Heat shock protein 70 is related to thermal inhibition of nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complex.
ABSTRACT: The influenza virus genome replicates and forms a viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) with nucleoprotein (NP) and RNA polymerases in the nuclei of host cells. vRNP is then exported into the cytoplasm for viral morphogenesis at the cell membrane. Matrix protein 1 (M1) and nonstructural protein 2/nuclear export protein (NS2/NEP) work in the nuclear export of vRNP by associating with it. It was previously reported that influenza virus production was inhibited in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells cultured at 41 degrees C because nuclear export of vRNP was blocked by the dissociation of M1 from vRNP (A. Sakaguchi, E. Hirayama, A. Hiraki, Y. Ishida, and J. Kim, Virology 306:244-253, 2003). Previous data also suggested that a certain protein(s) synthesized only at 41 degrees C inhibited the association of M1 with vRNP. The potential of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as a candidate obstructive protein was investigated. Induction of HSP70 by prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) at 37 degrees C caused the suppression of virus production. The nuclear export of viral proteins was inhibited by PGA1, and M1 was not associated with vRNP, indicating that HSP70 prevents M1 from binding to vRNP. An immunoprecipitation assay showed that HSP70 was bound to vRNP, suggesting that the interaction of HSP70 with vRNP is the reason for the dissociation of M1. Moreover, NS2 accumulated in the nucleoli of host cells cultured at 41 degrees C, showing that the export of NS2 was also disturbed at 41 degrees C. However, NS2 was exported normally from the nucleus, irrespective of PGA1 treatment at 37 degrees C, suggesting that HSP70 does not influence NS2.
Project description:The organization of nuclear domains is crucial for biological events including virus infection. Newly synthesized influenza viral genome forms viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes and is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through a CRM1-dependent pathway mediated by viral proteins M1 and NS2. However, the spatio-temporal regulation of the progeny vRNP in the nucleus is still unclear. Here we found that polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which contains a methyltransferase subunit EZH2 and catalyzes histone H3K27me3 for the formation of facultative heterochromatin, is a positive factor for the virus production. Depletion of PRC2 complex showed the nuclear accumulation of vRNP and the reduction of M1-vRNP complex formation. We also found that PRC2 complex directly binds to M1, and facilitates the interaction of M1 with vRNP. In conclusion, we propose that the progeny vRNP could be recruited to facultative heterochromatin and assembled into the export complex mediated by PRC2 complex.
Project description:During influenza virus infection, viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) are replicated in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm before assembling into mature viral particles. Nuclear export is mediated by the cellular protein Crm1 and putatively by the viral protein NEP/NS2. Proteolytic cleavage of NEP defines an N-terminal domain which mediates RanGTP-dependent binding to Crm1 and a C-terminal domain which binds to the viral matrix protein M1. The 2.6 A crystal structure of the C-terminal domain reveals an amphipathic helical hairpin which dimerizes as a four-helix bundle. The NEP-M1 interaction involves two critical epitopes: an exposed tryptophan (Trp78) surrounded by a cluster of glutamate residues on NEP, and the basic nuclear localization signal (NLS) of M1. Implications for vRNP export are discussed.
Project description:NS2 from influenza A virus mediates Crm1-dependent vRNP nuclear export through interaction with Crm1. However, even though the nuclear export signal 1 (NES1) of NS2 does not play a requisite role in NS2-Crm1 interaction, there is no doubt that NES1 is crucial for vRNP nuclear export. While the mechanism of the NES1 is still unclear, it is speculated that certain host partners might mediate the NES1 function through their interaction with NES1. In the present study, chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 3 (CHD3) was identified as a novel host nuclear protein for locating NS2 and Crm1 on dense chromatin for NS2 and Crm1-dependent vRNP nuclear export. CHD3 was confirmed to interact with NES1 in NS2, and a disruption to this interaction by mutation in NES1 significantly delayed viral vRNPs export and viral propagation. Further, the knockdown of CHD3 would affect the propagation of the wild-type virus but not the mutant with the weakened NS2-CHD3 interaction. Therefore, this study demonstrates that NES1 is required for maximal binding of NS2 to CHD3, and that the NS2-CHD3 interaction on the dense chromatin contributed to the NS2-mediated vRNP nuclear export.
