The staphylococcal ferritins are differentially regulated in response to iron and manganese and via PerR and Fur.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis ferritin (FtnA and SefA, respectively) homologues are antigenic and highly conserved. A previous study showed that ftnA is a component of the S. aureus PerR regulon with its transcription induced by elevated iron and repressed by PerR, which functions as a manganese-dependent transcriptional repressor. We have further investigated the role of iron and Fur in the regulation of PerR regulon genes ftnA (ferritin), ahpC (alkyl-hydroperoxidase), and mrgA (Dps homologue) and shown that iron has a major role in the regulation of the PerR regulon and hence the oxidative stress response, since in the presence of both iron and manganese, transcription of PerR regulon genes is induced above the repressed levels observed with manganese alone. Furthermore the PerR regulon genes are differentially regulated by metal availability and Fur. First, there is an additional level of PerR-independent regulation of ftnA under low-iron conditions which is not observed with ahpC and mrgA. Second, there is a differential response of these genes to Fur as ftnA expression is constitutive in a fur mutant, while ahpC expression is constitutive under low-Fe/Mn conditions but some repression of ahpC still occurs in the presence of manganese, whereas mrgA expression is still repressed in the fur mutant as in wild-type S. aureus, although there is a decrease in the overall level of mrgA transcription. These studies have also shown that FtnA expression is regulated by growth phase, but maximal transcription of ftnA differs dependent on the growth medium. Moreover, there are significant regulatory differences between the S. aureus and S. epidermidis ferritins, as sefA expression in contrast to that of ftnA is derepressed under low-Fe/Mn ion conditions.
Project description:In Bacillus subtilis, hydrogen peroxide induces the synthesis of catalase (KatA), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpCF), and a DNA-binding protein of the Dps family (MrgA). KatA, AhpCF, heme biosynthesis enzymes, and MrgA are also induced upon entry into stationary phase under conditions of iron and manganese limitation. In an effort to define the peroxide regulon repressor, PerR, we used mini-Tn10 mutagenesis to identify loci affecting the regulation of mrgA. From this screen, we isolated two mini-Tn10 insertions in ahpC, the gene encoding the small subunit of AhpCF, that increase the transcription of mrgA-lacZ even in iron-supplemented minimal medium. Indeed, these ahpC::Tn10 insertions lead to elevated expression from all peroxide regulon promoters, including those for mrgA, katA, hemAXCDBL, and ahpCF. As a result, the ahpC::Tn10 mutants display an increased resistance to H2O2. The ahpCF promoter region contains three sequences similar to the peroxide regulon consensus operator (per box). We demonstrate that the ability of ahpC::Tn10 mutations to derepress mrgA requires aerobic growth. In contrast, a second distinct trans-acting regulatory mutation bypasses this requirement for aerobic growth. Since the peroxide regulon is activated in the absence of AhpCF, which degrades alkyl hydroperoxides, we propose that organic hydroperoxides may be physiologically relevant inducers in vivo.
Project description:The Bacillus subtilis PerR repressor regulates the adaptive response to peroxide stress. The PerR regulon includes the major vegetative catalase (katA), an iron storage protein (mrgA), an alkylhydroperoxide reductase (ahpCF), a zinc uptake system (zosA), heme biosynthesis enzymes (hemAXCDBL), the iron uptake repressor (fur), and perR itself. A perR null strain is resistant to hydrogen peroxide, accumulates a porphyrin-like compound, and grows very slowly. The poor growth of the perR mutant can be largely accounted for by the elevated expression of two proteins: the KatA catalase and Fur. Genetic studies support a model in which poor growth of the perR null mutant is due to elevated repression of iron uptake by Fur, exacerbated by heme sequestration by the abundant catalase protein. Analysis of the altered-function allele perR991 further supports a link between PerR and iron homeostasis. Strains containing perR991 are peroxide resistant but grow nearly as well as the wild type. Unlike a perR null allele, the perR991 allele (F51S) derepresses KatA, but not Fur, which likely accounts for its comparatively rapid growth.
