Short-term effects of high-dose oral vitamin D3 in critically ill vitamin D deficient patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency is encountered frequently in critically ill patients and might be harmful. Current nutrition guidelines recommend very low vitamin D doses. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single oral high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in an intensive care setting over a one-week observation period. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in a medical ICU at a tertiary care university center in Graz, Austria. Twenty-five patients (mean age 62 ± 16 yrs) with vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ? 20 ng/ml] and an expected stay in the ICU >48 hours were included and randomly received either 540,000 IU (corresponding to 13.5 mg) of cholecalciferol (VITD) dissolved in 45 ml herbal oil or matched placebo (PBO) orally or via feeding tube. RESULTS: The mean serum 25(OH)D increase in the intervention group was 25 ng/ml (range 1-47 ng/ml). The highest 25(OH)D level reached was 64 ng/ml, while two patients showed a small (7 ng/ml) or no response (1 ng/ml). Hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria did not occur in any patient. From day 0 to day 7, total serum calcium levels increased by 0.10 (PBO) and 0.15 mmol/L (VITD; P < 0.05 for both), while ionized calcium levels increased by 0.11 (PBO) and 0.05 mmol/L (VITD; P < 0.05 for both). Parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 19 and 28 pg/ml (PBO and VITD, ns) over the seven days, while 1,25(OH)D showed a transient significant increase in the VITD group only. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows that a single oral ultra-high dose of cholecalciferol corrects vitamin D deficiency within 2 days in most patients without causing adverse effects like hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. Further research is needed to confirm our results and establish whether vitamin D supplementation can affect the clinical outcome of vitamin D deficient critically ill patients. EUDRACT NUMBER: 2009-012080-34 GERMAN CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTER (DRKS): DRKS00000750.
Project description:We sought to determine whether 4000 IU/d (vs 2000 IU/d) of vitamin D during pregnancy is safe and improves maternal/neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a dose-dependent manner.A total of 257 pregnant women 12-16 weeks' gestation were enrolled. Randomization to 2000 vs 4000 IU/d followed 1-month run-in at 2000 IU/d. Participants were monitored for hypercalciuria, hypercalcemia, and 25(OH)D status.Maternal 25(OH)D (n = 161) increased from 22.7 ng/mL (SD 9.7) at baseline to 36.2 ng/mL (SD 15) and 37.9 ng/mL (SD 13.5) in the 2000 and 4000 IU groups, respectively. While maternal 25(OH)D change from baseline did not differ between groups, 25(OH)D monthly increase differed between groups (P < .01). No supplementation-related adverse events occurred. Mean cord blood 25(OH)D was 22.1 ± 10.3 ng/mL in 2000 IU and 27.0 ± 13.3 ng/mL in 4000 IU groups (P = .024). After controlling for race and study site, preterm birth and labor were inversely associated with predelivery and mean 25(OH)D, but not baseline 25(OH)D.Maternal supplementation with vitamin D 2000 and 4000 IU/d during pregnancy improved maternal/neonatal vitamin D status. Evidence of risk reduction in infection, preterm labor, and preterm birth was suggestive, requiring additional studies powered for these endpoints.
Project description:Introduction: Epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, whether total, bioavailable, and/or free vitamin D levels have a prognostic role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is unknown. We aimed to determine total, bioavailable, and free 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)vitD) plasma levels and their prognostic value in PAH patients. Methods: In total, 67 samples of plasma from Spanish patients with idiopathic, heritable, or drug-induced PAH were obtained from the Spanish PH Biobank and compared to a cohort of 100 healthy subjects. Clinical parameters were obtained from the Spanish Registry of PAH (REHAP). Results: Seventy percent of PAH patients had severe vitamin D deficiency (total 25(OH)vitD < 10 ng/mL) and secondary hyperparathyroidism. PAH patients with total 25(OH)vitD plasma above the median of this cohort (7.17 ng/mL) had better functional class and higher 6-min walking distance and TAPSE (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion). The main outcome measure of survival was significantly increased in these patients (age-adjusted hazard ratio: 5.40 (95% confidence interval: 2.88 to 10.12)). Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin plasma levels were downregulated in PAH. Bioavailable 25(OH)vitD was decreased in PAH patients compared to the control cohort. Lower levels of bioavailable 25(OH)vitD (<0.91 ng/mL) were associated with more advanced functional class, lower exercise capacity, and higher risk of mortality. Free 25(OH)vitD did not change in PAH; however, lower free 25(OH)vitD (<1.53 pg/mL) values were also associated with high risk of mortality. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in PAH, and low levels of total 25(OH)vitD were associated with poor prognosis.
