Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. RESULTS: Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Research on picky eating in childhood obesity treatment is limited and inconsistent, with various instruments and questions used. This study examines the role of picky eating in a randomized controlled obesity intervention for preschoolers using subscales from two instruments: The Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). METHOD:The study includes 130 children (mean age 5.2?years (SD 0.7), 54% girls, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score 2.9 (SD 0.6)) and their parents (nearly 60% of non-Swedish background, 40% with university degree). Families were randomized to a parent-group treatment focusing on evidence-based parenting practices or to standard treatment focusing on lifestyle changes. The children's heights and weights (BMI z-score) were measured at baseline, and at 3, 6 and 12?months post baseline. At these time-points, picky eating was reported by parents using the CEBQ (Food Fussiness scale, 6 items) and 5 items from the LBC. Child food intake was reported with a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Pearson correlation was used to study associations between baseline picky eating and baseline BMI z-scores and food intake. Mixed effects models were used to study associations between the two measurements of picky eating and changes in picky eating, to assess the effects of changes in picky eating on BMI z-scores, and to evaluate baseline picky eating as a predictor of changes in BMI z-scores. RESULTS:Neither the standard treatment nor the parent-group treatment reduced the degree of picky eating (measured with CEBQ or LBC). Baseline picky eating measured with the CEBQ was associated with a lower BMI z-score and lower intake of vegetables. Children with a higher degree of picky eating at baseline (measured with the CEBQ) displayed a lower degree of weight loss. When degree of picky eating was examined, for 25% of the children, the CEBQ and the LBC yielded diverging results. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline picky eating may weaken the effectiveness of obesity treatment, and assessments should be conducted before treatment to adjust the treatment approach. Different measurements of picky eating may lead to different results. The CEBQ seems more robust than the LBC in measuring picky eating. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT01792531. Registered 15 February 2013 - Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01792531.
Project description:Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ).Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (? = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (? = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (? = 0.71).The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food avoidance. Parental restriction, however, was more strongly associated with parents' concerns about their children's weights than with children's food approach. This suggests that childhood obesity interventions should address parents' perceptions of healthy weight alongside perceptions of healthy eating.
Project description:Revised subscales of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) have been proposed to be more appropriate for assessing appetitive traits in Singaporean 3 year-olds, but the CEBQ has not yet been validated in older children in this population. The current study aimed to validate the CEBQ at ages 5 (n = 653) and 6 (n = 449) in the ethnically diverse GUSTO cohort. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) examined whether the established eight-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in this sample. Overall, the CFA showed a poor model fit at both ages 5 and 6. At both ages 5 and 6, an exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor structure: food fussiness, enjoyment of food, slowness in eating, emotional undereating, emotional overeating and desire to drink. Cronbach's alpha estimates ranged from 0.70 to 0.85 for all subscales. Criterion validity was tested by correlating subscales with the weight status of 6 years of age. At age 5 and 6, lower scores of slowness of eating while higher scores of enjoyment of food was associated with child overweight. At age 6, higher scores of desire to drink was also associated child overweight. In conclusion, a revised six factor-structure of the CEBQ at ages 5 and 6 were more appropriate for examining appetitive traits in this sample.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Understanding children's feeding practices and eating behaviors is important to determine etiology of childhood obesity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between early feeding practices, eating behavior and body composition among primary school children.<h4>Methods</h4>The data were collected from 403 primary school children. They were administered structured questionnaire, including sociodemographic characteristics, early feeding practices and Child's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Children with obesity and overweight showed higher food approach subscales and lower food avoidance subscales compared to a healthy and underweight child. Children who were exclusively or predominantly breast fed during the first 6 months had the lowest scores for the food approach subscales, food responsiveness (FR) and emotional overeating (EOE) and had the highest scores for the food avoidance subscales, satiety responsiveness (SR) and emotional under eating (EUE). Children who were introduced solid food after 6 months showed lower scores for FR, enjoyment of food and EOE but scored highest for SR, slowness in eating (SE) and EUE. All anthropometric measurements were positively correlated with all food approach subscales and negatively with SE, SR and food fussiness. All food approach subscales were positively correlated with BP percentiles. All food avoidance subscales were negatively correlated with both BP percentiles, except for EUE, which was negatively correlated with diastolic BP percentile only. Age, SR, SE and FR were predictors for child body mass index.