deposits and arcus lipoides. In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy and Fourier-domain OCT were also performed on both eyes of SCCD patients. Blood samples were taken for subsequent genetic analysis. The two coding exons of the UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein 1 (UBIAD1) gene were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. RESULTS: We report on a novel heterozygous mutation of UBIAD1, G98S, in two patients with SCCD. The identified molecular defect cosegregates with the disease and is not found in 50 unaffected individuals. Morphological evaluation on SCCD by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy and Fourier-domain OCT highlighted pathological observations at the level of Bowman's membrane and anterior stroma. CONCLUSION: The newly identified mutation expands the spectrum of mutations in UBIAD1 that may cause pathological corneal cholesterol deposition. Observations by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy and Fourier-domain OCT were consistent with the previous histopathologic descriptions of SCCD.
Project description:Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare genetic eye disease characterized by corneal opacification resulted from deposition of excess free cholesterol. UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) is an enzyme catalyzing biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin K2. More than 20 UBIAD1 mutations have been found to associate with human SCD. How these mutants contribute to SCD development is not fully understood. Here, we identified HMGCR as a binding partner of UBIAD1 using mass spectrometry. In contrast to the Golgi localization of wild-type UBIAD1, SCD-associated mutants mainly resided in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and competed with Insig-1 for HMGCR binding, thereby preventing HMGCR from degradation and increasing cholesterol biosynthesis. The heterozygous Ubiad1 G184R knock-in (Ubiad1G184R/+) mice expressed elevated levels of HMGCR protein in various tissues. The aged Ubiad1G184R/+ mice exhibited corneal opacification and free cholesterol accumulation, phenocopying clinical manifestations of SCD patients. In summary, these results demonstrate that SCD-associated mutations of UBIAD1 impair its ER-to-Golgi transportation and enhance its interaction with HMGCR. The stabilization of HMGCR by UBIAD1 increases cholesterol biosynthesis and eventually causes cholesterol accumulation in the cornea.
Project description:Purpose. To report the identification of the first de novo UBIAD1 missense mutation in an individual with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD). Methods. A slit lamp examination was performed on a 47-year-old woman without a family history of corneal disorders. The proband's parents, two sisters, and son were also examined and genomic DNA from all six individuals was collected. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of UBIAD1 were screened using Sanger sequencing. Identified mutations were screened for in 200 control chromosomes. In silico analysis predicted the impact of identified mutations on protein function and structure. Results. Slit lamp examination of the proband revealed findings consistent with SCD. Corneas of the family members appeared unaffected. Screening of UBIAD1 in the proband identified a novel heterozygous c.308C>T mutation, predicted to encode the missense amino acid substitution p.(Thr103Ile). This mutation was not identified in any of the family members or in 200 control chromosomes and was predicted to be damaging to normal protein function and structure. Conclusions. We present a novel heterozygous de novo missense mutation in UBIAD1, p.(Thr103Ile), identified in a patient with classic clinical features of SCD. This highlights the value of genetic testing in clinical diagnostic settings, even in the absence of a positive family history.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in a novel gene, UBIAD1, were recently found to cause the autosomal dominant eye disease Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD). SCD is characterized by an abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea resulting in progressive corneal opacification and visual loss. We characterized lesions in the UBIAD1 gene in new SCD families and examined protein homology, localization, and structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We characterized five novel mutations in the UBIAD1 gene in ten SCD families, including a first SCD family of Native American ethnicity. Examination of protein homology revealed that SCD altered amino acids which were highly conserved across species. Cell lines were established from patients including keratocytes obtained after corneal transplant surgery and lymphoblastoid cell lines from Epstein-Barr virus immortalized peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for UBIAD1 protein in keratocytes revealed that both wild type and N102S protein were localized sub-cellularly to mitochondria. Analysis of cholesterol metabolites in patient cell line extracts showed no significant alteration in the presence of mutant protein indicating a potentially novel function of the UBIAD1 protein in cholesterol biochemistry. Molecular modeling was used to develop a model of human UBIAD1 protein in a membrane and revealed potentially critical roles for amino acids mutated in SCD. Potential primary and secondary substrate binding sites were identified and docking simulations indicated likely substrates including prenyl and phenolic molecules. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Accumulating evidence from the SCD familial mutation spectrum, protein homology across species, and molecular modeling suggest that protein function is likely down-regulated by SCD mutations. Mitochondrial UBIAD1 protein appears to have a highly conserved function that, at least in humans, is involved in cholesterol metabolism in a novel manner.
Project description:PURPOSE:Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare inherited disease that leads to gradual vision loss by the deposition of lipids in the corneal stroma. The aim of this study is to report a novel pathogenic variant in the UBIAD1 gene and present clinical and molecular findings in Polish patients with SCD. METHODS:Individuals (n?=?37) originating from four Polish SCD families were subjected for a complete ophthalmological check-up and genetic testing. Corneal changes were visualized by slit-lamp examination, anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT), and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). RESULTS:In a proband with primarily mild SCD that progressed rapidly at the end of the fifth decade of life, a novel missense pathogenic variant in UBIAD1 (p.Thr120Arg) was identified. The other studied SCD family represents the second family reported worldwide with the UBIAD1 p.Asp112Asn variant. SCD in the remaining two families resulted from a frequently identified p.Asn102Ser pathogenic variant. All affected subjects presented a crystalline form of SCD. The severity of corneal changes was age-dependent, and their morphology and localization are described in detail. CONCLUSION:The novel p.Thr120Arg is the fourth SCD-causing variant lying within the FARM motif of the UBIAD1 protein, which underlines a high importance of this motif for SCD pathogenesis. The current study provides independent evidence for the pathogenic potential of UBIAD1 p.Asp112Asn and new information useful for clinicians.