Project description:The Staphylococcus aureus genome encodes three ferric uptake repressor (Fur) homologues: Fur, PerR, and Zur. To determine the exact role of Fur in S. aureus, we inactivated the fur gene by allelic replacement using a tetracycline resistance cassette, creating strain MJH010 (fur). The mutant had a growth defect in rich medium, and this defect was exacerbated in metal-depleted CL medium. This growth defect was partially suppressed by manganous ion, a metal ion with known antioxidant properties. This suggests that the fur mutation leads to an oxidative stress condition. Indeed, MJH010 (fur) has reduced levels of catalase activity resulting from decreased katA transcription. Using a katA-lacZ fusion we have determined that Fur functions, either directly or indirectly, as an iron-dependent positive regulator of katA expression. Transcription of katA is coregulated by Fur and PerR, since in MJH010 (fur) transcription was still repressed by manganese while transcription in MJH201 (fur perR) was unresponsive to the presence of iron or manganese. Siderophore biosynthesis was repressed by iron in 8325-4 (wild-type) but in MJH010 (fur) was constitutive. A number of putative Fur-regulated genes were identified in the incomplete genome databases using known S. aureus Fur box sequences. Of those tested, the sstABCD and sirABC operons and the fhuD2 and orf4 genes were found to have Fur-regulated expression. MJH010 (fur) was attenuated (P<0.04) in a murine skin abscess model of infection, as was double-mutant MJH201 (fur perR) (P<0.03). This demonstrates the importance in vivo of iron homeostasis and oxidative stress resistance regulation in S. aureus.
Project description:We utilized a full genome cDNA microarray to identify the genes that comprise the peroxide stimulon in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. We determined that a gene (slr1738) encoding a protein similar to PerR in Bacillus subtilis was induced by peroxide. We constructed a PerR knockout strain and used it to help identify components of the PerR regulon, and we found that the regulatory properties were consistent with the hypothesis that PerR functions as a repressor. This effort was guided by finding putative PerR boxes in positions upstream of specific genes and by careful statistical analysis. PerR and sll1621 (ahpC), which codes for a peroxiredoxin, share a divergent promoter that is regulated by PerR. We found that isiA, encoding a Chl protein that is induced under low-iron conditions, was strongly induced by a short-term peroxide stress. Other genes that were strongly induced by peroxide included sigD, sigB, and genes encoding peroxiredoxins and Dsb-like proteins that have not been studied yet in this strain. A gene (slr1894) that encoded a protein similar to MrgA in B. subtilis was upregulated by peroxide, and a strain containing an mrgA knockout mutation was highly sensitive to peroxide. A number of genes were downregulated, including key genes in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and numerous regulatory genes, including those encoding histidine kinases. We used PerR mutants and a thioredoxin mutant (TrxA1) to study differential expression in response to peroxide and determined that neither PerR nor TrxA1 is essential for the peroxide protective response.
Project description:Iron is an essential element for nearly all cells and limited iron availability often restricts growth. However, excess iron can also be deleterious, particularly when cells expressing high affinity iron uptake systems transition to iron rich environments. Bacillus subtilis expresses numerous iron importers, but iron efflux has not been reported. Here, we describe the B. subtilis?PfeT protein (formerly YkvW/ZosA) as a P1B4 -type ATPase in the PerR regulon that serves as an Fe(II) efflux pump and protects cells against iron intoxication. Iron and manganese homeostasis in B. subtilis are closely intertwined: a pfeT mutant is iron sensitive, and this sensitivity can be suppressed by low levels of Mn(II). Conversely, a pfeT mutant is more resistant to Mn(II) overload. In vitro, the PfeT ATPase is activated by both Fe(II) and Co(II), although only Fe(II) efflux is physiologically relevant in wild-type cells, and null mutants accumulate elevated levels of intracellular iron. Genetic studies indicate that PfeT together with the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) cooperate to prevent iron intoxication, with iron sequestration by the MrgA mini-ferritin playing a secondary role. Protection against iron toxicity may also be a key role for related P1B4 -type ATPases previously implicated in bacterial pathogenesis.
Project description:During gut colonization, the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni must surmount the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species produced by its own metabolism, the host immune system, and intestinal microflora. Elucidation of C. jejuni oxidative stress defense mechanisms is critical for understanding Campylobacter pathophysiology.The mechanisms of oxidative stress defense in C. jejuni were characterized by transcriptional profiling and phenotypic analysis of wild-type and mutant strains. To define the regulon of the peroxide-sensing regulator, PerR, we constructed an isogenic DeltaperR mutant and compared its transcriptome profile with that of the wild-type strain. Transcriptome profiling identified 104 genes that belonged to the PerR regulon. PerR appears to regulate gene expression in a manner that both depends on and is independent of the presence of iron and/or H2O2. Mutation of perR significantly reduced motility. A phenotypic analysis using the chick colonization model showed that the DeltaperR mutant exhibited attenuated colonization behavior. An analysis of changes in the transcriptome induced by exposure to H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide, or menadione revealed differential expression of genes belonging to a variety of biological pathways, including classical oxidative stress defense systems, heat shock response, DNA repair and metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and multidrug efflux pumps. Mutagenic and phenotypic studies of the superoxide dismutase SodB, the alkyl-hydroxyperoxidase AhpC, and the catalase KatA, revealed a role for these proteins in oxidative stress defense and chick gut colonization.This study reveals an interplay between PerR, Fur, iron metabolism and oxidative stress defense, and highlights the role of these elements in C. jejuni colonization of the chick cecum and/or subsequent survival.