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Early feeding practices and eating behavior are considered as prevention approaches for obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Characteristics of picky eaters of different weight status have not been sufficiently investigated. We used two newly developed screening cut-offs for picky eating in the Food fussiness (FF) subscale of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of picky eaters in preschool-aged children with thinness, normal weight, overweight or obesity. METHODS:Data for 1272 preschoolers (mean age 4.9 years) were analyzed. The parent-reported FF subscale ranges from 1 to 5, and two screening cut-offs were applied to classify children as picky eaters (3.0 and 3.33). Structural Equation Modeling was used to study associations with other factors in the CEBQ, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). Scores were compared separately for each weight status group. RESULTS:Nearly half of the children were classified as moderate or severe picky eaters (cut-off 3.0) and 30% as severe (cut-off 3.33). For both cut-offs, prevalence was significantly lower in the obesity group. Still, one-third of children with obesity met the cut-off of 3.0 and 17% met the cut-off of 3.33. While picky eaters displayed similar patterns across weight status groups, some differences emerged. Food responsiveness was lower for picky eaters, but the difference was significant only among children with obesity. Slowness in eating was not as pronounced among picky eaters in the obesity group. In the overweight and obesity groups, parents of picky eaters did not report as high pressure to eat, as compared to the thinness or normal weight groups; in the obesity group, parents of picky eaters also perceived their children's weight as lower. In all weight status groups, parents of picky eaters were more likely to report their children had too much screen time, complained about physical activity, and expressed negative affect toward food. CONCLUSIONS:Picky eating was less common but still prevalent among children with obesity. Future studies should investigate the potential influence of picky eating on childhood overweight and obesity. Moreover, as children with picky eating display higher emotional sensitivity, further research is needed to understand how to create positive eating environments particularly for children with picky eating and obesity.
Project description:The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was developed to measure eating behaviors related to obesity risk in children. However, this questionnaire has not been validated for use in South East Asia, where parenting practices are different from those in western countries and child obesity rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CEBQ administered to mothers of children aged 3 years in Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine if the original 35-item, 8-factor model was supported in our cohort. Participants were 636 mother-child dyads (mean (SD) child age = 36.7 (1.6) months), from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort in which the mothers were characterized in pregnancy and children were followed up to age 3 years. The CFA showed a poor model fit; RMSEA = 0.072 (PCLOSE<0.001), SRMR = 0.094, CFI = 0.826, and TLI = 0.805. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35 item, 7-factor structure (factor loadings ? 0.35): enjoyment of food, food fussiness, emotional overeating, desire to drink, emotional under eating, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating. Cronbach's alpha estimates ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 for the 7 subscales. Convergent validity tests via correlation analysis revealed that emotional under eating (r = -0.14), slowness in eating (r = -0.16) and satiety responsiveness (r = -0.11) were negatively correlated with BMI z-score at 3 years, while enjoyment of food (r = 0.12) was positively correlated, p < 0.05. In conclusion, we found a revised 7-factor structure of the CEBQ more appropriate for examining eating behavior in 3 year old children in the Singapore setting. Further replication studies in a separate cohort study are warranted before further use of these factor structures generated.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Eating behavior is often established during the first years of life. Therefore, it is important to make a research on it to understand the relationships that children have with food and how this can contribute to prevent the development of childhood obesity. An appropriate assessment of eating behavior can be achieved using the "Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire" (CEBQ). This questionnaire has been validated in several populations and languages, but it has never been translated, adapted, and validated for Spanish children.<h4>Aim</h4>To evaluate the reliability and internal consistency of the CEBQ questionnaire, culturally adapted and translated into Spanish (Spain), in Spanish families with children aged 3 to 6 years, as well as its association with children's body mass index (BMI) to test its construct validity.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Children between 3 and 6 years old were recruited from the ongoing MELI-POP randomized controlled clinical trial, as well as from public schools located in middle class neighborhoods of Zaragoza, Spain, to complete the sample. Sociodemographic characteristics and anthropometric measures were obtained according to standardized methods. The 35-item CEBQ questionnaire was completed twice with a time difference of 3 weeks between each response. Statistical analyses included the evaluation of internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire, a confirmatory factor analysis, and the association between the different CEBQ scales and the children's BMI.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 197 children completed variables; 97 of them were boys (49.2%) and 100 girls (50.8%). Mean age of the total sample was 4.7 ± 0.9 years. There was a high test-re-test reliability of the questionnaire with values close to 1, with an average of 0.66 and a good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha with values above 0.7), so that a high reliability is established between the items in each scale. A gradual positive association was found between the score of different "pro-intake" scales of the CEBQ: "Food Responsiveness," "Emotional Overeating," and "Enjoyment of food" and the children's BMI; at the opposite, negative associations were observed between BMI and the score of anti-intake scales "Satiety Responsiveness," "Slowness in Eating," and "Emotional Undereating."<h4>Conclusion</h4>The Spanish version of the CEBQ is a useful tool to assess the eating behavior of Spanish children because the high reliability and internal validity. There is a significant association between eating behavior and BMI in Spanish children.
