Sensitive and rapid detection of edwardsiellosis in fish by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.
ABSTRACT: Here we report a rapid and sensitive method (using loop-mediated isothermal amplification [LAMP]) for the diagnosis of edwardsiellosis, a fish disease caused by Edwardsiella tarda, in Japanese flounder. A set of four primers was designed, and conditions for the detection were optimized for the detection of E. tarda in 45 min at 65 degrees C. No amplification of the target hemolysin gene was detected in other related bacteria. When the LAMP primers were used, detection of edwardsiellosis in infected Japanese flounder kidney, and spleen and seawater cultures was possible. We have developed a rapid and sensitive diagnostic protocol for edwardsiellosis detection in fish. This is the first report of the application of LAMP for the diagnosis of a fish pathogen.
Project description:Infection with Edwardsiella tarda, a gram-negative bacterium, causes high morbidity and mortality in both marine and freshwater fish. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from gram-negative bacteria are known to play important roles in bacterial pathogenesis and host immune responses, but no such roles for E. tarda OMVs have yet been described. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the immunostimulatory effect of OMVs in a natural host, as well as the efficacy of OMVs when used as a vaccine against E. tarda infection. A total of 74 proteins, from diverse subcellular fractions, were identified in OMVs. These included a variety of important virulence factors, such as hemolysin, OmpA, porin, GAPDH, EseB, EseC, EseD, EvpC, EvpP, lipoprotein, flagellin, and fimbrial protein. When OMVs were administrated to olive flounder, significant induction of mRNAs encoding IL-1?, IL-6, TNF?, and IFN? was observed, compared with the levels seen in fish injected with formalin-killed E. tarda. In a vaccine trial, olive flounder given OMVs were more effectively protected (p<0.0001) than were control fish. Investigation of OMVs may be useful not only for understanding the pathogenesis of E. tarda but also in development of an effective vaccine against edwardsiellosis.
Project description:Gene expression profiles by microarray have contributed for a elucidation of an immune-response and a determination of efficiency in vaccination. Recent day, edwardsielosis have caused a fatal damage in the aquaculture of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. However the formalin killed-cell vaccines made from Edwardsiella tarda isolated same fish species were not efficient. Recent our study revealed the mixed FKC vaccine made from the two different type of E. tarda protected Japanese flounder against Edwardsiella tarda infection for long-term. In this study, we analyzed the immune-response of a vaccinated fish kidney using the mixed FKC vaccine against Edwardsiella tarda with an Agilent custom-oligo DNA microarray on 9,573 probes of Japanese flounder. Our study revealed that the mixed FKC vaccine confered a strong immune-response and keeped a efficient for long-term on Japanese flounder.
Project description:Seven antigenic proteins of Edwardsiella tarda were identified by using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. Four of these proteins also reacted with a Japanese flounder antiserum. The amino acid sequences had identity to lipoproteins, periplasmic proteins, and exported and secreted proteins with roles in transport of metabolites across the cell membrane, stress response, and motility. These genes and their products are useful for developing DNA or recombinant subunit vaccines to control edwardsiellosis.
Project description:<i>Edwardsiella tarda</i> is a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect many hosts including humans, animals, and fish. Timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the control of edwardsiellosis in the aqua industry. By using rabbit polyclonal antibody, an expression gene library of virulent <i>Edwardsiella tarda</i> strain ED-BDU 1 isolated in south India was constructed and screened. The identified immune expressive proteins were characterized, and the corresponding coding sequences were cloned, expressed, and the purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens. The identified immunoreactive proteins namely HflC, HflK, and YhcI were studied for their immune protective potential <i>in vivo</i> by challenge experiments. The protective efficacy of HflC, HflK, and YhcI showed that the clearance of <i>Edwardsiella</i> from the host with ~ 60% survivability. Further, the immunoreactive proteins induce a strong immune response upon infection and elicit the significant production of IL-10, IFN-γ, Th1, and Th2 mediated mRNA expression and were therefore effective in vaccine production for edwardsiellosis.