Project description:We have cloned two metal-regulated genes (mrgA and mrgC) from Bacillus subtilis by using transposon Tn917-lacZ. Both were isolated as iron-repressible gene fusions, but the metal specificity and sensitivity of gene repression are distinct. Transcription of mrgA-lacZ is induced at the end of logarithmic-phase growth in minimal medium, and this induction is prevented by excess manganese, iron, cobalt, or copper. Limitation for metal ions is sufficient for mrgA-lacZ induction, since resuspension in medium lacking both manganese and iron rapidly induces transcription. Transcription of mrgC-lacZ is also induced by iron deprivation but is not repressed by added manganese or other metal ions. Expression of mrgC-lacZ and a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid-based siderophore is repressed in parallel by iron, and in both cases, only iron effects repression. We have cloned and sequenced the promoter and regulatory regions of both mrgA and mrgC. Both genes are preceded by a predicted sigma A-dependent promoter element with overlapping sequences similar to the iron box consensus element for recognition by the Escherichia coli ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur). Mutation of the putative iron box for gene mrgC leads to partial derepression in iron-replete medium.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Metal ions are important micronutrients in cellular metabolism, but excess ions that cause toxic reactive oxygen species are harmful to cells. In bacteria, Fur family proteins such as Fur, Zur and PerR manage the iron and zinc uptake and oxidative stress responses, respectively. The single Fur-like protein (annotated as PerR) in Streptococcus suis has been demonstrated to be involved in zinc and iron uptake in previous studies, but the reports on oxidative stress response and gene regulation are limited. RESULTS: In the present study, the perR gene deletion mutant ?perR was constructed in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain SC-19, and the mutant strain ?perR exhibited less sensitivity to H2O2 stress compared to the wild-type. The dpr and metQIN were found to be upregulated in the ?perR strain compared with SC-19. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the promoters of dpr and metQIN could be bound by the PerR protein. These results suggest that dpr and metQIN are members of the PerR regulon of S. suis. dpr encodes a Dps-like peroxide resistance protein, and the dpr knockout strains (?dpr and ?dpr?perR) were highly sensitive to H2O2. MetQIN is a methionine transporter, and the increased utilization of methionine in the ?perR strain indirectly affected the peroxide resistance. Using a promoter-EGFP gene fusion reporting system, we found that the PerR regulon was induced by H2O2, and the induction was modulated by metal ions. Finally, we found that the pathogenicity of the perR mutant was attenuated and easily cleared by mice. CONCLUSIONS: These data strongly suggest that the Fur-like protein PerR directly regulates dpr and metQIN and plays a crucial role in oxidative stress response in S. suis.
Project description:Metalloregulatory proteins allow cells to sense metal ions and appropriately adjust the expression of metal uptake, storage, and efflux pathways. Bacillus subtilis provides a model for the coordinate regulation of iron and manganese homeostasis that involves three key regulators: Fur senses iron sufficiency, MntR senses manganese sufficiency, and PerR senses the intracellular Fe/Mn ratio. Here, I review the structural and physiological bases of selective metal perception, the effects of non-cognate metals, and mechanisms that may serve to coordinate iron and manganese homeostasis.
Project description:Bacillus pumilus is characterized by a higher oxidative stress resistance than other comparable industrially relevant Bacilli such as B. subtilis or B. licheniformis. In this study the response of B. pumilus to oxidative stress was investigated during a treatment with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide at the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome level. Genes/proteins belonging to regulons, which are known to have important functions in the oxidative stress response of other organisms, were found to be upregulated, such as the Fur, Spx, SOS or CtsR regulon. Strikingly, parts of the fundamental PerR regulon responding to peroxide stress in B. subtilis are not encoded in the B. pumilus genome. Thus, B. pumilus misses the catalase KatA, the DNA-protection protein MrgA or the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpCF. Data of this study suggests that the catalase KatX2 takes over the function of the missing KatA in the oxidative stress response of B. pumilus. The genome-wide expression analysis revealed an induction of bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-malate, BSH) relevant genes. An analysis of the intracellular metabolites detected high intracellular levels of this protective metabolite, which indicates the importance of bacillithiol in the peroxide stress resistance of B. pumilus.