Human UPF1 interacts with TPP1 and telomerase and sustains telomere leading-strand replication.
ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic up-frameshift 1 (UPF1) is a nucleic acid-dependent ATPase and 5'-to-3' helicase, best characterized for its roles in cytoplasmic RNA quality control. We previously demonstrated that human UPF1 binds to telomeres in vivo and its depletion leads to telomere instability. Here, we show that UPF1 is present at telomeres at least during S and G2/M phases and that UPF1 association with telomeres is stimulated by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-related protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) and by telomere elongation. UPF1 physically interacts with the telomeric factor TPP1 and with telomerase. Akin to UPF1 binding to telomeres, this latter interaction is mediated by ATR. Moreover, the ATPase activity of UPF1 is required to prevent the telomeric defects observed upon UPF1 depletion, and these defects stem predominantly from inefficient telomere leading-strand replication. Our results portray a scenario where UPF1 orchestrates crucial aspects of telomere biology, including telomere replication and telomere length homeostasis.
Project description:To prevent ATR activation, telomeres deploy the single-stranded DNA binding activity of TPP1/POT1a. POT1a blocks the binding of RPA to telomeres, suggesting that ATR is repressed through RPA exclusion. However, comparison of the DNA binding affinities and abundance of TPP1/POT1a and RPA indicates that TPP1/POT1a by itself is unlikely to exclude RPA. We therefore analyzed the central shelterin protein TIN2, which links TPP1/POT1a (and POT1b) to TRF1 and TRF2 on the double-stranded telomeric DNA. Upon TIN2 deletion, telomeres lost TPP1/POT1a, accumulated RPA, elicited an ATR signal, and showed all other phenotypes of POT1a/b deletion. TIN2 also affected the TRF2-dependent repression of ATM kinase signaling but not to TRF2-mediated inhibition of telomere fusions. Thus, while TIN2 has a minor contribution to the repression of ATM by TRF2, its major role is to stabilize TPP1/POT1a on the ss telomeric DNA, thereby allowing effective exclusion of RPA and repression of ATR signaling.
Project description:Telomeres are DNA repeats at the ends of linear chromosomes and are replicated by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase. Telomere length regulation and chromosome end capping are essential for genome stability and are mediated primarily by the shelterin and CST complexes. POT1-TPP1, a subunit of shelterin, binds the telomeric overhang, suppresses ATR-dependent DNA damage response, and recruits telomerase to telomeres for DNA replication. POT1 localization to telomeres and chromosome end protection requires its interaction with TPP1. Therefore, the POT1-TPP1 complex is critical to telomere maintenance and full telomerase processivity. The aim of this mini-review is to summarize recent POT1-TPP1 structural studies and discuss how the complex contributes to telomere length regulation. In addition, we review how disruption of POT1-TPP1 function leads to human disease.
Project description:The POT1 (protection of telomeres) protein binds the single-stranded G-rich overhang and is essential for both telomere end protection and telomere length regulation. Telomeric binding of POT1 is enhanced by its interaction with TPP1. In this study, we demonstrate that mouse Tpp1 confers telomere end protection by recruiting Pot1a and Pot1b to telomeres. Knockdown of Tpp1 elicits a p53-dependent growth arrest and an ATM-dependent DNA damage response at telomeres. In contrast to depletion of Trf2, which activates ATM, removal of Pot1a and Pot1b from telomeres initiates an ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR). Finally, we show that telomere dysfunction as a result of Tpp1 depletion promotes chromosomal instability and tumorigenesis in the absence of an ATM-dependent DDR. Our results uncover a novel ATR-dependent DDR at telomeres that is normally shielded by POT1 binding to the single-stranded G-overhang. In addition, our results suggest that loss of ATM can cooperate with dysfunctional telomeres to promote cellular transformation and tumor formation in vivo.
Project description:The semiconservative replication of telomeres is facilitated by the shelterin component TRF1. Without TRF1, replication forks stall in the telomeric repeats, leading to ATR kinase signaling upon S-phase progression, fragile metaphase telomeres that resemble the common fragile sites (CFSs), and the association of sister telomeres. In contrast, TRF1 does not contribute significantly to the end protection functions of shelterin. We addressed the mechanism of TRF1 action using mouse conditional knockouts of BLM, TRF1, TPP1, and Rap1 in combination with expression of TRF1 and TIN2 mutants. The data establish that TRF1 binds BLM to facilitate lagging but not leading strand telomeric DNA synthesis. As the template for lagging strand telomeric DNA synthesis is the TTAGGG repeat strand, TRF1-bound BLM is likely required to remove secondary structures formed by these sequences. In addition, the data establish that TRF1 deploys TIN2 and the TPP1/POT1 heterodimers in shelterin to prevent ATR during telomere replication and repress the accompanying sister telomere associations. Thus, TRF1 uses two distinct mechanisms to promote replication of telomeric DNA and circumvent the consequences of replication stress. These data are relevant to the expression of CFSs and provide insights into TIN2, which is compromised in dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and related disorders.