Project description:The influenza A virus replicates in a broad range of avian and mammalian species by hijacking cellular factors and processes. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) generally propagated poorly in mammalian cells, but some mutants of virus-encoded RNA polymerase components, especially PB2 subunit, can overcome host restriction. Host factors associated with PB2 may be essential for efficient AIV replication in mammalian cells. Here, we infected human cells with the PB2 Flag-tagged replication-competent recombinant AIV and identified cellular proteins that coprecipitate with PB2 protein by mass spectrometry. We confirmed one of the coprecipitating host factors, DEAD-box protein eIF4A3, that interacts with viral PB2, PB1, and NP proteins. Depletion of endogenous eIF4A3 significantly reduced virus replication. Later studies showed that eIF4A3 is essential for viral RNA polymerase activity and viral RNAs synthesis. Upon systematic dissection of the influenza virus progeny mRNA generation, from pre-mRNA processing to nuclear export, we found that the depletion of eIF4A3 resulted in significant defects in the ratio of M2 to M1 and NS2 to NS1, and the proportion of viral spliced mRNA in the nucleus increased, indicating that eIF4A3 plays a significant function in viral nascent intron mRNA splicing and spliced mRNA (M2 and NS2) nuclear export. Additionally, we confirmed that in specific deletion of eIF4A3, the synthesis of reduced NS2 can significantly impair neo-synthetized viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) nuclear export. Taken together, our findings revealed that eIF4A3 is a key mediator of AIV polymerase activity, mRNA splicing, and spliced mRNA nuclear export.
Project description:In contrast to most RNA viruses, influenza viruses replicate their genome in the nucleus of infected cells. As a result, newly-synthesized vRNA genomes, in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), must be exported to the cytoplasm for productive infection. To characterize the composition of vRNP export complexes and their interplay with the nucleus of infected cells, we affinity-purified tagged vRNPs from biochemically fractionated infected nuclei. After treatment of infected cells with leptomycin B, a potent inhibitor of Crm1-mediated export, we isolated vRNP export complexes which, unexpectedly, were tethered to the host-cell chromatin with very high affinity. At late time points of infection, the cellular export receptor Crm1 also accumulated at the same regions of the chromatin as vRNPs, which led to a decrease in the export of other nuclear Crm1 substrates from the nucleus. Interestingly, chromatin targeting of vRNP export complexes brought them into association with Rcc1, the Ran guanine exchange factor responsible for generating RanGTP and driving Crm1-dependent nuclear export. Thus, influenza viruses gain preferential access to newly-generated host cell export machinery by targeting vRNP export complexes at the sites of Ran regeneration.
Project description:Influenza viruses (IV) exploit a variety of signaling pathways. Previous studies showed that the rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Raf/MEK/ERK) pathway is functionally linked to nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes, suggesting that vRNP export is a signaling-induced event. However, the underlying mechanism remained completely enigmatic. Here we have dissected the unknown molecular steps of signaling-driven vRNP export. We identified kinases RSK1/2 as downstream targets of virus-activated ERK signaling. While RSK2 displays an antiviral role, we demonstrate a virus-supportive function of RSK1, migrating to the nucleus to phosphorylate nucleoprotein (NP), the major constituent of vRNPs. This drives association with viral matrix protein 1 (M1) at the chromatin, important for vRNP export. Inhibition or knockdown of MEK, ERK or RSK1 caused impaired vRNP export and reduced progeny virus titers. This work not only expedites the development of anti-influenza strategies, but in addition demonstrates converse actions of different RSK isoforms.
Project description:A cellular pre-mRNA undergoes various post-transcriptional processing events, including capping, splicing and polyadenylation prior to nuclear export. Splicing is particularly important for mRNA nuclear export as two distinct multi-protein complexes, known as human TREX (hTREX) and the exon-junction complex (EJC), are recruited to the mRNA in a splicing-dependent manner. In contrast, a number of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic mRNAs lack introns and are exported by the virus-encoded ORF57 protein. Herein we show that ORF57 binds to intronless viral mRNAs and functions to recruit the complete hTREX complex, but not the EJC, in order assemble an export component viral ribonucleoprotein particle (vRNP). The formation of this vRNP is mediated by a direct interaction between ORF57 and the hTREX export adapter protein, Aly. Aly in turn interacts directly with the DEAD-box protein UAP56, which functions as a bridge to recruit the remaining hTREX proteins to the complex. Moreover, we show that a point mutation in ORF57 which disrupts the ORF57-Aly interaction leads to a failure in the ORF57-mediated recruitment of the entire hTREX complex to the intronless viral mRNA and inhibits the mRNAs subsequent nuclear export and virus replication. Furthermore, we have utilised a trans-dominant Aly mutant to prevent the assembly of the complete ORF57-hTREX complex; this results in a vRNP consisting of viral mRNA bound to ORF57, Aly and the nuclear export factor, TAP. Strikingly, although both the export adapter Aly and the export factor TAP were present on the viral mRNP, a dramatic decrease in intronless viral mRNA export and virus replication was observed in the absence of the remaining hTREX components (UAP56 and hTHO-complex). Together, these data provide the first direct evidence that the complete hTREX complex is essential for the export of KSHV intronless mRNAs and infectious virus production.
