Analytical in vitro approach for studying cyto- and genotoxic effects of particulate airborne material.
ABSTRACT: In the field of inhalation toxicology, progress in the development of in vitro methods and efficient exposure strategies now offers the implementation of cellular-based systems. These can be used to analyze the hazardous potency of airborne substances like gases, particles, and complex mixtures (combustion products). In addition, the regulatory authorities require the integration of such approaches to reduce or replace animal experiments. Although the animal experiment currently still has to provide the last proof of the toxicological potency and classification of a certain compound, in vitro testing is gaining more and more importance in toxicological considerations. This paper gives a brief characterization of the CULTEX® Radial Flow System exposure device, which allows the exposure of cultivated cells as well as bacteria under reproducible and stable conditions for studying cellular and genotoxic effects after the exposure at the air-liquid or air-agar interface, respectively. A commercial bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) as well as Salmonella typhimurium tester strains were exposed to smoke of different research and commercial available cigarettes. A dose-dependent reduction of cell viability was found in the case of 16HBE14o- cells; S. typhimurium responded with a dose-dependent induction of revertants. The promising results recommend the integration of cellular studies in the field of inhalation toxicology and their regulatory acceptance by advancing appropriate validation studies.
Project description:In vitro models mimicking the human respiratory system are essential when investigating the toxicological effects of inhaled indoor air particulate matter (PM). We present a pulmonary cell culture model for studying indoor air PM toxicity. We exposed normal human bronchial epithelial cells, grown on semi-permeable cell culture membranes, to four doses of indoor air PM in the air-liquid interface. We analyzed the chemokine interleukin-8 concentration from the cell culture medium, protein concentration from the apical wash, measured tissue electrical resistance, and imaged airway constructs using light and transmission electron microscopy. We sequenced RNA using a targeted RNA toxicology panel for 386 genes associated with toxicological responses. PM was collected from a non-complaint residential environment over 1 week. Sample collection was concomitant with monitoring size-segregated PM counts and determination of microbial levels and diversity. PM exposure was not acutely toxic for the cells, and we observed up-regulation of 34 genes and down-regulation of 17 genes when compared to blank sampler control exposure. The five most up-regulated genes were related to immunotoxicity. Despite indications of incomplete cell differentiation, this model enabled the comparison of a toxicological transcriptome associated with indoor air PM exposure.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Indoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some buildings are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by uncertainties related to the characterization and assessment of source, exposure, and exposure-response.<h4>Objectives</h4>We briefly describe some common sources of PCBs in indoor air and estimate the contribution of inhalation exposure to total PCB exposure for select age groups. Next, we identify critical areas of research needed to improve assessment of exposure and exposure response for inhaled PCBs.<h4>Discussion</h4>Although the manufacture of PCBs was banned in the United States in 1979, many buildings constructed before then still contain potential sources of indoor air PCB contamination. In some indoor settings and for some age groups, inhalation may contribute more to total PCB exposure than any other route of exposure. PCB exposure has been associated with human health effects, but data specific to the inhalation route are scarce. To support exposure-response assessment, it is critical that future investigations of the health impacts of PCB inhalation carefully consider certain aspects of study design, including characterization of the PCB mixture present.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In certain contexts, inhalation exposure to PCBs may contribute more to total PCB exposure than previously assumed. New epidemiological and toxicological studies addressing the potential health impacts of inhaled PCBs may be useful for quantifying exposure-response relationships and evaluating risks.
Project description:In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) cell culture models can potentially be used to assess inhalation toxicology endpoints and are usually considered, in terms of relevancy, between classic (i.e., submerged) in vitro models and animal-based models. In some situations that need to be clearly defined, ALI methods may represent a complement or an alternative option to in vivo experimentations or classic in vitro methods. However, it is clear that many different approaches exist and that only very limited validation studies have been carried out to date. This means comparison of data from different methods is difficult and available methods are currently not suitable for use in regulatory assessments. This is despite inhalation toxicology being a priority area for many governmental organizations. In this setting, a 1-day workshop on ALI in vitro models for respiratory toxicology research was organized in Paris in March 2016 to assess the situation and to discuss what might be possible in terms of validation studies. The workshop was attended by major parties in Europe and brought together more than 60 representatives from various academic, commercial, and regulatory organizations. Following plenary, oral, and poster presentations, an expert panel was convened to lead a discussion on possible approaches to validation studies for ALI inhalation models. A series of recommendations were made and the outcomes of the workshop are reported.
