The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets.
ABSTRACT: The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and its isogenic ?fur strain under anaerobic conditions.Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown ?fur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD). The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB) with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in ?fur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in ?fur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB) was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO·) detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA) was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns) was increased in ?fur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in ?fur.This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftnB regulation, while serving to repress the expression of hmpA. Furthermore, Fur is required for the proper expression and activation of the antioxidant enzymes, FeSOD and MnSOD. Finally, this work identified twenty-six new targets of Fur regulation, and demonstrates that H-NS repressed genes are down-regulated in ?fur.
Project description:Transcription of the sodA gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes manganese superoxide dismutase, is governed by six global regulators: the product of the soxRS locus (superoxide response) and mutated alleles of the soxQ locus (such as cfxB) act as activators; the products of the fur (ferric uptake regulation), arcA (aerobic regulation control), and fnr (fumarate nitrate reductase) genes and the integration host factor (IHF) negatively regulate sodA. The action of these effectors on the sodA promoter was investigated by using chromosomal sodA-lacZ operon fusions with intact or deleted promoters, different environmental conditions, and strains carrying different combinations of null mutations in the effector genes. The data allow us to assign target regions in the sodA promoter for activation by SoxRS and CfxB and for repression by Fur and ArcA. In aerobiosis, activation of sodA transcription by SoxRS was compatible with CfxB activation or Fur repression, whereas cfxB and fur controls were mutually exclusive. Repression by Fnr appeared, at least in part, to be ArcA dependent. IHF enhanced aerobic Fur repression, and in the absence of Fur, it enhanced anaerobic repression by ArcA. The DNA targets for Fur (encompassing the -35 region) and ArcA (from and downstream of the -35 region) appear to overlap, suggesting that Fur and ArcA repressions are mutually exclusive. Fur (in response to the iron pool) or ArcA, acting with Fnr and IHF (in response to the redox state of the cells), can block anaerobic sodA-lacZ expression with about equivalent efficiencies. The possible biological significance of this result is discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the cellular responses emanating from environmental perturbations to redesign the networks for practical applications. In particular, the carbon (C) metabolism, nitrogen (N) assimilation, and energy generation are by far important, where those are interconnected and integrated to maintain cellular integrity. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of C/N ratio on the metabolic regulation of gdhA, glnL, glt B,D mutants as well as wild type Escherichia coli (Kumar and Shimizu, MCF, 1-17, 9:8,2010), where it was shown that the transcript levels of cyoA and cydB which encode the terminal oxidases, fnr and fur which encode global regulators were significantly up-regulated under N-limited condition as compared to C-limited condition. In the present study, therefore, the effects of such single-gene knockout on the metabolic regulation were investigated to clarify the roles of those genes in the aerobic continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h(-1). RESULTS: The specific glucose consumption rates and the specific CO2 production rates of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur mutants were all increased as compared to the wild type under both C-limited and N-limited conditions. The former phenomenon was consistent with the up-regulations of the transcript levels of ptsG and ptsH, which are consistent with down-regulations of crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the increase in the specific glucose consumption rate was also caused by up-regulations of the transcript levels of pfkA, pykF and possibly zwf, where those are consistent with the down regulations of cra, crp and mlc genes. Moreover, the transcript levels of rpoN together with glnK, glnB, glnE were up-regulated, and thus the transcript levels of glnA,L,G, and gltB,D as well as nac were up-regulated, while gdhA was down-regulated. This implies the interconnection between cAMP-Crp and PII-Ntr systems. Moreover, cyoA, cydB, fnr and fur gene deletions up-regulated the transcript levels of respiration (nuoA, ndh, cyoA, cydB, and atpA) and the oxidative stress related genes such as soxR, S and sodA, where this was further enhanced under N-limitation. In the cases of cyoA and cydB mutants, arcA, fnr, fur, cydB (for cyoA mutant), and cyoA (for cydB mutant) genes were up-regulated, which may be due to incomplete oxidation of quinol. It was also shown that fur gene transcript level was up-regulated in accordance with the activation of respiratory chain genes. It was shown that the deletion of fur gene activated the enterobactin pathway. CONCLUSION: The present result demonstrated how the fermentation characteristics could be explained by the transcript levels of metabolic pathway genes as well as global regulators in relation to the knockout of such single genes as cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur, and clarified the complex gene network regulation in relation to glycolysis, TCA cycle, respiration, and N-regulated pathways. The present result is quite important in understanding the metabolic regulation for metabolic engineering. Moreover, the present result may be useful in improving the specific glucose consumption rate and activation of the TCA cycle by modulating the respiratory chain genes and the related global regulators. The result obtained under N-limited condition may be useful for the heterologous protein production under N-limitation.