Project description:Selective eating in children is commonly measured by parental report questionnaires, yet it is unknown if parents accurately estimate their child's selective eating behavior. The objectives of this study were to test the validity and stability of two measures of selective eating using observed child behavior. Low-income mother-child dyads participated in a videotaped laboratory eating protocol at two time points (baseline: mean child age?=?5.9 years; follow-up: mean child age?=?8.6 years), during which they were presented with a familiar and an unfamiliar vegetable. Videos were reliably coded for child selective eating behaviors: amount consumed, child hedonic rating of vegetables, child compliance with maternal prompts to eat, latency to first bite, number of bites, and negative utterances. Mothers completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire Food Fussiness (CEBQ FF) scale and the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) at both time points. Questionnaire validity, stability of measured behaviors, and discriminant validity of questionnaires were examined in the full sample. CEBQ FF scores and FNS scores were both inversely correlated with the quantity consumed, child hedonic rating, and compliance with prompts to eat for both familiar and unfamiliar vegetables at baseline and at follow up. CEBQ FF and FNS scores were inversely correlated with number of bites (for both foods), positively correlated with latency to first bite (for both foods), and inversely correlated with child negative utterances (for the familiar food only). Notably, FNS scores correlated with observed behavior for both familiar and unfamiliar foods, rather than demonstrating a specific association with unfamiliar foods only. This study supports the validity of the CEBQ FF and FNS in low-income early school-aged children.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Definitions and assessment methods of fussy/picky eating are heterogeneous and remain unclear.We aimed to identify an eating behavior profile reflecting fussy/picky eating in children and to describe characteristics of fussy eaters.<h4>Methods</h4>Eating behavior was assessed with the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) in 4914 4-year olds in a population-based birth cohort study. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was used to identify eating behavior profiles based on CEBQ subscales.<h4>Results and discussion</h4>We found a "fussy" eating behavior profile (5.6% of children) characterized by high food fussiness, slowness in eating, and satiety responsiveness in combination with low enjoyment of food and food responsiveness. Fussy eaters were more often from families with low household income than non-fussy eaters (42% vs. 31.8% respectively; ?²(1)?=?9.97, p?<?.01). When they were 14 months old, fussy eaters had a lower intake of vegetables (t ?=?2.42, p?<?.05) and fish (t [169.77]?=?2.40, p?<?.05) but higher intake of savory snacks (t [153.69]?=?-2.03, p?<?.05) and sweets (t ?=?-2.30, p?<?.05) compared to non-fussy eaters. Also, fussy eaters were more likely to be underweight at 4 years of age (19.3%) than non-fussy eaters (12.3%; ?²(1)?=?7.71, p?<?.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A distinct fussy eating behavior profile was identified by LPA, which was related to family and child characteristics, food intake, and BMI. This behavior profile might be used in future research and the development of interventions.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Obesity is a major threat to public health. Eating behavior and dietary intake of especially high energy-dense food with low nutrients contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. However, the relationship between eating behavior and body composition has yet to be examined in Thai children and adolescents with obesity. We assessed the association between children's eating behaviors and their body composition in prerandomized patients who participated in the randomized trial titled "Impact of Dietary Fiber as Prebiotics on Intestinal Microbiota in Obese Thai Children".<h4>Methods</h4>During the prerandomization process, a cross-sectional study was conducted. We recruited children and adolescents aged 7 to 15 years from Bangkok, Thailand. Eating behaviors were assessed by the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ), which is a parent or self-reported research instrument conducted by face-to-face interviews. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist and hip circumferences, and body compositions were assessed. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between the study variables.<h4>Results</h4>Ninety-seven Thai children and adolescents with obesity participated in the study; 59 (61%) were male. Median [IQR] of age and BMI z-score were 10.5 [9.0, 12.2] years and 3.0 [2.6, 3.7], respectively. Subscale for Enjoyment of Food had the highest score. There were no associations between eating behaviors and BMI z-score. However, Emotional Overeating was associated with fat-free mass index (correlation coefficient?=?0.24, <i>p</i>=0.02) and girls with obesity had lower scores in "Slowness in Eating" compared to boys [mean 2.1 versus 1.8, 95% CI: (-0.06, -0.01), <i>p</i>=0.04].<h4>Conclusion</h4>Among Thai children and adolescents with obesity, the difference in multidimensional eating behavior might be affected by fat-free mass. Additional study with a larger sample size needed to explore underlying mechanisms and findings can be used to develop future behavior modification program.