Project description:Calcium (Ca(2+)) and vitamin D (VitD) play an important role in child health. We evaluated the daily intake of Ca(2+) and VitD in healthy children. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Ca(2+) and VitD supplementation.Daily Ca(2+) and VitD intake was evaluated in consecutive healthy children through a validated questionnaire. Subjects with <70% of dietary reference intakes (DRIs) of Ca(2+) and VitD were invited to participate in a prospective randomized trial with 2 groups of nutritional intervention: Group 1, dietary counseling aiming to optimize daily Ca(2+) and VitD intake plus administration of a commercially available Ca(2+) and VitD supplementation product; Group 2, dietary counseling alone. At the enrollment (T0) and after 4 months (T1) serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels were assessed.We evaluated 150 healthy children (male 50%, mean age 10 years); at baseline a low VitD intake was observed in all subjects (median 0.79 μg/die, IQR 1.78; range 0.01-5.02); this condition was associated with Ca(2+) intake <70% of the DRIs in 82 subjects (55%). At baseline serum 25(OH)D levels were low (<30 ng/ml) in all study subjects and after 4 months of nutritional intervention, a normalization of serum 25(OH)D levels (≥30 ng/ml) was observed in all children in Group 1 and in only one subject in Group 2 [Group 1: T1 33.8 ng/ml (IQR 2.5) vs Group 2: T1 24.5 ng/ml (IQR 5.2), p <0.001].Adequate Ca(2+) and VitD intakes are difficult to obtain through dietary counseling alone in pediatric subjects. Oral supplementation with of Ca(2+) and VitD is a reliable strategy to prevent this condition.The study was registered in Clinical Trials Protocol Registration System (ID number: NCT01638494).
Project description:Vitamin D (VitD) has a critical role in phosphorous-calcium metabolism as well as an important role in the immune system. In the human body, VitD is synthesized as cholecalciferol in the skin, but this process requires sunlight (UVB) radiation. Numerous reports showed high prevalence of VitD deficiency, particularly during the winter season, indicating the importance of VitD supplementation. Various factors can affect the absorption of VitD, including dosage and formulation. The primary study objective was to examine the efficiency of supplementation with three different formulations containing cholecalciferol in comparison with the control group. The secondary objective was to identify other factors affecting increase in serum 25-OH-VitD. A randomized controlled intervention study was conducted in Slovenia during wintertime (January- March) on 105 apparently healthy subjects (aged 18-65 years) with suboptimal VitD status (25-OH-VitD 30-50 nmol/L). Subjects were randomized into four groups: three treatment groups receiving (A) capsules with starch-adsorbed VitD, (B) oil-based Valens VitD oral spray, or (C) water-based Valens VitD oral spray and a control group (D) which did not receive supplemental VitD. Two months of supplementation with cholecalciferol (1000 IU; 25 µg daily) resulted in significant increase in serum 25-OH-VitD levels in comparison with control group (pooled ?c 32.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: 23.0, 42.5, p < 0.0001). While we did not observe any significant differences between the tested formulations, the efficiency of supplementation was associated with body mass index and baseline serum 25-OH-VitD level. Higher supplementation efficiency was observed in participants with normal body weight (BMI < 25) and in those with more pronounced VitD insufficiency. We also determined that tested dosage was not sufficient to achieve recommended 25-OH-VitD levels in all subjects.
Project description:Vitamin D metabolism is actively modulated in adipose tissue during obesity. To better investigate this process, we develop a specific LC-HRMS/MS method that can simultaneously quantify three vitamin D metabolites, i.e., cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in a complex matrix, such as mouse adipose tissue and plasma. The method uses pretreatment with liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction followed by derivatization using Amplifex® reagents to improve metabolite stability and ionization efficiency. Here, the method is optimized by co-eluting stable isotope-labelled internal standards to calibrate each analogue and to spike biological samples. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were 0.8-6.0% and 2.0-14.4%, respectively for the three derivatized metabolites. The limits of quantification (LoQ) achieved with Amplifex® derivatization were 0.02 ng/mL, 0.19 ng/mL, and 0.78 ng/mL for 1,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)D3 and cholecalciferol, respectively. Now, for the first time, 1,25(OH)2D3 can be co-quantified with cholecalciferol and 25(OH)D3 in mouse adipose tissue. This validated method is successfully applied to study the impact of obesity on vitamin D status in mice.