Project description:A cDNA corresponding to superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 184.108.40.206.) was isolated from a Leishmania donovani chagasi (L. d. chagasi) promastigote cDNA library, using PCR with a set of primers derived from conserved amino acids of manganese SODs (MnSODs) and iron SODs (FeSODs). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with previously reported SOD amino acid sequences revealed that the L. d. chagasi 585-bp open reading frame had considerable homology with FeSODs and MnSODs. The highest homology was shared with prokaryotic FeSODs. The coding region of L. d. chagasi SOD cDNA has been expressed in fusion with glutathione-S-transferase, using an Escherichia coli mutant, QC779, lacking both MnSOD and FeSOD genes (sodA and sodB). Staining of native polyacrylamide gels for SOD activity of Leishmania crude lysate and the recombinant SOD revealed that both had SOD activity that was inactivated by 5 mM hydrogen peroxide but not by 2 mM potassium cyanide, which is indicative of FeSOD. The recombinant enzyme also protected E. coli mutant QC779 from paraquat toxicity. This indicated that the glutathione-S-transferase peptide does not interfere with the in vivo and in vitro activities of the recombinant SOD. Cross-species hybridization showed that FeSOD is highly conserved in the Leishmania genus. Interestingly, the hybridization pattern of the FeSOD gene(s) coincided with other classification schemes that divide Leishmania species into complexes. The cloning of FeSOD cDNA may contribute to the understanding of the role of SODs in Leishmania pathogenesis.
Project description:Iron is an essential element for the survival of living cells. However, excess iron is toxic, and its uptake is exquisitely regulated by the ferric uptake regulator, Fur. In Salmonella, the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes a type three secretion system, which is required for invasion of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. A major activator of SPI-1 is HilA, which is encoded within SPI-1. One known regulator of hilA is Fur. The mechanism of hilA regulation by Fur is unknown. We report here that Fur is required for virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and that Fur is required for the activation of hilA, as well as of other HilA-dependent genes, invF and sipC. The Fur-dependent regulation of hilA was independent of PhoP, a known repressor of hilA. Instead, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, hns, was significantly derepressed in the fur mutant. Indeed, the activation of hilA by Fur was dependent on 28 nucleotides located upstream of hns. Moreover, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to show that Fur bound, in vivo, to the upstream region of hns in a metal-dependent fashion. Finally, deletion of fur in an hns mutant resulted in Fur-independent activation of hilA. In conclusion, Fur activates hilA by repressing the expression of hns.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae was shown to contain two types of superoxide dismutase, MnSOD and FeSOD. Levels of MnSOD increased during growth in an aerobic environment. The sodA gene, encoding MnSOD, of virulent S. pneumoniae type 2 strain D39 was inactivated to give mutant D39HY1. Aerobically, D39HY1 had a lower growth rate than the wild type and exhibited susceptibility to the redox-active compound paraquat, but anaerobic growth of D39HY1 was identical to that of the wild type. Virulence studies showed that the median survival time of mice infected intranasally with D39HY1 was significantly longer than that of mice infected with the wild-type pneumococcus. In contrast to the wild type, D39HY1 did not multiply in lungs during the first 24 h but thereafter grew at the same rate as the wild type. Appearance in the bloodstream was also delayed, but growth in the blood was unimpaired by the sodA mutation. The pattern of inflammation in lungs infected with D39HY1 differed from that in wild-type-infected mice. After infection with D39HY1, neutrophils were densely packed around bronchioles, in contrast to the wild-type infection, where neutrophils were more diffusely localized.
