Myd88-dependent in vivo maturation of splenic dendritic cells induced by Leishmania donovani and other Leishmania species.
ABSTRACT: The usual agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Old World is Leishmania donovani, which typically produces systemic diseases in humans and mice. L. donovani has developed efficient strategies to infect and persist in macrophages from spleen and liver. Dendritic cells (DC) are sentinels of the immune system. Following recognition of evolutionary conserved microbial products, DC undergo a maturation process and activate antigen-specific naïve T cells. In the present report we provide new insights into how DC detect Leishmania in vivo. We demonstrate that in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, systemic injection of L. donovani induced the migration of splenic DC from marginal zones to T-cell areas. During migration, DC upregulated the expression of major histocompatibility complex II and costimulatory receptors (such as CD40, CD80, and CD86). Leishmania-induced maturation requires live parasites and is not restricted to L. donovani, as L. braziliensis, L. major, and L. mexicana induced a similar process. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing parasite, we demonstrate that DC undergoing maturation in vivo display no parasite internalization. We also show that L. donovani-induced DC maturation was partially abolished in MyD88-deficient mice. Taken together, our data suggest that Leishmania-induced DC maturation results from direct recognition of Leishmania by DC, and not from DC infection, and that MyD88-dependent receptors are implicated in this process.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in regulating immunity, establishing immunologically privileged tissue microenvironments and maintaining homoeostasis. It is becoming increasingly clear that one key mechanism that mediates many DC functions is production of the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). For pathogens that cause chronic infection, exploitation of host DCs is a solution to establish and persist within a host. Leishmania parasites cause a range of clinical manifestations, all involving chronic infection, and are proficient at avoiding immune responses. We demonstrate here that infection of human myeloid-derived DC with L. major and L. donovani induces IDO expression using a mechanism that involves autocrine or paracrine stimulation with a DC-secreted factor. Leishmania-induced IDO suppresses allogeneic and tetanus toxoid-specific lymphocyte proliferation, an inhibition that is reversed with the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT). Furthermore, IDO expression by human DC does not require live Leishmania infection, as parasite lysates also up-regulate IDO mRNA production. Our data suggest that one mechanism Leishmania parasites utilize to circumvent immune clearance may be to promote the induction of IDO among host DC within the infection microenvironment.
Project description:In the livers of C57BL/6 mice, gamma interferon (IFN-?) controls intracellular Leishmania donovani infection and the efficacy of antimony (Sb) chemotherapy. Since both responses usually correlate with granulomatous inflammation, we tested six prominently expressed, IFN-?-regulated chemokines-CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL13, CXCL16, CCL2, and CCL5-for their roles in (i) mononuclear cell recruitment and granuloma assembly and maturation, (ii) initial control of infection and self-cure, and (iii) responsiveness to Sb treatment. Together, the results for the L. donovani-infected livers of chemokine-deficient mice (CXCR6-/- mice were used as CXCL16-deficient surrogates) indicated that individual IFN-?-induced chemokines have diverse affects and (i) may be entirely dispensable (CXCL13, CXCL16), (ii) may promote (CXCL10, CCL2, CCL5) or downregulate (CXCL9) initial granuloma assembly, (iii) may enhance (CCL2, CCL5) or hinder (CXCL10) early parasite control, (iv) may promote granuloma maturation (CCL2, CCL5), (v) may exert a granuloma-independent action that enables self-cure (CCL5), and (vi) may have no role in responsiveness to chemotherapy. Despite the near absence of tissue inflammation in early-stage infection, parasite replication could be controlled (in CXCL10-/- mice) and Sb was fully active (in CXCL10-/-, CCL2-/-, and CCL5-/- mice). These results characterize chemokine action in the response to L. donovani and also reemphasize that (i) recruited mononuclear cells and granulomas are not required to control infection or respond to Sb chemotherapy, (ii) granuloma assembly, control of infection, and Sb's efficacy are not invariably linked expressions of the same T cell-dependent, cytokine-mediated antileishmanial mechanism, and (iii) granulomas are not necessarily hallmarks of protective antileishmanial immunity.
Project description:Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future.
Project description:Differential gene expression analysis was carried out in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) parasite derived from VL patient before miltefosine treatment, post treatment and patient that relpased after miltefosine treatment Overall design: Organism : Leishmania , Agilent custom Leishmania Gene Expression 8x15k Array (AMADID: 027511) designed by Genotypic Technology Private Limited.
