Rapid nongenomic actions of inhaled corticosteroids on long-acting ?(2)-agonist transport in the airway.
ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids inhibit organic cation transporters (OCTs) that play an important role in drug absorption, tissue distribution and elimination. Corticosteroid sensitivity of bronchodilator trafficking in the airway tissue, however, is poorly understood. To assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on airway absorption and disposal mechanisms of long-acting ?(2)-agonists, human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cell uptake of tritiated formoterol and salmeterol was measured in vitro. Corticosteroids caused a rapid, concentration-dependent inhibition of uptake of the cationic formoterol by airway smooth muscle cells, but not airway epithelial cells. Uptake of the non-charged lipophilic salmeterol was corticosteroid-insensitive in both cell types. In smooth muscle cells, inhaled corticosteroids inhibited formoterol uptake with a novel potency rank order: des-ciclesonide > budesonide > beclomethasone 17-monopropionate > beclomethasone dipropionate > ciclesonide > fluticasone. The inhibitory action was rapidly reversible, and was not enhanced by prolonged corticosteroid exposure or sensitive to a transcription inhibitor. Suppression of OCT3 expression using lentivirus-mediated production of shRNA reduced corticosteroid sensitivity of formoterol uptake by smooth muscle cells. Our data support a corticosteroid insensitive absorption and a corticosteroid-sensitive disposition mechanism for cationic long-acting ?(2)-agonist bronchodilators in the airway. Potency rank order and other 'classical' features of anti-inflammatory effects do not apply to inhaled corticosteroids' rapid drug transport actions.
Project description:Background: Prospective pharmacological studies on breathomics profiles in COPD patients have not been previously reported. We assessed the effects of treatment and withdrawal of an extrafine inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-long-acting ?2-agonist (LABA) fixed dose combination (FDC) using a multidimensional classification model including breathomics. Methods: A pilot, proof-of-concept, pharmacological study was undertaken in 14 COPD patients on maintenance treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (500/50 ?g b.i.d.) for at least 8 weeks (visit 1). Patients received 2-week treatment with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate/formoterol (100/6 ?g b.i.d.) (visit 2), 4-week treatment with formoterol alone (6 ?g b.i.d.) (visit 3), and 4-week treatment with beclomethasone/formoterol (100/6 ?g b.i.d.) (visit 4). Exhaled breath analysis with two e-noses, based on different technologies, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) NMR-based metabolomics were performed. Sputum cell counts, sputum supernatant and EBC prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 15-F2t-isoprostane, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, and spirometry were measured. Results: Compared with formoterol alone, EBC acetate and sputum PGE2, reflecting airway inflammation, were reduced after 4-week beclomethasone/formoterol. Three independent breathomics techniques showed that extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol short-term treatment was associated with different breathprints compared with regular fluticasone propionate/salmeterol. Either ICS/LABA FDC vs. formoterol alone was associated with increased pre-bronchodilator FEF25-75% and FEV1/FVC (P = 0.008-0.029). The multidimensional model distinguished fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs. beclomethasone/formoterol, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol vs. formoterol, and formoterol vs. beclomethasone/formoterol (accuracy > 70%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Breathomics could be used for assessing ICS treatment and withdrawal in COPD patients. Large, controlled, prospective pharmacological trials are required to clarify the biological implications of breathomics changes. EUDRACT number: 2012-001749-42.