Project description:The Salmonella typhimurium gene for Mn-cofactored superoxide dismutase (sodA) was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli sodA sodB mutant for growth on minimal medium. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 618 bp encoding a polypeptide with 97% identity to E. coli SodA. A S. typhimurium sodA mutant was created by allelic exchange and tested for the ability to survive in the murine macrophage-like cell line J774. Growth of bacteria under iron-limiting conditions, inactivation of the Fur repressor, or expression of sodA from a plasmid resulted in increased resistance to early killing by J774 cells, which was abolished in the sodA mutant. These results suggest that resistance to the early oxygen-dependent microbicidal mechanisms of phagocytes involves the SodA gene product. The S. typhimurium sodA mutant was not significantly attenuated in mice, however, which suggests that resistance to early oxygen-dependent microbicidal mechanisms in vivo may play only a minor role in Salmonella pathogenesis.
Project description:Invasion and plaque formation in epithelial monolayers are routinely used to assess the virulence of Shigella flexneri, a causative agent of dysentery. A modified plaque assay was developed to identify factors contributing to the virulence of S. flexneri under the anaerobic conditions present in the colon. This assay demonstrated the importance of the ferrous iron transport system Feo, as well as the global transcription factors Fur, ArcA, and Fnr, for Shigella plaque formation in anoxic environments. Transcriptional analyses of S. flexneri iron transport genes indicated that anaerobic conditions activated feoABC while repressing genes encoding two other iron transport systems, the ABC transporter Sit and the Iuc/Iut aerobactin siderophore synthesis and transport system. The anaerobic transcription factors ArcA and Fnr activated expression of feoABC, while ArcA repressed iucABCD iutA. Transcription of fur, encoding the iron-responsive transcriptional repressor of bacterial iron acquisition, was also repressed anaerobically in an ArcA-dependent manner.
Project description:Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is the major regulator of iron acquisition in Escherichia coli and other bacteria. In the present study, the role of Fur in anaerobic S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was determined by transcriptome analysis, reporter assays, and enzymatic assays. In anaerobic Δfur, 298 genes were differentially expressed. In general, Fur repressed genes required for iron acquisition/storage, metabolism, electron transport, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and modulators of virulence. There were 73 genes whose expression required Fur, eleven of which contain a putative Fur box 5‟ of the gene. Transcription of sodA was >9-fold higher in Δfur but there was no corresponding increase in the activity of SodA. Overall design: Anaerobic cultures of the fur mutant and the WT were used to inoculate two sets of three independent flasks each containing 150 ml of anoxic LB-MOPS-X. The three independent cultures were grown to an optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of 0.25 to 0.35, pooled, and treated with RNAlater (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) to fix the cells and preserve the quality of the RNA. Total RNA was extracted with the RNeasy RNA extraction kit (QIAGEN), and the samples were treated with RNase-free DNase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The absence of contaminating DNA and the quality of the RNA was confirmed by PCR amplification of known genes and by using agarose gel electrophoresis. Aliquots of the RNA samples were kept at –80°C for use in the microarray and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) studies. The SuperScript Indirect cDNA labeling system (Invitrogen) was used to synthesize the cDNA for the hybridizations. Each experiment consisted of two hybridizations, on two slides, and was carried out in Corning Hybridization Chambers at 42°C overnight. Dye swapping was performed to avoid dye-associated effects on cDNA synthesis. The slides were washed at increasing stringencies (2x SSC [1x SSC is 0.15 M NaCl plus 0.015 M sodium citrate], 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], 42°C; 0.1% SSC, 0.1% SDS, room temperature; 0.1% SSC, room temperature). Following hybridization, the microarrays were scanned for the Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent signals with a ScanArray 4000 microarray scanner from GSI Lumonics (Watertown, MA). The