Investigating in vivo airway wall mechanics during tidal breathing with optical coherence tomography.
ABSTRACT: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a nondestructive imaging technique offering high temporal and spatial resolution, which makes it a natural choice for assessing tissue mechanical properties. We have developed methods to mechanically analyze the compliance of the rabbit trachea in vivo using tissue deformations induced by tidal breathing, offering a unique tool to assess the behavior of the airways during their normal function. Four-hundred images were acquired during tidal breathing with a custom-built endoscopic OCT system. The surface of the tissue was extracted from a set of these images via image processing algorithms, filtered with a bandpass filter set at respiration frequency to remove cardiac and probe motion, and compared to ventilatory pressure to calculate wall compliance. These algorithms were tested on elastic phantoms to establish reliability and reproducibility. The mean tracheal wall compliance (in five animals) was 1.3±0.3×10(-5) (mm Pa)(-1). Unlike previous work evaluating airway mechanics, this new method is applicable in vivo, noncontact, and loads the trachea in a physiological manner. The technique may have applications in assessing airway mechanics in diseases such as asthma that are characterized by significant airway remodeling.
Project description:We performed respiratory-gated magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate airway dynamics during tidal breathing in 10 children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS; age, 4.3 +/- 2.3 years) and 10 matched control subjects (age, 5.0 +/- 2.0 years). We hypothesized that respiratory cycle fluctuations in upper airway cross-sectional area would be larger in children with OSAS.Studies were performed under sedation. Respiratory gating was performed automatically at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90% of inspiratory and expiratory volume. Airway cross-sectional area was measured at four ascending oropharyngeal levels at each increment of the respiratory cycle.We noted the following in subjects with OSAS compared with control subjects: (1) a smaller upper airway cross-sectional area, particularly during inspiration; (2) airway narrowing occurred during inspiration without evidence of complete airway collapse; (3) airway dilatation occurred during expiration, particularly early in the phase; and (4) magnitude of cross-sectional areas fluctuations during tidal breathing noted in OSAS at levels 1 through 4 were 317, 422, 785, and 922%, compared with 19, 15 17, and 24% in control subjects (p < 0.001, p < 0.005, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively).Fluctuations in airway area during tidal breathing are significantly greater in subjects with OSAS compared with control subjects. Resistive pressure loading is a probable explanation, although increased airway compliance may be a contributing factor.
Project description:We present a multiscale, spatially distributed model of lung and airway behaviour with the goal of furthering the understanding of airway hyper-responsiveness and asthma. The model provides an initial computational framework for linking events at the cellular and molecular levels, such as Ca(2+) and crossbridge dynamics, to events at the level of the entire organ. At the organ level, parenchymal tissue is modelled using a continuum approach as a compressible, hyperelastic material in three dimensions, with expansion and recoil of lung tissue due to tidal breathing. The governing equations of finite elasticity deformation are solved using a finite element method. The airway tree is embedded in this tissue, where each airway is modelled with its own airway wall, smooth muscle and surrounding parenchyma. The tissue model is then linked to models of the crossbridge mechanics and their control by Ca(2+) dynamics, thus providing a link to molecular and cellular mechanisms in airway smooth muscle cells. By incorporating and coupling the models at these scales, we obtain a detailed, computational multiscale model incorporating important physiological phenomena associated with asthma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is a commonly accepted method of spontaneous breathing support in obstructive lung disease. Previous work suggested that the cause of the CPAP efficacy in the obstructive lung disease localized in bronchi of middle order (OLDMO) is not as obvious as, for example, in the obstructive sleep apnea. Since CPAP reduces obstruction and the optimal breathing frequency (BF) depends on the obstruction level, it seems to be important to analyze the dependence of the optimal BF on CPAP. AIM: To analyze the support efficacy cause in OLDMO, esp. the relationship between the CPAP value and optimal BF. METHOD: Investigations utilized previously built virtual respiratory system. Its most important factors: nonlinear lungs compliance and changeability of nonlinear airway resistance (Raw). Influence of BF and the CPAP value on the tidal volume and minute ventilation was analyzed for four exemplary virtual patients: healthy ("standard") and suffering from moderate, severe, and the very severe OLDMO (the other parameters, esp. respiratory muscles effort, were unchanged). Minute inspiratory work as a criterion of the BF optimization. RESULTS: CPAP decreased Raw making breathing easier, however, it shifted the working point of the respiratory system towards the smaller lungs compliance making breathing harder. The final result depended on the Raw value: CPAP improved breathing of patients with the serious OLDMO while it worsened healthy person breathing. The optimal CPAP value depended on the Raw value. If a virtual patient suffering from the serious OLDMO was not supported with CPAP, he had to breathe with low frequency because minute ventilation did not rise with BF increase. The optimal BF depended on the CPAP value (the greater the value, the greater the frequency). CONCLUSION: The CPAP efficacy depends on the level of OLDMO. CPAP is efficient in the severe OLDMO because it increases the optimal BF, which makes possible less energy-consuming breathing with frequency close to the normal one (greater BF means smaller tidal volume and thus smaller work against lungs compliance).