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An increase in serious adverse events with both regular formoterol and regular salmeterol in chronic asthma has been demonstrated in comparison with placebo in previous Cochrane reviews. This increase was significant in trials that did not randomise participants to an inhaled corticosteroid, but less certain in the smaller numbers of participants in trials that included an inhaled corticosteroid in the randomised treatment regimen. OBJECTIVES:We set out to compare the risks of mortality and non-fatal serious adverse events in trials which have randomised patients with chronic asthma to regular formoterol versus regular salmeterol, when each are used with an inhaled corticosteroid as part of the randomised treatment. SEARCH STRATEGY:Trials were identified using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. Manufacturers' web sites of clinical trial registers were checked for unpublished trial data and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submissions in relation to formoterol and salmeterol were also checked. The date of the most recent search was July 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA:Controlled clinical trials with a parallel design, recruiting patients of any age and severity of asthma were included if they randomised patients to treatment with regular formoterol versus regular salmeterol (each with a randomised inhaled corticosteroid), and were of at least 12 weeks duration. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review and extracted outcome data. Unpublished data on mortality and serious adverse events were sought from the sponsors and authors. MAIN RESULTS:Eight studies met the eligibility criteria of the review recruiting 6,163 adults and adolescents. There were seven studies (involving 5,935 adults and adolescents) comparing formoterol and budesonide to salmeterol and fluticasone. All but one study administered the products as a combined inhaler, and most used formoterol 50 mcg and budesonide 400 mcg twice daily versus salmeterol 50 mcg and fluticasone 250 mcg twice daily. There were two deaths overall (one on each combination) and neither were thought to be related to asthma.There was no significant difference between treatment groups for non-fatal serious adverse events, either all-cause (Peto OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.82 to 1.59, I(2) = 26%) or asthma-related (Peto OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.37 to 1.26, I(2) = 33%). Over 23 weeks the rates for all-cause serious adverse events were 2.6% on formoterol and budesonide and 2.3% on salmeterol and fluticasone, and for asthma-related serious adverse events, 0.6% and 0.8% respectively.There was one study (228 adults) comparing formoterol and beclomethasone to salmeterol and fluticasone, but there were no deaths or hospital admissions.No studies were found in children. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:The seven identified studies in adults did not show any significant difference in safety between formoterol and budesonide in comparison with salmeterol and fluticasone. Asthma-related serious adverse events were rare, and there were no reported asthma-related deaths. There was a single small study comparing formoterol and beclomethasone to salmeterol and fluticasone in adults, but no serious adverse events occurred in this study. No studies were found in children.Overall there is insufficient evidence to decide whether regular formoterol and budesonide or beclomethasone have equivalent or different safety profiles from salmeterol and fluticasone.
Project description:Asthmatic airways are inflamed and undergo remodelling. Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting ?2-agonist combinations are more effective than inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy in controlling disease exacerbations, but their effect on airway remodelling and inflammation remains ill-defined. This study evaluates the contribution of inhaled fluticasone and salmeterol, alone or combined, to the reversal of bronchial remodelling and inflammation. Severely asthmatic horses (6 horses/group) were treated with fluticasone, salmeterol, fluticasone/salmeterol, or with antigen avoidance for 12 weeks. Lung function, central and peripheral airway remodelling, and bronchoalveolar inflammation were assessed. Fluticasone/salmeterol and fluticasone monotherapy decreased peripheral airway smooth muscle remodelling after 12 weeks (p?=?0.007 and p?=?0.02, respectively). On average, a 30% decrease was observed with both treatments. In central airways, fluticasone/salmeterol reversed extracellular matrix remodelling after 12 weeks, both within the lamina propria (decreased thickness, p?=?0.005) and within the smooth muscle layer (p?=?0.004). Only fluticasone/salmeterol decreased bronchoalveolar neutrophilia (p?=?0.03) to the same extent as antigen avoidance already after 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study shows that fluticasone/salmeterol combination decreases extracellular matrix remodelling in central airways and intraluminal neutrophilia. Fluticasone/salmeterol and fluticasone monotherapy equally reverse peripheral airway smooth muscle remodelling.