intensity of every spot was codified as the sum of the intensities of all the pixels within a circle positioned over the spot itself and the background as the sum of the intensities of an identical number of pixels in the immediate surroundings of the circled spot. Cy3 and Cy5 values for each spot were normalized over the total intensity for each dye to account for differences in total intensity between the two scanned images. The consistency of the data obtained from the microarray analysis was evaluated by a pair-wise comparison, calculated with a two-tailed Student's t test and analyzed by the MEAN and TTEST procedures of SAS-STAT statistical software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) . The signal intensity at each spot from the fur mutant and the WT were background subtracted, normalized, and used to calculate the ratio of gene expression between the two strains. All replicas were combined, and the median expression ratios and standard deviations were calculated for open reading frames (ORFs) showing 2.5-fold change.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successfully transition the broad fluctuations in oxygen concentrations encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, FNR is one of the main regulatory proteins involved in O2 sensing. To assess the role of FNR in serovar Typhimurium, we constructed an isogenic fnr mutant in the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s) and compared their transcriptional profiles and pathogenicities in mice. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, 311 genes (6.80% of the genome) are regulated directly or indirectly by FNR; of these, 87 genes (28%) are poorly characterized. Regulation by FNR in serovar Typhimurium is similar to, but distinct from, that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in aerobic metabolism, NO. detoxification, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, chemotaxis, and anaerobic carbon utilization are regulated by FNR in a fashion similar to that in E. coli. However, genes/operons existing in E. coli but regulated by FNR only in serovar Typhimurium include those coding for ethanolamine utilization, a universal stress protein, a ferritin-like protein, and a phosphotransacetylase. Interestingly, Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by FNR include numerous virulence genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), newly identified flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV), and the virulence operon (srfABC). Furthermore, the role of FNR as a positive regulator of motility, flagellar biosynthesis, and pathogenesis was confirmed by showing that the mutant is nonmotile, lacks flagella, is attenuated in mice, and does not survive inside macrophages. The inability of the mutant to survive inside macrophages is likely due to its sensitivity to the reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH phagocyte oxidase.
Project description:The activities of fumarase- and manganese-cofactored superoxide dismutase (SOD), encoded by the fumC and sodA genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are elevated in mucoid, alginate-producing bacteria and in response to iron deprivation (D. J. Hassett, M. L. Howell, P. A. Sokol, M. L. Vasil, and G. E. Dean, J. Bacteriol. 179:1442-1451, 1997). In this study, a 393-bp open reading frame, fagA (Fur-associated gene), was identified immediately upstream of fumC, in an operon with orfX and sodA. Two iron boxes or Fur (ferric uptake regulatory protein) binding sites were discovered just upstream of fagA. Purified P. aeruginosa Fur caused a gel mobility shift of a PCR product containing these iron box regions. DNA footprinting analysis revealed a 37-bp region that included the Fur binding sites and was protected by Fur. Primer extension analysis and RNase protection assays revealed that the operon is composed of at least three major iron-regulated transcripts. Four mucoid fur mutants produced 1.7- to 2.6-fold-greater fumarase activity and 1.7- to 2.3-greater amounts of alginate than wild-type organisms. A strain devoid of the alternative sigma factor AlgT(U) produced elevated levels of one major transcript and fumarase C and manganase-cofactored SOD activity, suggesting that AlgT(U) may either play a role in regulating this transcript or function in some facet of iron metabolism. These data suggest that the P. aeruginosa fagA, fumC, orfX, and sodA genes reside together on a small operon that is regulated by Fur and is transcribed in response to iron limitation in mucoid, alginate-producing bacteria.