Project description:Suboptimal vitamin D (vitD) status is common in children and young adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The vitD supplemental dose needed to normalize vitD status in this population is unknown.In this double-blind trial, subjects infected with HIV ages 8.3 to 24.9 years were randomized to vitD3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and evaluated at 6 and 12 week for changes in vitD status and HIV indicators. A dose was considered unsafe if serum calcium was elevated (above age and sex-specific range) associated with elevated serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D); >160 ng/mL).At baseline, 95% of subjects (n = 44; 43% with perinatally acquired HIV, 57% with behaviorally acquired HIV) had a suboptimal serum 25(OH)D concentration of <32 ng/mL (mean ± standard deviation, 19.3 ± 7.4; range, 4.4-33.6 ng/mL). After 12 weeks (main outcome) of D3 supplementation, both D3 doses were safe and well tolerated, with no evidence of elevation of serum calcium concentrations or deterioration in HIV immunologic or virologic status. Sufficient vitD status, defined as serum 25(OH)D ?32 ng/mL, was achieved in 81% of all subjects, and only the 7000 IU/day group (86%) achieved this a priori efficacy criterion in >80% of subjects. Change in serum 25(OH)D did not differ between HIV acquisition groups.A 7000 IU/day D3 supplementation was safe and effective in children and young adults infected with HIV.
Project description:Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 4% of the population in association with malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, ingestion of excessive calcium and/or vitamin D, ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and impaired degradation of 1,25(OH)2D. The ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D3 (or vitamin D2) results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria due to the formation of supraphysiological amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that bind to the vitamin D receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the active form of the vitamin, 1,25(OH)2D, and the formation of 5,6-trans 25(OH)D, which binds to the vitamin D receptor more tightly than 25(OH)D. In patients with granulomatous disease such as sarcoidosis or tuberculosis and tumors such as lymphomas, hypercalcemia occurs as a result of the activity of ectopic 25(OH)D-1-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) expressed in macrophages or tumor cells and the formation of excessive amounts of 1,25(OH)2D. Recent work has identified a novel cause of non-PTH-mediated hypercalcemia that occurs when the degradation of 1,25(OH)2D is impaired as a result of mutations of the 1,25(OH)2D-24-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (CYP24A1). Patients with biallelic and, in some instances, monoallelic mutations of the CYP24A1 gene have elevated serum calcium concentrations associated with elevated serum 1,25(OH)2D, suppressed PTH concentrations, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and on occasion, reduced bone density. Of interest, first-time calcium renal stone formers have elevated 1,25(OH)2D and evidence of impaired 24-hydroxylase-mediated 1,25(OH)2D degradation. We will describe the biochemical processes associated with the synthesis and degradation of various vitamin D metabolites, the clinical features of the vitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia, their biochemical diagnosis, and treatment.
Project description:This study aims to prospectively assess the incidence of hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia with different doses of vitamin D and with a calcium intake of approximately 1,200 mg/day.This was a 1-year randomized placebo-controlled study of vitamin D (400-4,800 IU/d) in 163 white women aged 57 to 90 years. Calcium citrate tablets (200 mg) were added to the diet to achieve a total calcium intake of approximately 1,200 mg/day in all groups. All women had vitamin D insufficiency at baseline, with serum 25-hydroxyvitaminD levels lower than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Serum and 24-hour urine calcium were collected every 3 months on supplementation, any test result above the upper reference range represented an episode of hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. Mixed-effects models and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis.Hypercalcemia (>10.2 mg/dL [2.55 mmol/L]) occurred in 8.8% of white women. Hypercalciuria (>300 mg/d [7.5 mmol]) occurred in 30.6% of white women. Episodes of hypercalciuria were transient in half of the group and recurrent in the other half. No relationship between hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria and vitamin D dose was found, and hypercalciuria was equally common in the placebo group.Hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia commonly occur with vitamin D and calcium supplements. Whether hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia are caused by calcium, vitamin D, or both is unclear. These findings may have relevance to the reported increase in kidney stones in the Women's Health Initiative trial. Because calcium 1,200 mg and vitamin D 800 IU/day are widely recommended in postmenopausal women, systematic evaluation of the safety of supplements is warranted in clinical management and in future studies.