Project description:Autosomal-dominant Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is characterized by corneal opacification owing to overaccumulation of cholesterol. SCD is caused by mutations in UBIAD1, which utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize vitamin K2. Using cultured cells, we previously showed that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR), thereby inhibiting its endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) (Schumacher et al. 2015). GGpp triggers release of UBIAD1 from HMGCR, allowing maximal ERAD and ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. SCD-associated UBIAD1 resists GGpp-induced release and is sequestered in ER to inhibit ERAD. We now report knockin mice expressing SCD-associated UBIAD1 accumulate HMGCR in several tissues resulting from ER sequestration of mutant UBIAD1 and inhibition of HMGCR ERAD. Corneas from aged knockin mice exhibit signs of opacification and sterol overaccumulation. These results establish the physiological significance of UBIAD1 in cholesterol homeostasis and indicate inhibition of HMGCR ERAD contributes to SCD pathogenesis.
Project description:Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by germline variants in UBIAD1 introducing missense alterations leading to deposition of cholesterol in the cornea, progressive opacification, and loss of visual acuity. UBIAD1 was recently shown to synthesize menaquinone-4 (MK-4, vitamin K(2) ), but causal mechanisms of SCD are unknown. We report a novel c.864G>A UBIAD1 mutation altering glycine 177 to glutamic acid (p.G177E) in six SCD families, including four families from Finland who share a likely founder mutation. We observed reduced MK-4 synthesis by UBIAD1 altered by SCD mutations p.N102S, p.G177R/E, and p.D112N, and molecular models showed p.G177-mutant UBIAD1 disrupted transmembrane helices and active site residues. We show UBIAD1 interacts with HMGCR and SOAT1, enzymes catalyzing cholesterol synthesis and storage, respectively, using yeast two-hybrid screening and immunoprecipitation. Docking simulations indicate cholesterol binds to UBIAD1 in the substrate-binding cleft and substrate-binding overlaps with GGPP binding, an MK-4 substrate, suggesting potential competition between these metabolites. Impaired MK-4 synthesis is a biochemical defect identified in SCD suggesting UBIAD1 links vitamin K and cholesterol metabolism through physical contact between enzymes and metabolites. Our data suggest a role for endogenous MK-4 in maintaining cornea health and visual acuity.
Project description:Membrane-embedded prenyltransferases from the UbiA family catalyze the Mg2+-dependent transfer of a hydrophobic polyprenyl chain onto a variety of acceptor molecules and are involved in the synthesis of molecules that mediate electron transport, including Vitamin K and Coenzyme Q. In humans, missense mutations to the protein UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing 1 (UBIAD1) are responsible for Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy, which is a genetic disease that causes blindness. Mechanistic understanding of this family of enzymes has been hampered by a lack of three-dimensional structures. We have solved structures of a UBIAD1 homolog from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, AfUbiA, in an unliganded form and bound to Mg2+ and two different isoprenyl diphosphates. Functional assays on MenA, a UbiA family member from E. coli, verified the importance of residues involved in Mg2+ and substrate binding. The structural and functional studies led us to propose a mechanism for the prenyl transfer reaction. Disease-causing mutations in UBIAD1 are clustered around the active site in AfUbiA, suggesting the mechanism of catalysis is conserved between the two homologs.
Project description:UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize the vitamin K2 subtype menaquinone-4. Previously, we found that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, including GGpp. This binding inhibits sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, which contributes to feedback regulation of the enzyme. The addition to cells of geranylgeraniol (GGOH), which can become converted to GGpp, triggers release of UBIAD1 from reductase, allowing for its maximal degradation and permitting ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. Here, we further characterize geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of UBIAD1. Results of this characterization support a model in which UBIAD1 continuously cycles between the ER and medial-trans Golgi of isoprenoid-replete cells. Upon sensing a decline of GGpp in ER membranes, UBIAD1 becomes trapped in the organelle where it inhibits reductase degradation. Mutant forms of UBIAD1 associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD), a human eye disease characterized by corneal accumulation of cholesterol, are sequestered in the ER and block reductase degradation. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel sensing mechanism that allows for stringent metabolic control of intracellular trafficking of UBIAD1, which directly modulates reductase degradation and becomes disrupted in SCD.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic cause and describe the clinical phenotype of Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) in six unrelated probands.We identified two white Czech, two white British and two South Asian families with a clinical diagnosis of SCD. Ophthalmic assessment included spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of one individual with advanced disease, and SD-OCT and confocal microscopy of a child with early stages of disease. UBIAD1 coding exons were amplified and Sanger sequenced in each proband. A fasting serum lipid profile was measured in three probands. Paternity testing was performed in one family.A novel heterozygous c.527G>A; p.(Gly176Glu) mutation in UBIAD1 was identified in one Czech proband. In the second Czech proband, aged 6 years when first examined, a previously described de novo heterozygous c.289G>A; p.(Ala97Thr) mutation was found. Two probands of South Asian descent carried a known c.305G>A; p.(Asn102Ser) mutation in the heterozygous state. Previously reported heterozygous c.361C>T; p.(Leu121Phe) and c.308C>T; p.(Thr103Ile) mutations were found in two white British families. Although crystalline deposits were present in all probands the affected area was small in some individuals. Corneal arcus and stromal haze were the most prominent phenotypical feature in two probands. In the Czech probands, SD-OCT confirmed accumulation of reflective material in the anterior stroma. Crystalline deposits were visualized by confocal microscopy. Mild dyslipidemia was found in all three individuals tested.Although de novo occurrence of mutations in UBIAD1 is extremely rare, SCD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral corneal haze and/or crystal deposition, especially in children.