Identification, utilisation and mapping of novel transcriptome-based markers from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum).
ABSTRACT: Deep-level second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies are now being applied to non-model species as a viable and favourable alternative to Sanger sequencing. Large-scale SNP discovery was undertaken in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) using transcriptome-based 2GS 454 sequencing on the parental genotypes of a reference mapping population, to generate large numbers of novel markers for the construction of a high-density linkage map.Over 700,000 reads were produced, from which a total of 7,000 SNPs were found. A subset of polymorphic SNPs was selected to develop a 384-SNP OPA assay using the Illumina BeadXpress platform. Additionally, the data enabled identification of 3,000 novel EST-SSRs. The selected SNPs and SSRs were validated across diverse Ribes germplasm, including mapping populations and other selected Ribes species.SNP-based maps were developed from two blackcurrant mapping populations, incorporating 48% and 27% of assayed SNPs respectively. A relatively high proportion of visually monomorphic SNPs were investigated further by quantitative trait mapping of theta score outputs from BeadStudio analysis, and this enabled additional SNPs to be placed on the two maps.The use of 2GS technology for the development of markers is superior to previously described methods, in both numbers of markers and biological informativeness of those markers. Whilst the numbers of reads and assembled contigs were comparable to similar sized studies of other non-model species, here a high proportion of novel genes were discovered across a wide range of putative function and localisation. The potential utility of markers developed using the 2GS approach in downstream breeding applications is discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of mild winter temperatures on the consistency of cropping of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) in parts of Europe have led to increasing interest in the genetic control of dormancy release in this species. This study examined patterns of gene expression in leaf buds of blackcurrant to identify key differential changes in these profiles around the time of budbreak. RESULTS: Using leaf bud tissue of blackcurrant, a cDNA library was generated as a source of blackcurrant ESTs for construction of a custom microarray, which was used to identify differential gene expression during dormancy release. Gene activity was lowest in early stages of dormancy, increasing to reach a maximum around the time of budbreak. Genes with significantly changing expression profiles were clustered and evidence is provided for the transient activity of genes previously associated with dormancy processes in other species. Expression profiling identified candidate genes which were mapped onto a blackcurrant genetic linkage map containing budbreak-related QTL. Three genes, which putatively encode calmodulin-binding protein, beta tubulin and acetyl CoA carboxylase respectively, were found to co-localise with budbreak QTL. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the genetic control of dormancy transition in blackcurrant, identifying key changes in gene expression around budbreak. Genetic mapping of ESTs enabled the identification of genes which co-localise with previously-characterised blackcurrant QTL, and it is concluded that these genes have probable roles in release of dormancy and can therefore provide a basis for the development of genetic markers for future breeding deployment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peach (Prunus persica L.) is a diploid species and model plant of the Rosaceae family. In the past decade, significant progress has been made in peach genetic research via DNA markers, but the number of these markers remains limited. RESULTS:In this study, we performed a genome-wide DNA markers detection based on sequencing data of six distantly related peach accessions. A total of 650,693~1,053,547 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 114,227~178,968 small insertion/deletions (InDels), 8386~12,298 structure variants (SVs), 2111~2581 copy number variants (CNVs) and 229,357~346,940 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected and annotated. To demonstrate the application of DNA markers, 944 SNPs were filtered for association study of fruit ripening time and 15 highly polymorphic SSRs were selected to analyze the genetic relationship among 221 accessions. CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that the use of high-throughput sequencing to develop DNA markers is fast and effective. Comprehensive identification of DNA markers, including SVs and SSRs, would be of benefit to genetic diversity evaluation, genetic mapping, and molecular breeding of peach.
Project description:Blackcurrant reversion virus (BRV) is the most destructive currant-infecting and mite-transmitted pathogen from the genus <i>Nepovirus</i>. In this work, BRV transmission in the system <i>Ribes</i> ex vitro-<i>Ribes</i> in vitro was applied for the first time. Triple infection of BRV identified in blackcurrant cv. Gojai was used for phylogenetic analysis and inoculation assay. Transmission of BRV was successful due to its stability in the inoculum for up to 8 days at 4 °C; all BRV isolates were infectious. Our suggested inoculation method through roots was applied in six <i>Ribes</i> spp. genotypes with 100.0% reliability, and the expression levels of defence-related gene <i>PR1</i> to biotic stress was observed. The prevalence of the virus in microshoots after 2-14 days post-inoculation (dpi) was established by PCR. In resistant genotypes, the BRV was identified up to 8 dpi; meanwhile, infection remained constant in susceptible genotypes. We established that BRV transmission under controlled conditions depends on the inoculum quality, post-inoculation cultivation temperature, and host-plant susceptibility to pathogen. This in vitro inoculation method opens possibilities to reveal the resistance mechanisms or response pathways to BRV and can be used for the selection of resistant <i>Ribes</i> spp. in breeding programs.
