Concise, stereocontrolled synthesis of the citrinadin B core architecture.
ABSTRACT: A concise, stereocontrolled synthesis of the citrinadin B core architecture from scalemic, readily available starting materials is disclosed. Highlights include ready access to both cyclic tryptophan tautomer and trans-2,6-disubstituted piperidine fragments, an efficient, stereoretentive mixed Claisen acylation for the coupling of these halves, and further diastereoselective carbonyl addition and oxidative rearrangement for assembly of the core.
Project description:A stereocontrolled total synthesis of the indole diterpenoid natural product paspaline is described. Key steps include a highly diastereoselective enzymatic desymmetrization, substrate-directed epoxidation, Ireland-Claisen rearrangement, and diastereotopic group selective C-H acetoxylation to assemble the target with excellent stereofidelity. The route and results described herein outline complementary conceptual disconnections in the arena of steroid natural product synthesis.
Project description:Described is an efficient stereocontrolled route into valuable, densely functionalized fluorinated phosphonates that takes advantage of (i) a Clostridial enzyme to set the absolute stereochemistry and (ii) a new [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the thiono-Claisen variety that is among the fastest sigmatropic rearrangements yet reported. Here, a pronounced rate enhancement is achieved by distal fluorination. This rearrangement is completely stereoretentive, parlaying the enzymatically established ?-C-O stereochemistry in the substrate into the ?-C-S stereochemistry in the product. The final products are of interest to chemical biology, with a platform for Zn-aminopeptidase A inhibitors being constructed here. The enzyme, Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaADH), recently expressed by our group, reduces a spectrum of ?,?-unsaturated ?-keto-?,?-difluorophosphonate esters (93-99% ee; 10 examples). The resultant ?-hydroxy-?,?-difluorophosphonates possess the "L"-stereochemistry, opposite to that previously observed for the CaADH-reduction of ?-keto carboxylate esters ("D"), indicating an unusual active site plasticity. For the thiono-Claisen rearrangement, a notable structure-reactivity relationship is observed. Measured rate constants vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, depending upon thiono-ester structure. Temperature-dependent kinetics reveal an unusually favorable entropy of activation (?S(‡) = 14.5 ± 0.6 e.u.). Most notably, a 400-fold rate enhancement is seen upon fluorination of the distal arene ring, arising from favorable enthalpic (??H(‡) = -2.3 kcal/mol) and entropic (??S(‡) = 4 e.u., i.e. 1.2 kcal/mol at rt) contributions. The unusual active site plasticity seen here is expected to drive structural biology studies on CaADH, while the exceptionally facile sigmatropic rearrangement is expected to drive computational studies to elucidate its underlying entropic and enthalpic basis.
Project description:The concise, enantioselective total syntheses of (-)-citrinadin A and (+)-citrinadin B in a total of only 20 and 21 steps, respectively, from commercially available starting materials are described. Our strategy, which minimizes refunctionalization and protection/deprotection operations, features the highly diastereoselective, vinylogous Mannich addition of a dienolate to a chiral pyridinium salt to set the first chiral center. The absolute stereochemistry of this key center was then relayed by a sequence of substrate-controlled reactions, including a highly stereoselective epoxidation/ring opening sequence and an oxidative rearrangement of an indole to furnish a spirooxindole to establish the remaining stereocenters in the pentacyclic core of the citrinadins. An early stage intermediate in the synthesis of (-)-citrinadin A was deoxygenated to generate a dehydroxy compound that was elaborated into (+)-citrinadin B by a sequence of reaction identical to those used to prepare (-)-citrinadin A. These concise syntheses of (-)-citrinadin A and (+)-citrinadin B led to a revision of their stereochemical structures.
Project description:The stereocontrolled total synthesis of 4-hydroxydictyolactone (4), a member of the xenicane diterpene family of natural products, is described. These studies feature the development of the B-alkyl Suzuki cross-coupling reaction for direct access to (E)-cyclononenes from acyclic precursors. The Ireland-Claisen rearrangement is effectively utilized to establish the backbone asymmetry of the contiguous C(2), C(3), C(10) stereotriad of 4. The synthesis strategy has devised an intramolecular Nozaki-Hiyama reductive allylation of a formate ester for the stereoselective formation of five-membered lactols 22. In addition, an internally directed S(E)' propargylation using allenylmagnesium bromide is described to establish the stereochemistry of the C(4) alcohol in 27, and the terminal alkyne is subsequently functionalized via a regioselective syn-silylstannylation to yield 30. Finally, the stereocontrolled phenylselenylation of the ester enolate derived from 43 leads to the desired syn-oxidative elimination to yield the natural product 4.