Project description:Edwardsiella tarda, is a serious bacterial pathogen affecting a broad range of aquaculture fish species. The bacterium has also been reported as a human pathogen, however recent studies have dissociated the fish pathogenic Edwardsiella from those isolated from humans by placing them in a new species, E. piscicida. Here we report the first case of Edwardsiellosis in cultured sharpsnout sea breams, Diplodus puntazzo in Greece.The disease has affected cultured sharpsnout sea breams of a commercial fish farm in a single location in East Greece. Two populations of sharpsnout sea breams stocked in two consecutive years in floating cages presented signs of disease which included nodules and abscesses in spleen and kidney, morbidity and cumulative mortality reaching 5.3 %. Using microbiological, biochemical and molecular tools we have identified Edwardsiella sp. as the main aetiological factor of the disease. Following phylogenetic analysis the bacterial isolates are grouped with the newly described Edwardsiella piscicida species.This is the first report of Edwardsiellosis in this species but most importantly in sea cage-cultured fish in the Mediterranean which may pose a serious threat for aquaculture fish species in this region.
Project description:Unlike mammalian red blood cells (RBCs), fish RBCs are nucleated and thus capable of gene expression. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a species of marine fish with important economic values. Flounder are susceptible to Edwardsiella tarda, a severe bacterial pathogen that is able to infect and survive in flounder phagocytes. However, the infectivity of and the immune response induced by E. tarda in flounder RBCs are unclear. In the present research, we found that E. tarda was able to invade and replicate inside flounder RBCs in both in vitro and in vivo infections. To investigate the immune response induced by E. tarda in RBCs, transcriptome analysis of the spleen RBCs of flounder challenged with E. tarda was performed. Six sequencing libraries were constructed, and an average of 43 million clean reads per library were obtained, with 85% of the reads being successfully mapped to the genome of flounder. A total of 1720 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in E. tarda-infected fish. The DEGs were significantly enriched in diverse Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, especially those associated with immunity, disease, and infection. Ninety-one key DEGs involved in 12 immune-related pathways were found to form extensive interaction networks. Twenty-one genes that constituted the hub of the networks were further identified, which were highly regulated by E. tarda and involved in a number of immune processes, notably pathogen recognition and signal transduction, antigen processing and presentation, inflammation, and splicing. These results provide new insights into the immune role of flounder RBCs during bacterial infection.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with important roles in diverse biological processes including immunity. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an aquaculture fish species susceptible to the infection of bacterial and viral pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda. In a previous study, pol-miR-novel_547, a novel miRNA of flounder with unknown function, was found to be induced by E. tarda. In the present study, we investigated the regulation and function of pol-miR-novel_547 and its target gene. We found that pol-miR-novel_547 was regulated differently by E. tarda and the viral pathogen megalocytivirus, and pol-miR-novel_547 repressed the expression of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) of flounder (PoPTEN). PoPTEN is ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues of flounder and responded to bacterial and viral infections. Interference with PoPTEN expression in flounder cells directly or via pol-miR-novel_547 promoted E. tarda invasion. Consistently, in vivo knockdown of PoPTEN enhanced E. tarda dissemination in flounder tissues, whereas in vivo overexpression of PoPTEN attenuated E. tarda dissemination but facilitated megalocytivirus replication. Further in vitro and in vivo studies showed that PoPTEN affected autophagy activation via the AKT/mTOR pathway and also modulated the process of apoptosis. Together these results reveal for the first time a critical role of fish PTEN and its regulatory miRNA in pathogen infection, autophagy, and apoptosis.
Project description:Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens, infecting both cultured and wild fish species. Research on edwardsiellosis has revealed that E. tarda has a broad host range and geographic distribution, and contains important virulence factors that enhance bacterial survival and pathogenesis in hosts. Although recent progress in edwardsiellosis research has enabled the development of numerous, highly effective vaccine candidates, these efforts have not been translated into a commercialized vaccine. The present review aims to provide an overview of the identification, pathology, diagnosis and virulence factors of E. tarda in fish, and describe recent strategies for developing vaccines against edwardsiellosis. The hope is that this presentation will be useful not only from the standpoint of understanding the pathogenesis of E. tarda, but also from the perspective of facilitating the development of effective vaccines.
Project description:Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC), and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1) the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2) rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4-5 weeks after immunization; and (3) the MHCII?, CD4-1, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection.
Project description:We report the complete genome sequences of two Edwardsiella tarda-lytic bacteriophages isolated from flounder kidney (KF-1) and seawater (IW-1). These newly sequenced phage genomes provide a novel resource for future studies on phage-host interaction mechanisms and various applications of the phages for control of edwardsiellosis in aquaculture.