Project description:Following a request from the EU Commission, the Panel on Plant Health addressed the pest categorisation of the viruses of Ribes L. determined as being either non-EU or of undetermined standing in a previous EFSA opinion. These infectious agents belong to different genera and are heterogeneous in their biology. Alaska vitivirus 1 and Ribes virus F were excluded from categorisation because these are very poorly characterised viruses. The pest categorisation was completed for seven viruses with clear identity and for which detection methods are available. All these viruses are efficiently transmitted by vegetative propagation techniques, with plants for planting representing the major pathway for long-distance dispersal and thus considered as the major pathway for entry. Depending on the virus, additional pathway(s) can also be Ribes seeds, pollen and/or vector(s). Most of the viruses categorised here are known to infect only one or few plant genera, but tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) has a wide host range, thus extending the possible entry pathways. ToRSV meets all the criteria evaluated by EFSA to qualify as potential Union quarantine pest (QP). With the exception of impact in the EU territory, on which the Panel was unable to conclude, Actinidia virus X, blackcurrant leaf chlorosis-associated virus, blackcurrant leafroll-associated virus, black currant-associated rhabdovirus, blackcurrant waikavirus A and Ribes americanum virus A satisfy all the other criteria to be considered as potential Union QPs. For several viruses, especially those recently discovered, the categorisation is associated with high uncertainties mainly because of the absence of data on their biology, distribution and impact. Since this opinion addresses specifically the non-EU viruses, in general these viruses do not meet the criteria assessed by EFSA to qualify as potential Union regulated non-quarantine pests.
Project description:Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) can be derived from the complete genome sequence. These markers are important for gene mapping as well as marker-assisted selection (MAS). To develop SSRs for cotton gene mapping, we selected the complete genome sequence of Gossypium raimondii, which consisted of 4447 non-redundant scaffolds. Out of 775.2 Mb sequence examined, a total of 136,345 microsatellites were identified with a density of 5.69 kb per SSR in the G. raimondii genome leading to development of 112,177 primer pairs. The distributions of SSRs in the genome were non-random. Among the different motifs ranging from 1 to 6 bp, penta-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (30.5%), followed by tetra-nucleotide repeats (18.2%) and di-nucleotide repeats (16.9%). Among all identified 457 motif types, the most frequently occurring repeat motifs were poly-AT/TA, which accounted for 79.8% of the total di-nt SSRs, followed by AAAT/TTTA with 51.5% of the total tetra-nucleotede. Further, 18,834 microsatellites were detected from the protein-coding genes, and the frequency of gene containing SSRs was 46.0% in 40,976 genes of G. raimondii. These genome-based SSRs developed in the present study will lay the groundwork for developing large numbers of SSR markers for genetic mapping, gene discovery, genetic diversity analysis, and MAS breeding in cotton.
Project description:While Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are extremely useful genetic markers, recent advances in technology have produced a shift toward use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The different mutational properties of these two classes of markers result in differences in heterozygosities and allele frequencies that may have implications for their use in assessing relatedness and evaluation of genetic diversity. We compared analyses based on 89 SSRs (primarily dinucleotide repeats) to analyses based on 847 SNPs in individuals from the same 259 inbred maize lines, which had been chosen to represent the diversity available among current and historic lines used in breeding. The SSRs performed better at clustering germplasm into populations than did a set of 847 SNPs or 554 SNP haplotypes, and SSRs provided more resolution in measuring genetic distance based on allele-sharing. Except for closely related pairs of individuals, measures of distance based on SSRs were only weakly correlated with measures of distance based on SNPs. Our results suggest that 1) large numbers of SNP loci will be required to replace highly polymorphic SSRs in studies of diversity and relatedness and 2) relatedness among highly-diverged maize lines is difficult to measure accurately regardless of the marker system.
Project description:Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs) and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri) cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fixed arrays of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have advantages over reduced representation sequencing in their ease of data analysis, consistently higher call rates, and rapid turnaround times. A 6 K SNP array represents a cost-benefit "sweet spot" for routine genetics and breeding applications in rice. Selection of informative SNPs across species and subpopulations during chip design is essential to obtain useful polymorphism rates for target germplasm groups. This paper summarizes results from large-scale deployment of an Illumina 6 K SNP array for rice.<h4>Results</h4>Design of the Illumina Infinium 6 K SNP chip for rice, referred to as the Cornell_6K_Array_Infinium_Rice (C6AIR), includes 4429 SNPs from re-sequencing data and 1571 SNP markers from previous BeadXpress 384-SNP sets, selected based on polymorphism rate and allele frequency within and between target germplasm groups. Of the 6000 attempted bead types, 5274 passed Illumina's production quality control. The C6AIR was widely deployed at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) for genetic diversity analysis, QTL mapping, and tracking introgressions and was intensively used at Cornell University for QTL analysis and developing libraries of interspecific chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) between O. sativa and diverse accessions of O. rufipogon or O. meridionalis. Collectively, the array was used to genotype over 40,000 rice samples. A set of 4606 SNP markers was used to provide high quality data for O. sativa germplasm, while a slightly expanded set of 4940 SNPs was used for O. sativa X O. rufipogon populations. Biparental polymorphism rates were generally between 1900 and 2500 well-distributed SNP markers for indica x japonica or interspecific populations and between 1300 and 1500 markers for crosses within indica, while polymorphism rates were lower for pairwise crosses within U.S. tropical japonica germplasm. Recently, a second-generation array containing ~7000 SNP markers, referred to as the C7AIR, was designed by removing poor-performing SNPs from the C6AIR and adding markers selected to increase the utility of the array for elite tropical japonica material.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The C6AIR has been successfully used to generate rapid and high-quality genotype data for diverse genetics and breeding applications in rice, and provides the basis for an optimized design in the C7AIR.