Adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) and epsin-1 mediate protease-activated receptor-1 internalization via phosphorylation- and ubiquitination-dependent sorting signals.
ABSTRACT: Signaling by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is regulated by desensitization and internalization. PAR1 desensitization is mediated by ?-arrestins, like most classic GPCRs. In contrast, internalization of PAR1 occurs through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent pathway independent of ?-arrestins. PAR1 displays two modes of internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), where the ?2-adaptin subunit binds directly to a tyrosine-based motif localized within the receptor C-tail domain. However, AP-2 depletion only partially inhibits agonist-induced internalization of PAR1, suggesting a function for other clathrin adaptors in this process. Here, we now report that AP-2 and epsin-1 are both critical mediators of agonist-stimulated PAR1 internalization. We show that ubiquitination of PAR1 and the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of epsin-1 are required for epsin-1-dependent internalization of activated PAR1. In addition, activation of PAR1 promotes epsin-1 de-ubiquitination, which may increase its endocytic adaptor activity to facilitate receptor internalization. AP-2 also regulates activated PAR1 internalization via recognition of distal C-tail phosphorylation sites rather than the canonical tyrosine-based motif. Thus, AP-2 and epsin-1 are both required to promote efficient internalization of activated PAR1 and recognize discrete receptor sorting signals. This study defines a new pathway for internalization of mammalian GPCRs.
Project description:Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin and is proteolytically activated, similar to the prototypical PAR1. Due to the irreversible activation of PAR1, receptor trafficking is intimately linked to signal regulation. However, unlike PAR1, the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking are not known. Here, we sought to define the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking and signaling. In HeLa cells depleted of clathrin by siRNA, activated PAR4 failed to internalize. Consistent with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, expression of a dynamin dominant-negative K44A mutant also blocked activated PAR4 internalization. However, unlike most GPCRs, PAR4 internalization occurred independently of β-arrestins and the receptor's C-tail domain. Rather, we discovered a highly conserved tyrosine-based motif in the third intracellular loop of PAR4 and found that the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) is important for internalization. Depletion of AP-2 inhibited PAR4 internalization induced by agonist. In addition, mutation of the critical residues of the tyrosine-based motif disrupted agonist-induced PAR4 internalization. Using Dami megakaryocytic cells, we confirmed that AP-2 is required for agonist-induced internalization of endogenous PAR4. Moreover, inhibition of activated PAR4 internalization enhanced ERK1/2 signaling, whereas Akt signaling was markedly diminished. These findings indicate that activated PAR4 internalization requires AP-2 and a tyrosine-based motif and occurs independent of β-arrestins, unlike most classical GPCRs. Moreover, these findings are the first to show that internalization of activated PAR4 is linked to proper ERK1/2 and Akt activation.
Project description:Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that undergoes proteolytic irreversible activation by coagulant and anti-coagulant proteases. Given the irreversible activation of PAR1, signaling by the receptor is tightly regulated through desensitization and intracellular trafficking. PAR1 displays both constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of PAR1 is important for generating an internal pool of naïve receptors that replenish the cell surface and facilitate resensitization, whereas agonist-induced internalization of PAR1 is critical for terminating G protein signaling. We showed that PAR1 constitutive internalization is mediated by the adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), whereas AP-2 and epsin control agonist-induced PAR1 internalization. However, the mechanisms that regulate PAR1 recycling are not known. In the present study we screened a siRNA library of 140 different membrane trafficking proteins to identify key regulators of PAR1 intracellular trafficking. In addition to known mediators of PAR1 endocytosis, we identified Rab11B as a critical regulator of PAR1 trafficking. We found that siRNA-mediated depletion of Rab11B and not Rab11A blocks PAR1 recycling, which enhanced receptor lysosomal degradation. Although Rab11A is not required for PAR1 recycling, depletion of Rab11A resulted in intracellular accumulation of PAR1 through disruption of basal lysosomal degradation of the receptor. Moreover, enhanced degradation of PAR1 observed in Rab11B-deficient cells is blocked by depletion of Rab11A and the autophagy related-5 protein, suggesting that PAR1 is shuttled to an autophagic degradation pathway in the absence of Rab11B recycling. Together these findings suggest that Rab11A and Rab11B differentially regulate intracellular trafficking of PAR1 through distinct endosomal sorting mechanisms.