Project description:The nonstructural NS2 proteins of autonomous parvoviruses are known to act in a host cell-dependent manner and to play a role in viral DNA replication, efficient translation of viral mRNA, and/or encapsidation. Their exact function during the parvovirus life cycle remains, however, still obscure. We report here the characterization of the interaction with the NS2 proteins from the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) and rat as well as mouse homologues of the human CRM1 protein, a member of the importin-beta family recently identified as an essential nuclear export factor. Using the two-hybrid system, we could detect the interaction between the carboxy-terminal region of rat CRM1 and each of the three isoforms of NS2 (P [or major], Y [or minor], and L [or rare]). NS2 proteins were further shown to interact with the full-length CRM1 by coimmunoprecipitation experiments using extracts from both mouse and rat cell lines. Our data show that CRM1 preferentially binds to the nonphosphorylated isoforms of NS2. Moreover, we observed that the treatment of MVM-infected cells with leptomycin B, a drug that specifically inhibits the CRM1-dependent nuclear export pathway, leads to a drastic accumulation of NS2 proteins in the nucleus. Both NS2 interaction with CRM1 and nuclear accumulation upon leptomycin B treatment strongly suggest that these nonstructural viral proteins are actively exported out of the nuclei of infected cells via a CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.
Project description:Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important fish pathogen that causes high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon. The ISAV genome consists of eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The six largest segments contain one open reading frame (ORF) each, and encode three polymerase proteins, nucleoprotein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin esterase protein. The two smallest segments contain more than one ORF each. The segment 7 encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear export protein (NEP), while segment 8 encodes matrix protein 1 and 2 (M1 and M2). NS1 and M2 have been well known as antagonist of type I interferon. However, little is known about the characterization of M1 or NEP. In addition, heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) has been reported to interact with M1 and NEP of influenza viruses for the export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) via vRNP-M1-NEP complex, the goal of this study therefore was to characterize the subcellular localization and interactions of ISAV M1 and NEP as well as cellular Hsc70.When M1, NEP, and Hsc70 were individually expressed in the stripped snakehead (SSN-1) cells, we found that M1 protein was localized in both cytosol and nucleus of the cells, NEP was localized only in the cytosol and accumulated adjacent to the nucleus, while Hsc70 was localized throughout the cytosol, but not in the nucleus. However, when two of them were co-expressed, we found that both M1 and Hsc70 were co-localized with NEP in the cytosol and accumulated adjacent to the nucleus, while M1 and Hsc70 were still localized as they were expressed individually. Furthermore, pull-down assay was performed and showed that NEP could interact with both M1 and Hsc70, and M1-Hsc70 interaction was also observed although the interaction was weaker than that of NEP-Hsc70.Our study characterized the subcellular localization and interactions of three proteins including M1 and NEP of ISAV, and Hsc70. These data will help towards a better understanding of the life cycle of ISAV, especially the process of vRNP export.
Project description:Stress conditions inhibit mRNA export, but mRNAs encoding heat shock proteins continue to be efficiently exported from the nucleus during stress. How HSP mRNAs bypass this stress-associated export inhibition was not known. Here, we show that HSF1, the transcription factor that binds HSP promoters after stress to induce their transcription, interacts with the nuclear pore-associating TPR protein in a stress-responsive manner. TPR is brought into proximity of the HSP70 promoter after stress and preferentially associates with mRNAs transcribed from this promoter. Disruption of the HSF1-TPR interaction inhibits the export of mRNAs expressed from the HSP70 promoter, both endogenous HSP70 mRNA and a luciferase reporter mRNA. These results suggest that HSP mRNA export escapes stress inhibition via HSF1-mediated recruitment of the nuclear pore-associating protein TPR to HSP genes, thereby functionally connecting the first and last nuclear steps of the gene expression pathway, transcription and mRNA export.