Deficient induction response in a Xenopus nucleocytoplasmic hybrid.
ABSTRACT: Incompatibilities between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of sufficiently distant species result in developmental arrest of hybrid and nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) embryos. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their lethality, including problems in embryonic genome activation (EGA) and/or nucleo-mitochondrial interactions. However, conclusive identification of the causes underlying developmental defects of cybrid embryos is still lacking. We show here that while over 80% of both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis same-species androgenetic haploids develop to the swimming tadpole stage, the androgenetic cybrids formed by the combination of X. laevis egg cytoplasm and X. tropicalis sperm nucleus invariably fail to gastrulate properly and never reach the swimming tadpole stage. In spite of this arrest, these cybrids show quantitatively normal EGA and energy levels at the stage where their initial gastrulation defects are manifested. The nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility between these two species instead results from a combination of factors, including a reduced emission of induction signal from the vegetal half, a decreased sensitivity of animal cells to induction signals, and differences in a key embryonic protein (Xbra) concentration between the two species, together leading to inefficient induction and defective convergence-extension during gastrulation. Indeed, increased exposure to induction signals and/or Xbra signalling partially rescues the induction response in animal explants and whole cybrid embryos. Altogether, our study demonstrates that the egg cytoplasm of one species may not support the development promoted by the nucleus of another species, even if this nucleus does not interfere with the cytoplasmic/maternal functions of the egg, while the egg cytoplasm is also capable of activating the genome of that nucleus. Instead, our results provide evidence that inefficient signalling and differences in the concentrations of key proteins between species lead to developmental defects in cybrids. Finally, they show that the incompatibilities of cybrids can be corrected by appropriate treatments.
Project description:Early interspecies nuclear transfer (iNT) experiments suggested that a foreign nucleus may become permanently damaged after a few rounds of cell division in the cytoplasm of another species. That is, in some distant species combinations, nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) blastula nuclei can no longer support development, even if they are back-transferred into their own kind of egg cytoplasm. We monitored foreign DNA amplification and RNA production by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RT-qPCR in interorder amphibian hybrids and cybrids formed by the transfer of newt (Pleurodeles waltl) embryonic nuclei into intact and enucleated frog (Xenopus laevis) eggs. We found a dramatic reduction in the expansion of foreign DNA and cell numbers in developing cybrid embryos that correlated with reduced gene transcription. Interestingly, expansion in cell numbers was rescued by the recipient species (Xenopus) maternal genome in iNT hybrids, but it did not improve P. waltl DNA expansion or gene transcription. Also, foreign gene transcripts, normalized to DNA copy numbers, were mostly normal in both iNT hybrids and cybrids. Thus, incomplete foreign DNA replication and/or chromosome segregation during cell division may be the major form of nuclear damage occurring as a result of nuclear replication in a foreign cytoplasmic environment. It also shows that the mechanisms of embryonic gene transcription are highly conserved across amphibians and may not be a major cause of cybrid lethality.
Project description:In bovine species, mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and their correlation to productive or reproductive performances have been widely reported across breeds and individuals. However, experimental evidence of this correlation has never been provided. In order to identify differences among bovine mtDNA haplotypes, transmitochondrial cybrids were generated, with the nucleus from MAC-T cell line, derived from a Holstein dairy cow (Bos taurus) and mitochondria from either primary cell line derived from a domestic Chinese native beef Luxi cattle breed or central Asian domestic yak (Bos grunniens). Yak primary cells illustrated a stronger metabolic capacity than that of Luxi. However, all yak cybrid parameters illustrated a drop in relative yak mtDNA compared to Luxi mtDNA, in line with a mitonuclear imbalance in yak interspecies cybrid. Luxi has 250 divergent variations relative to the mitogenome of Holsteins. In cybrids there were generally higher rates of oxygen consumption (OCR) and extracellular acidification (ECAR), and lower mRNA expression levels of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, potentially reflecting active energy metabolism and cellular stress resistance. The results demonstrate that functional differences exist between bovine cybrid cells. While cybrid viability was similar between Holstein and Luxi breeds, the mitonuclear mismatch caused a marked metabolic dysfunction in cattle:yak cybrid species.
Project description:In farm animals, mitochondrial DNA mutations exist widely across breeds and individuals. In order to identify differences among mtDNA haplotypes, two porcine transmitochondrial cybrids were generated by fusion of a Lantang pig cell line devoid of mitochondrial DNA with enucleated cytoplasm from either a Large White pig or a Xiang pig harboring potentially divergent mitochondrial haplotypes. These cybrid cells were subjected to mitochondrial genome sequencing, copy number detecting and analysis of biochemical traits including succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, ATP content and susceptibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Lantang and Xiang mitochondrial genomes were highly homologous with only 18 polymorphic sites, and differed radically from the Large White with 201 and 198 mutations respectively. The Large White and Xiang cybrids exhibited similar mtDNA copy numbers and different values among biochemical traits, generated greater ROS production (P?<?0.05) and less SDH activity (P?<?0.05) and a lesser ATP content (P?<?0.05). The results show that functional differences exist between cybrid cells which differ in mitochondrial genomic background. In conclusion, transmitochondrial cybrids provide the first direct evidence on pig biochemical traits linking different mitochondrial genome haplotypes.