Project description:Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor for the coagulant protease thrombin. Thrombin binds to and cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away. In addition to rapid desensitization, PAR1 trafficking is critical for the regulation of cellular responses. PAR1 displays constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), which binds to a distal tyrosine-based motif localized within the C-terminal tail (C-tail) domain. Once internalized, PAR1 is sorted from endosomes to lysosomes via AP-3 interaction with a second C-tail tyrosine motif proximal to the transmembrane domain. However, the regulatory processes that control adaptor protein recognition of PAR1 C-tail tyrosine-based motifs are not known. Here, we report that palmitoylation of PAR1 is critical for regulating proper utilization of tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting. We show that PAR1 is basally palmitoylated at highly conserved C-tail cysteines. A palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 mutant is competent to signal and exhibits a marked increase in constitutive internalization and lysosomal degradation compared with wild type receptor. Intriguingly, enhanced constitutive internalization of PAR1 is mediated by AP-2 and requires the proximal tyrosine-based motif rather than the distal tyrosine motif used by wild type receptor. Moreover, palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 displays increased degradation that is mediated by AP-3. These findings suggest that palmitoylation of PAR1 regulates appropriate utilization of tyrosine-based motifs by adaptor proteins and endocytic trafficking, processes that are critical for maintaining appropriate expression of PAR1 at the cell surface.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral to cellular function in nearly all physiologic and many pathologic processes. GPCR signaling represents an intricate balance between receptor activation, inactivation (desensitization, internalization and degradation) and resensitization (recycling and de novo synthesis). Complex formation between phosphorylated GPCRs, arrestins and an ever-increasing number of effector molecules is known to regulate cellular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that, although N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) internalization occurs in the absence of arrestins, FPR recycling is arrestin-dependent. Furthermore, FPR stimulation in the absence of arrestins leads to receptor accumulation in perinuclear endosomes and apoptosis. In this study, we show that the interaction of GPCR-bound arrestin with adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) is a critical anti-apoptotic event. In addition, AP-2 associates with the receptor-arrestin complex in perinuclear endosomes and is required for proper post-endocytic GPCR trafficking. Finally, we observed that depletion of endogenous AP-2 results in the initiation of apoptosis upon stimulation of multiple GPCRs, including P2Y purinergic receptors and CXCR2, but not CXCR4. We propose a model in which the abnormal accumulation of internalized GPCR-arrestin complexes in recycling endosomes, resulting from defective arrestin-AP-2 interactions, leads to the specific initiation of aberrant signaling pathways and apoptosis.
Project description:Beta-arrestins bind to activated G protein-coupled receptor kinase-phosphorylated receptors, which leads to their desensitization with respect to G proteins, internalization via clathrin-coated pits, and signaling via a growing list of "scaffolded" pathways. To facilitate the discovery of novel adaptor and signaling roles of beta-arrestins, we have developed and validated a generally applicable interfering RNA approach for selectively suppressing beta-arrestins 1 or 2 expression by up to 95%. Beta-arrestin depletion in HEK293 cells leads to enhanced cAMP generation in response to beta(2)-adrenergic receptor stimulation, markedly reduced beta(2)-adrenergic receptor and angiotensin II receptor internalization and impaired activation of the MAP kinases ERK 1 and 2 by angiotensin II. This approach should allow discovery of novel signaling and regulatory roles for the beta-arrestins in many seven-membrane-spanning receptor systems.
Project description:Nonvisual arrestins (arr) modulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and internalization and bind to both clathrin (CL) and AP-2 components of the endocytic coated pit (CP). This raises the possibility that endocytosis of some GPCRs may be a consequence of arr-induced de novo CP formation. To directly test this hypothesis, we examined the behavior of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-arr3 in live cells expressing beta2-adrenergic receptors and fluorescent CL. After agonist stimulation, the diffuse GFP-arr3 signal rapidly became punctate and colocalized virtually completely with preexisting CP spots, demonstrating that activated complexes accumulate in previously formed CPs rather than nucleating new CP formation. After arr3 recruitment, CP appeared larger: electron microscopy analysis revealed an increase in both CP number and in the occurrence of clustered CPs. Mutant arr3 proteins with impaired binding to CL or AP-2 displayed reduced recruitment to CPs, but were still capable of inducing CP clustering. In contrast, though constitutively present in CPs, the COOH-terminal moiety of arr3, which contains CP binding sites but lacks receptor binding, did not induce CP clustering. Together, these results indicate that recruitment of functional arr3-GPCR complexes to CP is necessary to induce clustering. Latrunculin B or 16 degrees C blocked CP rearrangements without affecting arr3 recruitment to CP. These results and earlier studies suggest that discrete CP zones exist on cell surfaces, each capable of supporting adjacent CPs, and that the cortical actin membrane skeleton is intimately involved with both the maintenance of existing CPs and the generation of new structures.