Project description:Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that cap and protect the ends of linear chromosomes. In humans, telomeres end in 50-300 nt of G-rich single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhangs. Protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) binds with nanomolar affinity to the ssDNA overhangs and forms a dimer with another telomere-end binding protein called TPP1. Whereas most previous studies utilized telomeric oligonucleotides comprising single POT1-TPP1 binding sites, here, we examined 72- to 144-nt tracts of telomeric DNA containing 6-12 POT1-TPP1 binding sites. Using electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays, size-exclusion chromatography, and electron microscopy, we analyzed telomeric nucleoprotein complexes containing POT1 alone, POT1-TPP1, and a truncated version of POT1 (POT1-N) that maintains its DNA-binding domain. The results revealed that POT1-N and POT1-TPP1 can completely coat long telomeric ssDNA substrates. Furthermore, we show that ssDNA coated with human POT1-TPP1 heterodimers forms compact, potentially ordered structures.
Project description:Telomeres use shelterin to protect chromosome ends from activating the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), repressing ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. The MRE11 nuclease is thought to be essential for the resection of the 5' C-strand to generate the microhomologies necessary for alternative non-homologous end joining (A-NHEJ) repair. In the present study, we uncover DNA damage signaling and repair pathways engaged by components of the replisome complex to repair dysfunctional telomeres. In cells lacking MRN, single-stranded telomeric overhangs devoid of POT1-TPP1 do not recruit replication protein A (RPA), ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), and RAD 51. Rather, components of the replisome complex, including Claspin, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Downstream neighbor of SON (DONSON), initiate DNA-PKcs-mediated p-CHK1 activation and A-NHEJ repair. In addition, Claspin directly interacts with TRF2 and recruits EXO1 to newly replicated telomeres to promote 5' end resection. Our data indicate that MRN is dispensable for the repair of dysfunctional telomeres lacking POT1-TPP1 and highlight the contributions of the replisome in telomere repair.
Project description:Human telomeres possess a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang of TTAGGG repeats, which can self-fold into a G-quadruplex structure. POT1 binds specifically to the telomeric overhang and partners with TPP1 to regulate telomere lengthening and capping, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that POT1 binds stably to folded telomeric G-quadruplex DNA in a sequential manner, one oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold at a time. POT1 binds from 3' to 5', thereby unfolding the G-quadruplex in a stepwise manner. In contrast, the POT1-TPP1 complex induces a continuous folding and unfolding of the G-quadruplex. We demonstrate that POT1-TPP1 slides back and forth on telomeric DNA and also on a mutant telomeric DNA to which POT1 cannot bind alone. The sliding motion is specific to POT1-TPP1, as POT1 and ssDNA binding protein gp32 cannot recapitulate this activity. Our results reveal fundamental molecular steps and dynamics involved in telomere structure regulation.
Project description:Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that play essential roles in protecting chromosome ends. Mammalian telomeres consist of repetitive DNA sequences bound by the shelterin complex. In this complex, the POT1-TPP1 heterodimer binds to single-stranded telomeric DNAs, while TRF1 and TRF2-RAP1 interact with double-stranded telomeric DNAs. TIN2, the linchpin of this complex, simultaneously interacts with TRF1, TRF2, and TPP1 to mediate the stable assembly of the shelterin complex. However, the molecular mechanism by which TIN2 interacts with these proteins to orchestrate telomere protection remains poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of TIN2 in complex with TIN2-binding motifs from TPP1 and TRF2, revealing how TIN2 interacts cooperatively with TPP1 and TRF2. Unexpectedly, TIN2 contains a telomeric repeat factor homology (TRFH)-like domain that functions as a protein-protein interaction platform. Structure-based mutagenesis analyses suggest that TIN2 plays an important role in maintaining the stable shelterin complex required for proper telomere end protection.
Project description:Telomeres are specialized structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that are important for maintaining genome stability and integrity. Telomere dysfunction has been linked to aging and cancer development. In mammalian cells, extensive studies have been carried out to illustrate how core telomeric proteins assemble on telomeres to recruit the telomerase and additional factors for telomere maintenance and protection. In comparison, how changes in growth signaling pathways impact telomeres and telomere-binding proteins remains largely unexplored. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt (also known as PKB) pathway, one of the best characterized growth signaling cascades, regulates a variety of cellular function including cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, and DNA repair, and dysregulation of PI3-K/Akt signaling has been linked to aging and diseases such as cancer and diabetes. In this study, we provide evidence that the Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in telomere protection. Akt inhibition either by chemical inhibitors or small interfering RNAs induced telomere dysfunction. Furthermore, we found that TPP1 could homodimerize through its OB-fold, a process that was dependent on the Akt kinase. Telomere damage and reduced TPP1 dimerization as a result of Akt inhibition was also accompanied by diminished recruitment of TPP1 and POT1 to the telomeres. Our findings highlight a previously unknown link between Akt signaling and telomere protection.
Project description:POT1 and TPP1 are part of the shelterin complex and are essential for telomere length regulation and maintenance. Naturally occurring mutations of the telomeric POT1-TPP1 complex are implicated in familial glioma, melanoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Here we report the atomic structure of the interacting portion of the human telomeric POT1-TPP1 complex and suggest how several of these mutations contribute to malignant cancer. The POT1 C-terminus (POT1C) forms a bilobal structure consisting of an OB-fold and a holiday junction resolvase domain. TPP1 consists of several loops and helices involved in extensive interactions with POT1C. Biochemical data shows that several of the cancer-associated mutations, partially disrupt the POT1-TPP1 complex, which affects its ability to bind telomeric DNA efficiently. A defective POT1-TPP1 complex leads to longer and fragile telomeres, which in turn promotes genomic instability and cancer.