Project description:Instantaneous mitochondrial introgression events allow the disentangling of the effects of hybridization from those of allospecific mtDNA. Such process frequently occurred in the fish Chrosomus eos, resulting in cybrid individuals composed of a C. eos nuclear genome but with a C. neogaeus mtDNA. This provides a valuable model to address the fundamental question: How well do introgressed individuals perform in their native environment? We infer where de novo production of cybrids occurred to discriminate native environments from those colonized by cybrids in 25 sites from two regions (West-Qc and East-Qc) in Quebec (Canada). We then compared the relative abundance of wild types and cybrids as a measure integrating both fitness and de novo production of cybrids. According to mtDNA variation, 12 introgression events are required to explain the diversity of cybrids. Five cybrid lineages could not be associated with in situ introgression events. This includes one haplotype carried by 93% of the cybrids expected to have colonized West-Qc. These cybrids also displayed a nearly complete allopatric distribution with wild types. We still inferred de novo production of cybrids at seven sites, that accounted for 70% of the cybrids in East-Qc. Wild-type and cybrid individuals coexist in all East-Qc sites while cybrids were less abundant. Allopatry of cybrids restricted to the postglacial expansion suggests the existence of higher fitness for cybrids in specific conditions, allowing for the colonization of different environments and expanding the species' range. However, allospecific mtDNA does not provide a higher fitness to cybrids in their native environment compared to wild types, making the success of an introgressed lineage uncertain.
Project description:MAIN CONCLUSION:The absence of state transitions in a Nt(Hn) cybrid is due to a cleavage of the threonine residue from the misprocessed N-terminus of the LHCII polypeptides. The cooperation between the nucleus and chloroplast genomes is essential for plant photosynthetic fitness. The rapid and specific interactions between nucleus-encoded and chloroplast-encoded proteins are under intense investigation with potential for applications in agriculture and renewable energy technology. Here, we present a novel model for photosynthesis research in which alien henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) chloroplasts function on the nuclear background of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The result of this coupling is a cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) with inhibited state transitions-a mechanism responsible for balancing energy absorption between photosystems. Protein analysis showed differences in the LHCII composition of the cybrid plants. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a novel banding pattern in the cybrids with at least one additional 'LHCII' band compared to the wild-type parental species. Proteomic work suggested that the N-terminus of at least some of the cybrid Lhcb proteins was missing. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the lack of state transitions-the N-terminal truncation of the Lhcb proteins in the cybrid included the threonine residue that is phosphorylated/dephosphorylated in order to trigger state transitions and therefore crucial energy balancing mechanism in plants.
Project description:Transcriptome profiling is a sensitive strategy to uncover the change of mitochondrial to nucleus signaling due to the minor alternation of mitochondrial OXPHOS function. Therefore, we hypothesized that even a minor alternation of OXPHOS function can also remold transcriptome profiles in m.14487T>C mutant cybrid when compared with control cybrids. Our data suggest that a comparable mitochondrial OXPHOS function between m.14487T and m.14487C cybrids is not because of compensatory boost of mitochondrial biogenesis in m.14487C cybrids. Overall design: Examination of cybrids cells with and without m.14487T>C mutation from three different patients by deep sequencing,in triplicate,using Illumina Hiseq 2000.
Project description:Background: Cisplatin, a powerful antitumor agent, causes formation of DNA adducts, and activation of apoptotic pathways. Presently, cisplatin resistance develops in up to 70% of patients but the underlying molecular mechanism(s) are unclear and there are no markers to determine which patients will become resistant. Mitochondria play a significant role not only in energy metabolism but also retrograde signaling (mitochondria to nucleus) that modulates inflammation, complement, and apoptosis pathways. Maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA can be classified into haplogroups representing different ethnic populations that have diverse susceptibilities to diseases and medications. Methods: Transmitochondrial cybrids, where all cell lines possess identical nuclear genomes but either the H (Southern European) or J (Northern European) mtDNA haplogroups, were treated with cisplatin and analyzed for differential responses related to viability, oxidative stress, and expression levels of genes associated with cancer, cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and resistance, apoptosis and signaling pathways. Results: The cisplatin-treated-J cybrids showed greater loss of cell viability along with lower levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential compared to cisplatin-treated-H cybrids. After cisplatin treatment, J cybrids showed increased gene expression of BAX, CASP3, and CYP51A, but lower levels of SFRP1 compared to untreated-J cybrids. The cisplatin-treated-H cybrids had elevated expression of CDKN1A/P21, which has a role in cisplatin toxicity, compared to untreated-H cybrids. The cisplatin-treated H had higher transcription levels of ABCC1, DHRS2/HEP27, and EFEMP1 compared to cisplatin-treated-J cybrids. Conclusions: Cybrid cell lines that contain identical nuclei but either H mtDNA mitochondria or J mtDNA mitochondria respond differently to cisplatin treatments suggesting involvement of the retrograde signaling (from mitochondria to nucleus) in the drug-induced cell death. Varying toxicities and transcription levels of the H vs. J cybrids after cisplatin treatment support the hypothesis that mtDNA variants play a role in the expression of genes affecting resistance and side effects of cisplatin.
Project description:Mitochondrial-nucleus cross talks and mitochondrial retrograde regulation can play a significant role in cellular properties. Transmitochondrial cybrid systems (cybrids) are an excellent tool to study specific effects of altered mitochondria under a defined nuclear background. The majority of the studies using the cybrid model focused on the significance of specific mitochondrial DNA variations in mitochondrial function or tumor properties. However, most of these variants are benign polymorphisms without known functional significance. From an objective of rectifying mitochondrial defects in cancer cells and to establish mitochondria as a potential anticancer drug target, understanding the role of functional mitochondria in reversing oncogenic properties under a cancer nuclear background is very important. Here we analyzed the potential reversal of oncogenic properties of a highly metastatic cell line with the introduction of non-cancerous mitochondria. Cybrids were established by fusing the mitochondria DNA depleted 143B TK- ?0 cells from an aggressive osteosarcoma cell line with mitochondria from benign breast epithelial cell line MCF10A, moderately metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 and 143B cells. In spite of the uniform cancerous nuclear background, as observed with the mitochondria donor cells, cybrids with benign mitochondria showed high mitochondrial functional properties including increased ATP synthesis, oxygen consumption and respiratory chain activities compared to cybrids with cancerous mitochondria. Interestingly, benign mitochondria could reverse different oncogenic characteristics of 143B TK(-) cell including cell proliferation, viability under hypoxic condition, anti-apoptotic properties, resistance to anti-cancer drug, invasion, and colony formation in soft agar, and in vivo tumor growth in nude mice. Microarray analysis suggested that several oncogenic pathways observed in cybrids with cancer mitochondria are inhibited in cybrids with non-cancerous mitochondria. These results suggest the critical oncogenic regulation by mitochondrial-nuclear cross talk and highlights rectifying mitochondrial functional properties as a promising target in cancer therapy.
Project description:Mitochondrial damage and epigenetic modifications have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). This study was designed to investigate the effects of AMD/normal mitochondria on epigenetic regulation in human transmitochondrial retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. Human RPE cybrid cell lines were created by fusing mitochondria-deficient (Rho0) ARPE-19?cells with platelets obtained from either AMD patients (AMD cybrids) or normal subjects (normal cybrids). Therefore, all cybrids had identical nuclei (derived from ARPE-19?cells) but mitochondria derived from either AMD patients or age-matched normal subjects. AMD cybrids demonstrated increased RNA/protein levels for five methylation-related and four acetylation-related genes, along with lower levels of two methylation and three acetylation genes compared to normal cybrids. Demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) led to decreased expression of VEGF-A gene in AMD cells. Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, also influenced protein levels of VEGF-A, HIF1?, NF?B, and CFH in AMD cells. Our findings suggest that retrograde signaling leads to mitochondria-nucleus interactions that influence the epigenetic status of the RPE cells and this may help in the identification of future potential therapeutic targets for AMD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Epidemiological case-control studies have revealed associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and the onset and/or progression of various multifactorial diseases. For instance, mitochondrial haplogroup T was previously shown to be associated with vascular diseases, including coronary artery disease and diabetic retinopathy. In contrast, haplogroup H, the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, is often found to be more prevalent in healthy control subjects than in patient study groups. However, justifications for the assumption that haplogroups are functionally distinct are rare. Therefore, we attempted to compare differences in mitochondrial function between haplogroup H and T cybrids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial haplogroup H and T cybrids were generated by fusion of HEK293 cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA with isolated thrombocytes of individuals with the respective haplogroups. These cybrid cells were analyzed for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, growth rate and susceptibility to reactive oxygen species (ROS). We observed that haplogroup T cybrids have higher survival rate when challenged with hydrogen peroxide, indicating a higher capability to cope with oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study show that functional differences exist between HEK293 cybrid cells which differ in mitochondrial genomic background.