Project description:Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly illness caused by Leishmania donovani that provokes liver and spleen inflammation and tissue destruction. In cutaneous leishmaniasis, the protein of L. major, named inhibitor of serine peptidases (ISP) 2, inactivates neutrophil elastase (NE) present at the macrophage surface, resulting in blockade of TLR4 activation, prevention of TNF-α and IFN-β production, and parasite survival. We report poor intracellular growth of L. donovani in macrophages from knockout mice for NE (ela-/-), TLR4, or TLR2. NE and TLR4 colocalized with the parasite in the parasitophorous vacuole. Parasite load in the liver and spleen of ela-/- mice were reduced and accompanied by increased NO and decreased TGF-β production. Expression of ISP2 was not detected in L. donovani, and a transgenic line constitutively expressing ISP2, displayed poor intracellular growth in macrophages and decreased burden in mice. Infected ela-/- macrophages displayed significantly lower IFN-β mRNA than background mice macrophages, and the intracellular growth was fully restored by exogenous IFN-β. We propose that L. donovani utilizes the host NE-TLR machinery to induce IFN-β necessary for parasite survival and growth during early infection. Low or absent expression of parasite ISP2 in L. donovani is necessary to preserve the activation of the NE-TLR pathway.-Dias, B. T., Dias-Teixeira, K. L., Godinho, J. P., Faria, M. S., Calegari-Silva, T., Mukhtar, M. M., Lopes, U. G., Mottram, J. C., Lima, A. P. C. A. Neutrophil elastase promotes Leishmania donovani infection via interferon-β.
Project description:Leishmania are intracellular protozoa that influence host immune responses eliciting parasite species-specific pathologies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded ribonucleic acids that complement gene transcripts to block protein translation and have been shown to regulate immune system molecular mechanisms. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MP) were infected in vitro with Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani parasites. Small RNAs were isolated from total RNA and sequenced to identify mature miRNAs associated with leishmanial infections. Normalized sequence read count profiles revealed a global downregulation in miRNA expression among host cells following infection. Most identified miRNAs were expressed at higher levels in L. donovani-infected cells relative to L. major-infected cells. Pathway enrichments using in silico-predicted gene targets of differentially expressed miRNAs showed evidence of potentially universal MAP kinase signalling pathway effects. Whereas JAK-STAT and TGF-? signalling pathways were more highly enriched using targets of miRNAs upregulated in L. donovani-infected cells, these data provide evidence in support of a selective influence on host cell miRNA expression and regulation in response to differential Leishmania infections.
Project description:Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic and fatal disease in humans and dogs caused by the intracellular protozoan parasites, Leishmania donovani and L. infantum (L. chagasi). Relapse of disease is frequent in immunocompromised patients, in which the number of VL cases has been increasing recently. The present study is aimed to improve the understanding of mechanisms of L. donovani persistence in immunocompromised conditions using alymphoplastic aly/aly mice. Hepatic parasite burden, granuloma formation and induction of regulatory T cells were determined for up to 7 months after the intravenous inoculation with L. donovani promastigotes. While control aly/+ mice showed a peak of hepatic parasite growth at 4 weeks post infection (WPI) and resolved the infection by 8 WPI, aly/aly mice showed a similar peak in hepatic parasite burden but maintained persistent in the chronic phase of infection, which was associated with delayed and impaired granuloma maturation. Although hepatic CD4(+)Foxp3(+) but not CD8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells were first detected at 4 WPI in both strains of mice, the number of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells was significantly increased in aly/aly mice from 8 WPI. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of Foxp3(+) T cells in L. donovani-induced hepatic granulomas and perivascular neo-lymphoid aggregates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of mature granulomas collected by laser microdissection revealed the correlation of Foxp3 and IL-10 mRNA level. Furthermore, treatment of infected aly/aly mice with anti-CD25 or anti-FR4 mAb resulted in significant reductions in both hepatic Foxp3(+) cells and parasite burden. Thus, we provide the first evidence that CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs mediate L. donovani persistence in the liver during VL in immunodeficient murine model, a result that will help to establish new strategies of immunotherapy against this intracellular protozoan pathogen.
Project description:Leishmania infantum is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This infection triggers dendritic cell (DC) activation through the recognition of microbial products by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Among the TLRs, TLR9 is required for DC activation by different Leishmania species. We demonstrated that TLR9 is upregulated in vitro and in vivo during infection. We show that C57BL/6 mice deficient in TLR9 expression (TLR9(-/-) mice) are more susceptible to infection and display higher parasite numbers in the spleen and liver. The increased susceptibility of TLR9(-/-) mice was due to the impaired recruitment of neutrophils to the infection foci associated with reduced levels of neutrophil chemoattractants released by DCs in the target organs. Moreover, both Th1 and Th17 cells were also committed in TLR9(-/-) mice. TLR9-dependent neutrophil recruitment is mediated via the MyD88 signaling pathway but is TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon beta (TRIF) independent. Furthermore, L. infantum failed to activate both plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs from TLR9(-/-) mice, which presented reduced surface costimulatory molecule expression and chemokine release. Interestingly, neutrophil chemotaxis was affected both in vitro and in vivo when DCs were derived from TLR9(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that TLR9 plays a critical role in neutrophil recruitment during the protective response against L. infantum infection that could be associated with DC activation.
Project description:The roles of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the regulation of immunity to Leishmania donovani infection are still poorly understood. Here we show that the increased parasite load observed in IL-4(-/-) and IL-4 receptor alpha(-/-) mice correlates with retarded granuloma maturation and antileishmanial activity and that the increased parasite load observed in IL-4 receptor alpha(-/-) mice correlates with increased NOS2 expression and decreased serum gamma interferon levels. IL-4 and IL-13 appear to play little role in regulating collagen deposition in L. donovani-induced granulomas.