Project description:The visual/β-arrestins, a small family of proteins originally described for their role in the desensitization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have emerged as key regulators of multiple signaling pathways. Evolutionarily related to a larger group of regulatory scaffolds that share a common arrestin fold, the visual/β-arrestins acquired the capacity to detect and bind activated GPCRs on the plasma membrane, which enables them to control GPCR desensitization, internalization, and intracellular trafficking. By acting as scaffolds that bind key pathway intermediates, visual/β-arrestins both influence the tonic level of pathway activity in cells and, in some cases, serve as ligand-regulated scaffolds for GPCR-mediated signaling. Growing evidence supports the physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of arrestins and underscores their potential as therapeutic targets. Circumventing arrestin-dependent GPCR desensitization may alleviate the problem of tachyphylaxis to drugs that target GPCRs, and find application in the management of chronic pain, asthma, and psychiatric illness. As signaling scaffolds, arrestins are also central regulators of pathways controlling cell growth, migration, and survival, suggesting that manipulating their scaffolding functions may be beneficial in inflammatory diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. In this review we examine the structure-function relationships that enable arrestins to perform their diverse roles, addressing arrestin structure at the molecular level, the relationship between arrestin conformation and function, and sites of interaction between arrestins, GPCRs, and nonreceptor-binding partners. We conclude with a discussion of arrestins as therapeutic targets and the settings in which manipulating arrestin function might be of clinical benefit.
Project description:The regulatory mechanisms and functional roles of agonist-induced internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were analyzed using mutant dopamine D(2) receptors (D(2)Rs) in which all possible GPCR kinase (GRK) phosphorylation sites were mutated or the affinity for beta-arrestins was altered. Agonist-induced internalization of D(2)Rs involved a phosphorylation-dependent component, which was mediated by serine/threonine (S/T) residues in the second loop and T225 in the third loop, and a phosphorylation-independent component. GRK2-mediated enhancement of the internalization and inhibition of D(2)R signaling did not involve receptor phosphorylation, and only the former required the enzymatic activity of GRK2. The phosphorylation-deficient mutant (D(2)R-intracellular loop 2/3) recycled more slowly and showed more agonist-induced desensitization than did the wild-type D(2)R, suggesting that receptor phosphorylation mediates the recycling of the internalized receptors and enhances receptor resensitization. Blockade of the agonist-induced internalization of D(2)R-intracellular loop 2/3 provoked desensitization as in wild-type D(2)R, suggesting that certain cellular processes other than receptor dephosphorylation occurring within the endocytic vesicle are responsible for the resensitization of D(2)R. When dissociation between D(2)R and beta-arrestin was inhibited or when the expression of cellular beta-arrestins was decreased, agonist-induced desensitization of D(2)R did not occur, suggesting that dissociation from beta-arrestin is the main cellular process required for resensitization of D(2)R and is achieved through agonist-induced internalization. These results indicate that, in the regulation of some GPCRs, phosphorylation-independent association with beta-arrestin plays a major role in agonist-induced desensitization.
Project description:(?-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) ?-arrestin proteins (?-arrestin1 and ?-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (?-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of ?-arrestin with GPCRs, and the ?-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ?-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in ?-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-?-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and ?-arrestins. They further indicate that ?-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of ?-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.
Project description:Arrestin binding to agonist-occupied phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors typically increases the affinity of agonist binding, increases resistance of receptor-bound agonist to removal with high acid/salt buffer, and leads to receptor desensitization and internalization. We tested whether thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors lacking phosphosites in the C-terminal tail could form stable and functional complexes with arrestin. Fibroblasts from mice lacking arrestins 2 and 3 were used to distinguish between arrestin-dependent and -independent effects. Arrestin did not promote internalization or desensitization of a receptor that had key Ser/Thr phosphosites mutated to Ala (4Ala receptor). Nevertheless, arrestin greatly increased acid/salt resistance and the affinity of 4Ala receptor for TRH. Truncation of 4Ala receptor just distal to the key phosphosites (4AlaStop receptor) abolished arrestin-dependent acid/salt resistance but not the effect of arrestin on agonist affinity. Arrestin formed stable complexes with activated wild-type and 4Ala receptors but not with 4AlaStop receptor, as measured by translocation of arrestin-green fluorescent protein to the plasma membrane or chemical cross-linking. An arrestin mutant that does not interact with clathrin and AP2 did not internalize receptor but still promoted high affinity TRH binding, acid/salt resistance, and desensitization. A sterically restricted arrestin mutant did not cause receptor internalization or desensitization but did promote acid/salt resistance and high agonist affinity. The results demonstrate that arrestin binds to proximal or distal phosphosites in the receptor tail. Arrestin binding at either site causes increased agonist affinity and acid/salt resistance, but only the proximal phosphosites evoke the necessary conformational changes in arrestin for receptor desensitization and internalization.