Project description:Controversy exists over the disparate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations between black and white Americans.We sought to determine whether there are differences in total and directly measured free 25(OH)D concentrations between black and white American adults and how daily supplementation with cholecalciferol changes these concentrations.Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted with the use of data from 2 placebo-controlled, randomized trials at 2 academic medical centers in the United States: CaDDM (Calcium and Vitamin D in Type 2 Diabetes) and DDM2 (Vitamin D for Established Type 2 Diabetes). A total of 208 subjects with pre- or well-controlled diabetes with a mean age of 59.1 y and mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 31.6 were randomly assigned to receive daily cholecalciferol supplementation at 1 of 2 doses (2000 or 4000 IU) or a matching placebo for 16 wk. We measured serum total 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) by 2 different immunoassays (with the use of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies), parathyroid hormone, and albumin. Free 25(OH)D concentration was directly measured and calculated.Blacks had lower total 25(OH)D concentrations than whites [adjusted median: 20.3 ng/mL (95% CI: 16.2, 24.5 ng/mL) compared with 26.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 25.2, 28.1 ng/mL), respectively; P = 0.026)], and a higher proportion of blacks had total 25(OH)D concentrations <20 ng/mL (46% compared with 19%, respectively; P < 0.001). Directly measured free 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in blacks than in whites [adjusted median: 4.5 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.7, 5.4 ng/mL) compared with 5.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 5.4, 5.9 ng/mL), respectively; P = 0.044] and were strongly correlated with total 25(OH)D without an effect of race. DBP was lower in blacks when measured by the monoclonal but not the polyclonal antibody immunoassay. Cholecalciferol supplementation increased total and measured free 25(OH)D concentrations proportionally to the dose and without a difference between races.The relation between free and total 25(OH)D did not vary systematically by race in this multiracial population with pre- or well-controlled diabetes. The results need to be replicated in additional cohorts before concluding that the clinical assessment of vitamin D status in blacks and whites should follow a single standard. The CaDDM and DDM2 trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00436475 and NCT01736865, respectively.
Project description:Elevated concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are postulated to promote 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) insufficiency in CKD by stimulating 24-hydroxylation of this metabolite, leading to its subsequent degradation; however, prospective human studies testing this relationship are lacking.An open-label prospective study was conducted from October 2010 through July 2012 to compare the effect of 8 weeks of oral cholecalciferol therapy (50,000 IU twice weekly) on the production of 24,25(OH)2D3 in vitamin D-insufficient patients with CKD (n=15) and controls with normal kidney function (n=15). Vitamin D metabolites were comprehensively profiled at baseline and after treatment, along with FGF23 and other mineral metabolism parameters.Vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations increased equivalently in the CKD and control groups following cholecalciferol treatment (median D3 change, 8.6 ng/ml [interquartile range, 3.9-25.6 ng/ml] for controls versus 12.6 ng/ml [6.9-41.2 ng/ml] for CKD [P=0.15]; 25(OH)D3 change, 39.2 ng/ml [30.9-47.2 ng/ml] for controls versus 39.9 ng/ml [31.5-44.1 ng/ml] for CKD [P=0.58]). Likewise, the absolute increase in 1?,25(OH)2D3 was similar between CKD participants and controls (change, 111.2 pg/ml [64.3-141.6 pg/ml] for controls versus 101.1 pg/ml [74.2-123.1 pg/ml] for CKD; P=0.38). Baseline and post-treatment 24,25(OH)2D3 concentrations were lower in the CKD group; moreover, the absolute increase in 24,25(OH)2D3 after therapy was markedly smaller in patients with CKD (change, 2.8 ng/ml [2.3-3.5 ng/ml] for controls versus 1.2 ng/ml [0.6-1.9 ng/ml] for patients with CKD; P<0.001). Furthermore, higher baseline FGF23 concentrations were associated with smaller increments in 24,25(OH)2D3 for individuals with CKD; this association was negated after adjustment for eGFR by multivariate analysis.Patients with CKD exhibit an altered ability to increase serum 24,25(OH)2D3 after cholecalciferol therapy, suggesting decreased 24-hydroxylase activity in CKD. The observed relationship between baseline FGF23 and increments in 24,25(OH)2D3 further refutes the idea that FGF23 directly contributes to 25(OH)D insufficiency in CKD through stimulation of 24-hydroxylase activity.