Project description:Protocols for the stereodefined formation of alpha,alpha-disubstituted enolates of pseudoephedrine amides are presented followed by the implementation of these in diastereoselective alkylation reactions. Direct alkylation of alpha,alpha-disubstituted pseudoephedrine amide substrates is demonstrated to be both efficient and diastereoselective across a range of substrates, as exemplified by alkylation of the diastereomeric pseudoephedrine alpha-methylbutyramides, where both substrates are found to undergo stereospecific replacement of the alpha-C-H bond with alpha-C-alkyl, with retention of stereochemistry. This is shown to arise by sequential stereospecific enolization and alkylation reactions, with the alkyl halide attacking a common pi-face of the E- and Z-enolates, proposed to be opposite the pseudoephedrine alkoxide side chain. Pseudoephedrine alpha-phenylbutyramides are found to undergo highly stereoselective but not stereospecific alpha-alkylation reactions, which evidence suggests is due to facile enolate isomerization. Also, we show that alpha,alpha-disubstituted pseudoephedrine amide enolates can be generated in a highly stereocontrolled fashion by conjugate addition of an alkyllithium reagent to the s-cis-conformer of an alpha-alkyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated pseudoephedrine amide, providing alpha,alpha-disubstituted enolate substrates that undergo alkylation in the same sense as those formed by direct deprotonation. Methods are presented to transform the alpha-quaternary pseudoephedrine amide products into optically active carboxylic acids, ketones, primary alcohols, and aldehydes.
Project description:Ferrous iron-promoted reduction of a hindered peroxide bond underlies the antimalarial action of the 1,2,4-trioxane artemisinin and the 1,2,4-trioxolane arterolane. In appropriately designed systems, a 1,2,4-trioxolane ring can serve as a trigger to realize ferrous iron-dependent and parasite-selective drug delivery, both in vitro and in vivo. A stereocontrolled, expeditious (three steps), and efficient (67-71% overall yield) synthesis of 1,2,4-trioxolanes possessing the requisite 3? substitution pattern that enables ferrous iron-dependent drug delivery is reported. The key synthetic step involves a diastereoselective Griesbaum co-ozonolysis reaction to afford primarily products with a trans relationship between the 3? substituent and the peroxide bridge, as confirmed by X-ray structural analysis of a 3?-substituted 4-nitrobenzoate analogue.
Project description:Stereocontrolled Csp3 cross-coupling can fundamentally change the types of chemical structures that can be mined for molecular functions. Although considerable progress in achieving the targeted chemical reactivity has been made, controlling stereochemistry in Csp3 cross-coupling remains challenging. Here we report that ligand-based axial shielding of Pd(II) complexes enables Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of unactivated Csp3 boronic acids with perfect stereoretention. This approach leverages key differences in spatial orientation between competing pathways for stereoretentive and stereoinvertive transmetalation of Csp3 boronic acids to Pd(II). We show that axial shielding enables perfectly stereoretentive cross-coupling with a range of unactivated secondary Csp3 boronic acids, as well as the stereocontrolled synthesis of xylarinic acid B and all of its Csp3 stereoisomers. We expect these ligand design principles will broadly enable the continued search for practical and effective methods for stereospecific Csp3 cross-coupling.
Project description:Mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators (siderophores) produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for iron mobilization. The bifunctional salicylate synthase MbtI catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis through the conversion of the primary metabolite chorismate into salicylic acid via isochorismate. We report the design, synthesis, and biochemical evaluation of an inhibitor based on the putative transition state (TS) for the isochorismatase partial reaction of MbtI. The inhibitor mimics the hypothesized charge buildup at C-4 of chorismate in the TS as well as C-O bond formation at C-6. Another important design element of the inhibitor is replacement of the labile pyruvate side chain in chorismate with a stable C-linked propionate isostere. We developed a stereocontrolled synthesis of the highly functionalized cyclohexene inhibitor that features an asymmetric aldol reaction using a titanium enolate, diastereoselective Grignard addition to a tert-butanesulfinyl aldimine, and ring closing olefin metathesis as key steps.
Project description:Analogs of salinosporamide A with variations of the C2 and C5 substituents are prepared in 8-10 steps using as the first and key transformation a diastereoselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction between the chiral 5-tert-butyldimethylsiloxy-3-methyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic ester depicted and various aldehyde substrates, promoted by tert-butyldimethylsilyl triflate. In this transformation, the 4-trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol ester functions to direct the formation of predominantly one of four possible diastereomeric aldol products. Introduction of the C2 appendage by a later-stage, stereocontrolled alkylation reaction permits the construction of analogs variant at this position. Results from in vitro and cell-based assays of proteasomal inhibition are reported. Mass spectrometric studies provide mechanistic details of proteasomal modification by salinosporamide A and analogs.
Project description:Alkene carbooxygenation has attracted considerable attention over the past few decades as this approach provides an efficient access to various oxygen-containing molecules, especially the valuable O-heterocycles. However, examples of catalytic alkene carbooxygenation via a direct C-O cleavage are quite scarce, and the C-O cleavage in these cases is invariably initiated by transition metal-catalyzed oxidative addition. We report here a novel Brønsted acid-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxylation-initiated tandem sequence, which represents the first metal-free intramolecular alkoxylation/Claisen rearrangement. Significantly, an unprecedented Brønsted acid-catalyzed intramolecular alkene insertion into the C-O bond via a carbocation pathway was discovered. This method allows the stereocontrolled synthesis of valuable indole-fused bridged [4.2.1] lactones, providing ready access to biologically relevant scaffolds in a single synthetic step from an acyclic precursor. Moreover, such an asymmetric cascade cyclization has also been realized by employing a traceless chiral directing group. Control experiments favor the feasibility of a carbocation pathway for the process. In addition, biological tests showed that some of these newly synthesized indole-fused lactones exhibited their bioactivity as antitumor agents against different breast cancer cells, melanoma cells, and esophageal cancer cells.