Project description:E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are designed to deliver nicotine-containing aerosol via inhalation. Little is known about the health effects of flavoured ENDS aerosol when inhaled.Aerosol from ENDS was generated using a smoking machine. Various types of ENDS devices or a tank system prefilled with liquids of different flavours, nicotine carrier, variable nicotine concentrations and with modified battery output voltage were tested. A convenience sample of commercial fluids with flavour names of tobacco, piña colada, menthol, coffee and strawberry were used. Flavouring chemicals were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. H292 human bronchial epithelial cells were directly exposed to 55 puffs of freshly generated ENDS aerosol, tobacco smoke or air (controls) using an air-liquid interface system and the Health Canada intense smoking protocol. The following in vitro toxicological effects were assessed: (1) cell viability, (2) metabolic activity and (3) release of inflammatory mediators (cytokines).Exposure to ENDS aerosol resulted in decreased metabolic activity and cell viability and increased release of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10 compared to air controls. Cell viability and metabolic activity were more adversely affected by conventional cigarettes than most tested ENDS products. Product type, battery output voltage and flavours significantly affected toxicity of ENDS aerosol, with a strawberry-flavoured product being the most cytotoxic.Our data suggest that characteristics of ENDS products, including flavours, may induce inhalation toxicity. Therefore, ENDS users should use the products with caution until more comprehensive studies are performed.
Project description:We conducted an inhalation toxicity test on the alternative animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate potential hazards of indoor air pollution. The inhalation toxicity of toluene and formaldehyde was investigated using comprehensive transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on microarray data suggests the involvement of pathways related to immune response, stress response, and metabolism in formaldehyde and toluene exposure based on hub molecules. We conducted a toxicity test using mutants of the representative genes in these pathways to explore the toxicological consequences of alterations of these pathways. Furthermore, extensive computational behavior analysis showed that exposure to either toluene or formaldehyde reduced most of the behavioral parameters of both wild-type and mutants. Interestingly, behavioral alteration caused by toluene or formaldehyde exposure was most severe in the p38b mutant, suggesting that the defects in the p38 pathway underlie behavioral alteration. Overall, the results indicate that exposure to toluene and formaldehyde via inhalation causes severe toxicity in Drosophila, by inducing significant alterations in gene expression and behavior, suggesting that Drosophila can be used as a potential alternative model in inhalation toxicity screening.
Project description:There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 micro g/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust. RNA sample was taken from olfactory bulb of 56-day-old mouse received diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation at 90 micro g/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days, while control RNA was taken from mouse received clean air, after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Comparisons among groups were made by one-color method with normalized data from Cy3 channels for data analysis.
Project description:Polyurethane Flexible Foams (PUF) are versatile materials used in upholstered furniture and bed mattresses. Due to the production procedure, fresh foams emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) which may contribute to indoor air exposure. To evaluate the risk for consumers, the VOC concentration measured in chamber tests can be matched against existing benchmarks for indoor air like “Richtwerte” (RW) of the German UBA (Umweltbundesamt), “Lowest Concentration of Interest” (LCI) for construction products or derived no effect levels (DNEL) for consumer inhalation exposure. In a previous paper a method for the derivation of Indoor Air Guidance Values (IAGV) for VOC without RW, LCI or DNEL was developed. The method described made use of a sufficient toxicological database. For substances with an insufficient database, read across to structural analogues is a way forward to estimate Indoor Air Guidance Values (IAGV). In this work a read across exercise, supported by an open source physiology based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling program is demonstrated. The use of enzyme kinetic data for phase I and phase II metabolism is discussed and areas for further work were identified. For two substances with very limited toxicological data, allyloxypropanol (isomer mixture of 1-allyloxy-2-propanol and 2-allyloxy-1-propanol) and 2,3-di-ethyl-2,3-dimethylsuccinodintrile, Tentative Indoor Air Guidance Values of 750 µg/m³ and 65 µg/m³ were derived.
Project description:Toward the reduction of smoking-related health risks potential reduced risk products (pRRPs) are being developed. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2 is a recently developed pRRP, which relies on the heat-not-burn principle. We present results from the systems-toxicology arm of a 90-day Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413 inhalation study for the assessment of a mentholated version of THS2.2 (THS2.2M). Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed, 6?h/day, 5 days/week to filtered air, three concentrations of THS2.2M aerosol (15μg/l, 23μg/l, 50μg/l nicotine), cigarette smoke (CS) from the reference cigarette 3R4F (23μg/l nicotine), or CS from reference cigarettes with two different menthol concentrations (23μg/l nicotine; 1.2 and 2.4 mg menthol/cigarette). Reversibility of the exposure effects was assessed in a subset of the groups following 42 days of filtered air exposure. Standard toxicology endpoints were complemented by transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics analyses of nasal epithelium and lung tissue and by lipidomics analysis of lung tissue. The adaptive response of the nasal epithelium to CS exposure included squamous cell metaplasia and an inflammatory response, with high correspondence between the molecular and histopathological results. In contrast to CS exposure, the adaptive tissue and molecular changes to THS2.2M aerosol exposure were much reduced and mostly limited to the highest THS2.2M concentration in female rats. In the lung, CS exposure induced an inflammatory response, triggered cellular stress responses (e.g., oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolism), and affected sphingolipid metabolism. These responses were not observed or much lower upon THS2.2M aerosol exposure. All in all, this system toxicology analysis complements and reconfirms the classical toxicological endpoints and further suggests a potentially reduced risk of THS2.2M.
Project description:There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3), 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.
Project description:An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs.