Internet addiction and antisocial internet behavior of adolescents.
ABSTRACT: Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Everyday internet usage is particularly significant in the population of adolescents and young people. Besides numerous benefits, internet usage brings certain risks of addictive behavior. Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most spread scale for measuring internet addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate internet addiction on a sample of Croatian adolescents. METHODS:Overall, 352 students aged between 15 and 20 from randomly selected high schools participated in the study. We have collected the data on the Internet Addiction Test along with basic demographic information. The main analyses included the factorization of IAT test and the measurement of prevalence of internet addiction with the analysis of the gender differences. RESULTS:The results showed that 3.4% of high school students reported high levels of internet addiction, while 35.4% of respondents reported some signs of addiction. Three-factor structure of IAT was obtained with dimensions: Emotional and cognitive internet preoccupation, then Neglecting work and lack of self-control and the last one is Social problems. Although the first factor has the most significant role in internet addiction risk, gender differences were found only in the last two factors, where boys have higher scores on Social Problems, while girls have higher scores on Neglecting work and lack of self-control. CONCLUSIONS:Based on our results, the prevention activities should be focused on the area of ??emotional and social competence and the responsible use of internet. Since the result show that a third of the sample show moderate signs of addiction, programs of both indicated and selective prevention should be systematically planned for the general population of adolescents as well as for the groups in risk. The obtained gender differences indicate that the preventive and treatment programs should take into account gender specifics.
Project description:In the construction of the teaching package on the Internet use, two major moral characters, respect and responsibility, form the core theoretical basis. The respect character consists of respect for others and self-respect while the responsibility character contains social, civil, and global responsibility. There are a total of nine units on the Internet use in the junior secondary curriculum. There are two units in Secondary One curriculum: the first unit deals with cheating behavior and privacy issues concerning the Internet, and the second one discusses the effect of excessive use of the Internet on life and study. In Secondary Two curriculum, we discuss the following social phenomena on the Internet with students: online shopping, pornographic materials on internet, and infringement of a copyright. Finally, we have designed four units on the Internet use in Secondary Three curriculum which focuses more on the relationship between the Internet use and our health. We try to answer the question on how we can use the Internet healthily and also the possibility on how it may hurt us. Similar to the second unit in Secondary One curriculum, we have designed three more units on discussing the effects of excessive use of the Internet with students. We would like to alert students that ineffective use of the Internet will hurt us mentally and physically. For illustrative purposes, two units in the Secondary One and Two curriculums are outlined in this paper.
Project description:The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:One of the clinically relevant problems of Internet use is the phenomenon of Internet addiction. Considering the fact that there is ample evidence for the relationship between attachment style and substance abuse, it stands to reason that attachment theory can also make an important contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of Internet addiction. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine people's tendency toward pathological Internet usage in relation to their attachment style. METHODS:An online survey was conducted. Sociodemographic data, attachment style (Bielefeld questionnaire partnership expectations), symptoms of Internet addiction (scale for online addiction for adults), used Web-based services, and online relationship motives (Cyber Relationship Motive Scale, CRMS-D) were assessed. In order to confirm the findings, a study using the Rorschach test was also conducted. RESULTS:In total, 245 subjects were recruited. Participants with insecure attachment style showed a higher tendency to pathological Internet usage compared with securely attached participants. An ambivalent attachment style was particularly associated with pathological Internet usage. Escapist and social-compensatory motives played an important role for insecurely attached subjects. However, there were no significant effects with respect to Web-based services and apps used. Results of the analysis of the Rorschach protocol with 16 subjects corroborated these results. Users with pathological Internet use frequently showed signs of infantile relationship structures in the context of social groups. This refers to the results of the Web-based survey, in which interpersonal relationships were the result of an insecure attachment style. CONCLUSIONS:Pathological Internet use was a function of insecure attachment and limited interpersonal relationships.
Project description:More and more college students are using microblogs, with some excessive users demonstrating addiction-like symptoms. However, there is currently no published scale available for use in assessing excessive use of these microblogs, a significant impediment to advancing this area of research. We collected data from 3,047 college students in China and developed a Microblog Excessive Use Scale (MEUS) for Chinese college students, comparing it with criteria used for assessing Internet addiction. Our diagnostic scale featured three factors, two of which--"withdrawal and health problem" and "time management and performance"--are already included in Internet addiction assessment scales. The third factor, "social comfort," does not appear in Internet addiction assessment scales. Our study found that females have significantly higher MEUS scores than males, and that total MEUS scores positively correlated with scores from "self-disclosure" and "real social interaction" scales. These findings differ from results obtained in previous investigations into Internet addiction. Our results indicate that some characteristics of the excessive use of microblogs are different to those of Internet addiction, suggesting that microblog overuse may not correspond exactly to the state of Internet addiction.
Project description:Most people use the Internet in a functional way to achieve certain goals and needs. However, there is an increasing number of people who experience negative consequences like loss of control and distress based on an excessive use of the Internet and its specific online applications. Some approaches postulate similarities with behavioral addictions as well as substance dependencies. They differentiate between a generalized and a specific Internet addiction, such as the pathological use of social networking sites (SIA-SNS). Prior studies particularly identified the use of applications, personal characteristics, and psychopathological symptoms as significant predictors for the development and maintenance of this phenomenon. So far, it remains unclear how psychopathological symptoms like depression and social anxiety interact with individual expectancies of Internet use and capabilities of handling the Internet, summarized as Internet literacy.The current study (N = 334) investigated the interaction of these components in a structural equation model.The results indicate that the effects of depression and social anxiety on SIA-SNS were mediated by Internet use expectancies and self-regulation.Thus, Internet use expectancies seem to be crucial for SIA-SNS, which is in line with prior models.SNS use may be reinforced by experienced gratification and relief from negative feelings. Individual competences in handling the Internet may be preventive for the development of SIA-SNS.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Problematic internet use (PIU; otherwise known as Internet Addiction) is a growing problem in modern societies. There is scarce knowledge of the demographic variables and specific internet activities associated with PIU and a limited understanding of how PIU should be conceptualized. Our aim was to identify specific internet activities associated with PIU and explore the moderating role of age and gender in those associations. METHODS:We recruited 1749 participants aged 18 and above via media advertisements in an Internet-based survey at two sites, one in the US, and one in South Africa; we utilized Lasso regression for the analysis. RESULTS:Specific internet activities were associated with higher problematic internet use scores, including general surfing (lasso ?: 2.1), internet gaming (?: 0.6), online shopping (?: 1.4), use of online auction websites (?: 0.027), social networking (?: 0.46) and use of online pornography (?: 1.0). Age moderated the relationship between PIU and role-playing-games (?: 0.33), online gambling (?: 0.15), use of auction websites (?: 0.35) and streaming media (?: 0.35), with older age associated with higher levels of PIU. There was inconclusive evidence for gender and gender?×?internet activities being associated with problematic internet use scores. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social anxiety disorder were associated with high PIU scores in young participants (age???25, ?: 0.35 and 0.65 respectively), whereas generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were associated with high PIU scores in the older participants (age?>?55, ?: 6.4 and 4.3 respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Many types of online behavior (e.g. shopping, pornography, general surfing) bear a stronger relationship with maladaptive use of the internet than gaming supporting the diagnostic classification of problematic internet use as a multifaceted disorder. Furthermore, internet activities and psychiatric diagnoses associated with problematic internet use vary with age, with public health implications.
Project description:Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students' self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7), and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3). Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants' lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Internet addiction is an increasing problem among university students worldwide. The Internet provides numerous educational advantages, but too much Internet use can lead to unfavorable outcomes such as social isolation and poor academic achievement. The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction and its associated factors among female students at Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. METHODS:A cross-sectional study using a multistage proportionate sampling technique was done. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the female students of Jouf University during face-to-face interviews with them. This questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first is a structured one for identifying sociodemographic features, and the second is Young's Internet Addiction Test (YIAT) to assess Internet use among the students. RESULTS:According to the YIAT scale of Internet addiction, 48.6% of the students were scored to be average Internet users. However, 49.5% and 1.9% of the students had moderate and severe addictions, respectively. The vast majority of students (94.6%) preferred home to access the Internet. Communication was the main purpose of using the Internet as it was reported by 47.3% of the students. The majority of the students (79.5%) utilized mobile phones for Internet access while other devices such as a laptop, tablets and desktop were used by 15.4%, 4.3%, and 3.2% of the students, respectively. More than half of the students (54.6%) used the Internet for an average of more than 4?h every day. Also, more than half (51.4%) used it in the evening being the dominant time of using the Internet. Internet addiction was significantly higher among students with high father education, students who sleep 6?h or less, students who utilize the Internet for entertainment purposes, and students who utilize the Internet mainly in the midnight. CONCLUSION:Nearly half of female students at Jouf University have moderate or severe Internet addiction. The significant predictors of Internet addiction were sleeping hours ??6, midnight as the dominant time for utilizing the Internet and using the Internet for entertainment purposes.
Project description:Previous work has identified important correlational linkages between the dark triad of personality (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) and antisocial behavior in adolescence. However, little is known about the longitudinal associations between these personality characteristics and antisocial behavior, and the processes underlying these linkages. We hypothesized positive bidirectional associations between the dark triad and antisocial behavior, and that increases in moral disengagement would underlie these longitudinal associations. In the current study, we examined these hypotheses in 502 Dutch adolescents (51.8% boys, Mage = 13.57, SD = 1.07) across three annual waves. Path models showed that antisocial behavior was positively associated with relative increases in moral disengagement, a general dark personality factor, and Machiavellianism specifically, but not the other way around. These paths were only observed in boys and more pronounced during the first year of the study. Finally, antisocial behavior was partly indirectly associated to psychopathy across time via antisocial behavior and moral disengagement at a later time point. Together, these findings suggest that dark personality characteristics and moral disengagement development are more likely to be the result of changes in antisocial behavior than the other way around.