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Supplemental oxygen therapy is widely used in hospitals and in the home for chronic care. However, there are several fundamental problems with the application of this therapy such that patients are often exposed to arterial oxygen concentrations outside of the intended target range. This paper reports volume-averaged tracheal oxygen concentration measurements (FtO2) from in vitro experiments conducted using a physiologically realistic upper airway model. The goal is to provide data to inform a detailed discussion of the delivered oxygen dose. METHODS:A baseline FtO2 dataset using a standard, straight adult nasal cannula was established by varying tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (f), and continuous oxygen flow rate (QO2) between the following levels to create a factorial design: Vt = 500, 640, or 800 ml; f = 12, 17, or 22 min- 1; QO2 = 2, 4, or 6 l/min. Further experiments were performed to investigate the influence on FtO2 of variation in inspiratory/expiratory ratio, inclusion of an inspiratory or expiratory pause, patient interface selection (e.g. nasal cannula versus a facemask), and rapid breathing patterns in comparison with the baseline measurements. RESULTS:Oxygen concentration measured at the trachea varied by as much as 60% (i.e. from 30.2 to 48.0% of absolute oxygen concentration) for the same oxygen supply flow rate due to variation in simulated breathing pattern. Among the baseline cases, the chief reasons for variation were 1) the influence of variation in tidal volume leading to variable FiO2 and 2) variation in breathing frequency affecting volume of supplemental oxygen delivered through the breath. CONCLUSION:For oxygen administration using open patient interfaces there was variability in the concentration and quantity of oxygen delivered to the trachea over the large range of scenarios studied. Of primary importance in evaluating the oxygen dose is knowledge of the breathing parameters that determine the average inhalation flow rate relative to the oxygen flow rate. Otherwise, the oxygen dose cannot be determined.
Project description:The role of breathing and deep inspirations (DI) in modulating airway hyperresponsiveness remains poorly understood. In particular, DIs are potent bronchodilators of constricted airways in nonasthmatic subjects but not in asthmatic subjects. Additionally, length fluctuations (mimicking DIs) have been shown to reduce mean contractile force when applied to airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and tissue strips. However, these observations are not recapitulated on application of transmural pressure (PTM) oscillations (that mimic tidal breathing and DIs) in isolated intact airways. To shed light on this paradox, we have developed a biomechanical model of the intact airway, accounting for strain-stiffening due to collagen recruitment (a large component of the extracellular matrix (ECM)), and dynamic actomyosin-driven force generation by ASM cells. In agreement with intact airway studies, our model shows that PTM fluctuations at particular mean transmural pressures can lead to only limited bronchodilation. However, our model predicts that moving the airway to a more compliant point on the static pressure-radius relationship (which may involve reducing mean PTM), before applying pressure fluctuations, can generate greater bronchodilation. This difference arises from competition between passive strain-stiffening of ECM and force generation by ASM yielding a highly nonlinear relationship between effective airway stiffness and PTM, which is modified by the presence of contractile agonist. Effectively, the airway at its most compliant may allow for greater strain to be transmitted to subcellular contractile machinery. The model predictions lead us to hypothesize that the maximum possible bronchodilation of an airway depends on its static compliance at the PTM about which the fluctuations are applied. We suggest the design of additional experimental protocols to test this hypothesis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. This reduction was related to reduced atelectasis and increased aeration. We hypothesized that spontaneous breathing will result in better ventilation and aeration of dependent lung areas and in less cyclic collapse during the tidal breath. METHODS: In this randomized controlled experimental trial, 22 pigs with oleic-acid-induced lung injury were randomly assigned to receive APRV with or without spontaneous breathing at comparable airway pressures. Four hours after randomization, dynamic computed tomography scans of the lung were obtained in an apical slice and in a juxtadiaphragmatic transverse slice. Analyses of regional attenuation were performed separately in nondependent and dependent halves of the lungs on end-expiratory scans and end-inspiratory scans. Tidal changes were assessed as differences between inspiration and expiration of the mechanical breaths. RESULTS: Whereas no differences were observed in the apical slices, spontaneous breathing resulted in improved tidal ventilation of dependent lung regions (P < 0.05) and less cyclic collapse (P < 0.05) in the juxtadiaphragmatic slices. In addition, with spontaneous breathing, the end-expiratory aeration increased and nonaerated tissue decreased in dependent lung regions close to the diaphragm (P < 0.05 for the interaction ventilator mode and lung region). CONCLUSION: Spontaneous breathing during APRV redistributes ventilation and aeration to dependent, usually well-perfused, lung regions close to the diaphragm, and may thereby contribute to improved arterial oxygenation. Spontaneous breathing also counters cyclic collapse, which is a risk factor for ventilation-associated lung injury.
Project description:Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate exercise-related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics, and respiratory neural drive. We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (6 with EILO and 6 healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video and gastric, esophageal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography, and respiratory airflow. The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation (V?e) (work rate: 227 ± 35 vs. 237 ± 35 W; V?e: 103 ± 20 vs. 98 ± 23 l/min; P > 0.05). At submaximal work rates (140-240 W), subjects with EILO demonstrated increased work of breathing ( P < 0.05) and respiratory neural drive ( P < 0.05), developing in close temporal association with onset of endoscopic evidence of laryngeal closure ( P < 0.05). Unexpectedly, a ventilatory increase ( P < 0.05), driven by augmented tidal volume ( P < 0.05), was seen in subjects with EILO before the onset of laryngeal closure; there were however no differences in dyspnea intensity between groups. Using simultaneous measurements of respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video, we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure in causing exertional dyspnea and exercise limitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals; yet, how laryngeal closure affects breathing is unknown. In this study we synchronized endoscopic video with respiratory physiological measurements, thus providing the first detailed commensurate assessment of respiratory mechanics and neural drive in relation to laryngeal closure. Laryngeal closure was associated with increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive preceded by an augmented tidal volume and a rise in minute ventilation.
Project description:Current imaging modalities lack the necessary resolution to diagnose subglottic stenosis. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate nascent subglottic mucosal injury and characterize mucosal thickness and structural changes using texture analysis in a simulated intubation rabbit model.Prospective animal study in rabbits.Three-centimeter-long sections of endotracheal tubes (ETT) were endoscopically placed in the subglottis and proximal trachea of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) and secured via suture. OCT imaging and conventional endoscopic video was performed just prior to ETT segment placement (day 0), immediately after tube removal (day 7), and 1 week later (day 14). OCT images were analyzed for airway wall thickness and textural properties.Endoscopy and histology of intubated rabbits showed a range of normal to edematous tissue, which correlated with OCT images. The mean airway mucosal wall thickness measured using OCT was 336.4 ?m (day 0), 391.3 ?m (day 7), and 420.4 ?m (day 14), with significant differences between day 0 and day 14 (P = .002). Significance was found for correlation and homogeneity texture features across all time points (P < .05).OCT is a minimally invasive endoscopic imaging modality capable of monitoring progression of subglottic mucosal injury. This study is the first to evaluate mucosal injury during simulated intubation using serial OCT imaging and texture analysis. OCT and texture analysis have the potential for early detection of subglottic mucosal injury, which could lead to better management of the neonatal airway and limit the progression to stenosis.NA Laryngoscope, 127:64-69, 2017.
Project description:We hypothesised that the airway resistance during tidal breathing would correlate with a particular pattern of increasing obesity, particularly when supine, and would differ between participants with and without ventilatory failure.In our cross-sectional cohort study, 72 morbidly obese patients (40 males, 32 females, mean body mass index (BMI) 47.2) had measurements of both airways resistance (by impulse oscillometry (IOS)) and adiposity (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)).All measures of airways resistance increased in the supine position: total airways resistance (R5) +37% (p<0.0005); large airways resistance (R20) +29% (p<0.0005); and small airways resistance (R5-R20) +52% (p<0.0005). BMI was correlated with seated R5, seated R5-R20, supine R5 and supine R5-R20 (r=0.33 p<0.006, r=0.32 p<0.004, r=0.30 p<0.02 and r=0.36 p<0.04, respectively). Visceral adipose tissue mass was correlated with supine R5-20 (r=0.46 p<0.05). Supine measures of total airways resistance (R5) and large airways resistance (R20) differed between those with and without ventilatory failure, as did mean weight and BMI.Our study identifies a potentially detrimental effect of the supine posture on tidal breathing airways resistance in obese patients. This change is correlated most with visceral adipose tissue mass and the small airways. We were able to demonstrate that supine increases in airways resistance during tidal breathing, within obese patients, are different between those with and without ventilatory failure.NCT01380418; pre-results.
Project description:A high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been reported in the literature; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We sought to determine the effect of the withdrawal of the wakefulness drive to breathe on the degree of hypoventilation in SCI patients and able-bodied controls. We studied 18 subjects with chronic cervical and thoracic SCI (10 cervical, 8 thoracic SCI; 11 males; age 42.4 ± 17.1 years; body mass index 26.3 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)) and 17 matched able-bodied subjects. Subjects underwent polysomnography, which included quantitative measurement of ventilation, timing, and upper airway resistance (RUA) on a breath-by-breath basis during transitions from wake to stage N1 sleep. Compared to able-bodied controls, SCI subjects had a significantly greater reduction in tidal volume during the transition from wake to N1 sleep (from 0.51 ± 0.21 to 0.32 ± 0.10 L vs. 0.47 ± 0.13 to 0.43 ± 0.12 L; respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, end-tidal CO2 and end-tidal O2 were significantly altered from wake to sleep in SCI (38.9 ± 2.7 mmHg vs. 40.6 ± 3.4 mmHg; 94.1 ± 7.1 mmHg vs. 91.2 ± 8.3 mmHg; respectively, P < 0.05), but not in able-bodied controls (39.5 ± 3.2 mmHg vs. 39.9 ± 3.2 mmHg; 99.4 ± 5.4 mmHg vs. 98.9 ± 6.1 mmHg; respectively, P = ns). RUA was not significantly altered in either group. In conclusion, individuals with SCI experience hypoventilation at sleep onset, which cannot be explained by upper airway mechanics. Sleep onset hypoventilation may contribute to the development SDB in the SCI population.