Project description:Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) and inhaled corticosteroids administered together appear to be complementary in terms of effects on asthma control. The elements of asthma control achieved by LABAs (improved lung function) and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs; protection against exacerbations) may be complementary as well.We sought to determine whether the combination of the LTRA montelukast and the LABA salmeterol could provide an effective therapeutic strategy for asthma.In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 192 subjects with moderate asthma, we compared the clinical efficacy of regular treatment over 14 weeks with the combination of montelukast and salmeterol to that with the combination of beclomethasone and salmeterol in moderate asthma. The primary efficacy outcome was time to treatment failure.Three months after the randomization of the last subject, the Data and Safety Monitoring Board determined that the primary research question had been answered and terminated the trial. The combination of montelukast and salmeterol was inferior to the combination of beclomethasone and salmeterol as judged by protection against asthma treatment failures (p = 0.0008), lung function (26 L/min difference in a.m. peak expiratory flow rate, p = 0.011), asthma control score (0.22 difference in Asthma Control Questionnaire score, p = 0.038), and markers of inflammation and airway reactivity.Patients with moderate asthma similar to those we studied should not substitute the combination of an LTRA and an LABA for the combination of inhaled corticosteroid and an LABA.
Project description:This randomised, double-blind, 6-month study compared budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and relief with salmeterol/fluticasone and a fixed maintenance dose of budesonide/formoterol, both with terbutaline for relief. Following a 2-week run-in, 3335 symptomatic adults and adolescents (mean FEV1 73% predicted, mean inhaled corticosteroid dose 745 microg/day) received budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 microg one inhalation bid plus additional inhalations as needed, salmeterol/fluticasone 25/125 microg two inhalations bid plus as-needed terbutaline or budesonide/formoterol 320/9 microg one inhalation bid plus as-needed terbutaline. Budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and relief prolonged the time to first severe exacerbation requiring hospitalisation, emergency room treatment or oral steroids (primary variable) vs. fixed-dose salmeterol/fluticasone and budesonide/formoterol (p=0.0034 and p=0.023 respectively; log-rank test). Exacerbation rates were 19, 16 and 12 events/100 patients/6 months for salmeterol/fluticasone, fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol and budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and relief, respectively, [rate reduction vs. fixed-dose salmeterol/fluticasone (0.61; 95% CI 0.49-0.76, p<0.001) and vs. fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol (0.72; 95% CI 0.57-0.90, p=0.0048)]. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and relief patients used less inhaled corticosteroid vs. salmeterol/fluticasone and fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol patients. All treatments provided similar marked improvements in lung function, asthma control days and asthma-related quality of life. Budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and relief reduces asthma exacerbations and maintains similar daily asthma control at a lower overall drug load compared with fixed-dose salmeterol/fluticasone and budesonide/formoterol.
Project description:Asthma guidelines suggest that therapy can be reduced once asthma is controlled. Despite these recommendations, asthmatic patients are seldom stepped down in clinical practice, and questions remain about when and how to reduce asthma therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate lung function and asthma control in patients who were stepped down from the highest recommended dose of inhaled corticosteroid/long acting ?2 agonist combination therapy.This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, two-arm parallel group study. Asthmatic patients who were fully controlled with a high daily dose (1000/100??g) of fluticasone/salmeterol were randomly assigned to 6?months of open-label treatment with either 500/100??g fluticasone/salmeterol Diskus daily or 400/24??g extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol pMDI daily. The primary outcome was the change in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) values between baseline and the end of treatment. The secondary outcomes included asthma control and exacerbation frequency.Four hundred twenty-two patients were included in the analysis. The PEF values remained above 95% of the predicted values throughout the study. The end-study morning PEF rates showed equivalence between the groups (difference between means, 2.49?L/min; 95% CI, -13.43 to 18.42). No changes from baseline were detected in PEF and forced expiratory volume in 1 second measured at the clinics, in the symptom scores or in the use of rescue medication. Asthma control was maintained in 95.2% of the patients at 6?months. No significant differences between the groups were detected in any other parameter, including exacerbation frequency and adverse events.Stepping down patients whose asthma is controlled with the highest recommended dose of fluticasone/salmeterol to either 500/100??g fluticasone/salmeterol daily or 400/24??g extra-fine beclomethasone/formoterol daily provides comparable maintenance of lung function and asthma control.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00497237.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence a patient's response to inhaled corticosteroids and ?2-agonists, and the effect of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is synergistic with the effect of ?2-agonists. We hypothesized that use of inhaled corticosteroids could influence the effect of SNPs associated with a bronchodilator response. OBJECTIVE:To assess whether, among subjects with asthma, the association of SNPs with bronchodilator response is different between those treated with inhaled corticosteroids versus those on placebo. METHODS:A genome-wide association analysis was conducted by using 581 white subjects from the Childhood Asthma Management Program. By using data for 449,540 SNPs, we conducted a gene by environment analysis in PLINK with inhaled corticosteroid treatment as the environmental exposure and bronchodilator response as the outcome measure. We attempted to replicate the top 12 SNPs in the Leukotriene Modifier or Corticosteroid or Corticosteroid-Salmeterol Trial. RESULTS:The combined P value for the Childhood Asthma Management Program and Leukotriene Modifier or Corticosteroid or Corticosteroid-Salmeterol Trial populations was 4.8 × 10(-8) for rs3752120, which is located in the zinc finger protein gene ZNF432 and has an unknown function. CONCLUSIONS:Inhaled corticosteroids appear to modulate the association of bronchodilator response with variant(s) in the ZNF432 gene among adults and children with asthma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously showed that the long-acting beta agonist (LABA) salmeterol as inhalation powder or metered-dose inhaler improves lung-function parameters assessed by impulse oscillometry (IOS) in 2- to 5-year-old children with reversible-airway disease within 15 minutes. OBJECTIVE:We studied 12- to 45-year-olds with mild persistent asthma in order to compare the onset and extent of peripheral airway effects following the first dose and after 4 weeks dosing with two inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/LABA combinations: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 115/21 and budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5. METHODS:Thirty subjects with mild persistent asthma using only an as-needed short-acting beta-agonist (albuterol) who had at least a 40% change in integrated low-frequency reactance postalbuterol were selected and randomized to receive either fluticasone propionate/salmeterol or budesonide/formoterol (15 subjects each). We collected three to six IOS replicates at baseline, at 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, and 240 minutes postdose at randomization, and after 4 weeks of twice-daily dosing. Blinded investigators calculated IOS frequency-dependent resistance and reactance (R5-R20 and AX), indicative of small-airway dysfunction, and also estimated the peripheral airway resistance (Rp ) and peripheral airway compliance (Cp ), using a respiratory-impedance model. RESULTS:At randomization visits, onset of action was detected as early as 5 minutes (t-test, P < 0.05) after fluticasone propionate/salmeterol by Cp , and within 5 minutes after budesonide/formoterol by R5-R20, AX, Rp , and Cp . However, after 4 weeks of dosing, only Rp was significantly different (from 60 to 120 minutes) after fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, while R5-R20, AX, Rp , and Cp were not significantly different within 240 minutes after budesonide/formoterol. CONCLUSION:These two ICS/LABA combinations initially improved the peripheral airway function of 12- to 45-year-old asthmatics significantly in about 5 minutes or less, as measured by R5-R20, AX, Rp , and/or Cp . After regular dosing for 4 weeks, pre- to postdose differences in these parameters had diminished significantly due to improved predose status of peripheral airways. Single dosing with ICS/LABA combinations in mild persistent asthma improves small-airway function, and the effect is maintained over a 12-hour interval by regular use for 4 weeks.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Some studies suggest that patients with asthma who are homozygous for arginine at the 16th amino acid position of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (B16 Arg/Arg) benefit less from treatment with longacting beta2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids than do those homozygous for glycine (B16 Gly/Gly). We investigated whether there is a genotype-specific response to treatment with a longacting beta2 agonist in combination with inhaled corticosteroid.<h4>Methods</h4>In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with moderate asthma were enrolled in pairs matched for forced expiratory volume in 1 s and ethnic origin, according to whether they had the B16 Arg/Arg (n=42) or B16 Gly/Gly (n=45) genotype. Individuals in a matched pair were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive inhaled longacting beta2 agonist (salmeterol 50 microg twice a day) or placebo given in a double-blind, crossover design for two 18-week periods. Open-label inhaled corticosteroid (hydrofluoroalkane beclometasone 240 microg twice a day) was given to all participants during the treatment periods. The primary endpoint was morning peak expiratory flow (PEF). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00200967.<h4>Findings</h4>After 18 weeks of treatment, mean morning PEF in Arg/Arg participants was 21.4 L/min (95% CI 11.8-31.1) higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). In Gly/Gly participants, morning PEF was 21.5 L/min (11.0-32.1) higher when participants were assigned to receive salmeterol than when assigned to receive placebo (p<0.0001). The improvement in PEF did not differ between genotypes (difference [Arg/Arg-Gly/Gly] -0.1, -14.4 to 14.2; p=0.99). In Gly/Gly participants, methacholine PC20 (20% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s; a prespecified secondary outcome) was 2.4 times higher when participants were assigned to salmeterol than when assigned to placebo (p<0.0001). Responsiveness to methacholine did not differ between salmeterol and placebo in Arg/Arg participants (p=0.87). The 2.5 times higher genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine was significant (1.32 doubling dose difference between genotypes, 0.43-2.21, p=0.0038). Seven Arg/Arg participants (placebo, n=5; salmeterol, n=2) and six Gly/Gly participants (placebo, n=3; salmeterol, n=3) had an asthma exacerbation. Five serious adverse events were reported, one each during the pre-match and run-in phases on open-label inhaled corticosteroid, two during double-blind treatment with salmeterol/inhaled corticosteroid, and one during double-blind treatment with placebo/inhaled corticosteroid. None of the serious events was asthma-related or related to study drugs or procedures.<h4>Interpretation</h4>In asthma patients with B16 Arg/Arg and B16 Gly/Gly genotypes, combination treatment with salmeterol and inhaled corticosteroid improved airway function when compared with inhaled corticosteroid therapy alone. These findings suggest that patients should continue to be treated with longacting beta2 agonists plus moderate-dose inhaled corticosteroids irrespective of B16 genotype. Further investigation is needed to establish the importance of the genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine.<h4>Funding</h4>National Institutes of Health.
Project description:Extrafine-particle inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have greater small airway deposition than standard fine-particle ICS. We sought to compare asthma-related outcomes after patients initiated extrafine-particle ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS (fluticasone propionate or non-extrafine beclomethasone).This historical, matched cohort study included patients aged 12-60 years prescribed their first ICS as ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS. The 2 cohorts were matched 1:1 for key demographic and clinical characteristics over the baseline year. Co-primary endpoints were 1-year severe exacerbation rates, risk-domain asthma control, and overall asthma control; secondary endpoints included therapy change.Each cohort included 1,244 patients (median age 45 years; 65% women). Patients in the ciclesonide cohort were comparable to those in the fine-particle ICS cohort apart from higher baseline prevalence of hospitalization, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and rhinitis. Median (interquartile range) prescribed doses of ciclesonide and fine-particle ICS were 160 (160-160) ?g/day and 500 (250-500) ?g/day, respectively (P<0.001). During the outcome year, patients prescribed ciclesonide experienced lower severe exacerbation rates (adjusted rate ratio [95% CI], 0.69 [0.53-0.89]), and higher odds of risk-domain asthma control (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 1.62 [1.27-2.06]) and of overall asthma control (2.08 [1.68-2.57]) than those prescribed fine-particle ICS. The odds of therapy change were 0.70 (0.59-0.83) with ciclesonide.In this matched cohort analysis, we observed that initiation of ICS with ciclesonide was associated with better 1-year asthma outcomes and fewer changes to therapy, despite data suggesting more difficult-to-control asthma. The median prescribed dose of ciclesonide was one-third that of fine-particle ICS.