Development of geriatric competencies for emergency medicine residents using an expert consensus process.
ABSTRACT: The emergency department (ED) visit rate for older patients exceeds that of all age groups other than infants. The aging population will increase elder ED patient utilization to 35% to 60% of all visits. Older patients can have complex clinical presentations and be resource-intensive. Evidence indicates that emergency physicians fail to provide consistent high-quality care for elder ED patients, resulting in poor clinical outcomes.The objective was to develop a consensus document, "Geriatric Competencies for Emergency Medicine Residents," by identified experts. This is a minimum set of behaviorally based performance standards that all residents should be able to demonstrate by completion of their residency training.This consensus-based process utilized an inductive, qualitative, multiphase method to determine the minimum geriatric competencies needed by emergency medicine (EM) residents. Assessments of face validity and reliability were used throughout the project.In Phase I, participants (n=363) identified 12 domains and 300 potential competencies. In Phase II, an expert panel (n=24) clustered the Phase I responses, resulting in eight domains and 72 competencies. In Phase III, the expert panel reduced the competencies to 26. In Phase IV, analysis of face validity and reliability yielded a 100% consensus for eight domains and 26 competencies. The domains identified were atypical presentation of disease; trauma, including falls; cognitive and behavioral disorders; emergent intervention modifications; medication management; transitions of care; pain management and palliative care; and effect of comorbid conditions.The Geriatric Competencies for EM Residents is a consensus document that can form the basis for EM residency curricula and assessment to meet the demands of our aging population.
Project description:The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis.Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA.173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels.EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels.
Project description:Objective:Non-medical knowledge-based sub-competencies (multitasking, professionalism, accountability, patient-centered communication, and team management) are challenging for a supervising emergency medicine (EM) physician to evaluate in real-time on shift while also managing a busy emergency department (ED). This study examines residents' perceptions of having a medical education specialist shadow and evaluate their nonmedical knowledge skills. Methods:Medical education specialists shadowed postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 EM residents during an ED shift once per academic year. In an attempt to increase meaningful feedback to the residents, these specialists evaluated resident performance in selected non-medical knowledge-based Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sub-competencies and provided residents with direct, real-time feedback, followed by a written evaluation sent via email. Evaluations provided specific references to examples of behaviors observed during the shift and connected these back to ACGME competencies and milestones. Results:Twelve residents participated in this shadow experience (six post graduate year 1 and six postgraduate year 2). Two residents emailed the medical education specialists ahead of the scheduled shadow shift requesting specific feedback. When queried, five residents voluntarily requested their feedback to be included in their formal biannual review. Residents received milestone scores and narrative feedback on the non-medical knowledge-based ACGME sub-competencies and indicated the shadow experience and subsequent feedback were valuable. Conclusion:Medical education specialists who observe residents over the course of an entire shift and evaluate non-medical knowledge-based skills are perceived by EM residents to provide meaningful feedback and add valuable information for the biannual review process.
Project description:Feedback, particularly real-time feedback, is critical to resident education. The emergency medicine (EM) milestones were developed in 2012 to enhance resident assessment, and many programs use them to provide focused resident feedback. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EM residents' level of interest in receiving real-time feedback on each of the 23 competencies/sub-competencies.This was a multicenter cross-sectional study of EM residents. We surveyed participants on their level of interest in receiving real-time on-shift feedback on each of the 23 competencies/sub-competencies. Anonymous paper or computerized surveys were distributed to residents at three four-year training programs and three three-year training programs with a total of 223 resident respondents. Residents rated their level of interest in each milestone on a six-point Likert-type response scale. We calculated average level of interest for each of the 23 sub-competencies, for all 223 respondents and separately by postgraduate year (PGY) levels of training. One-way analyses of variance were performed to determine if there were differences in ratings by level of training.The overall survey response rate across all institutions was 82%. Emergency stabilization had the highest mean rating (5.47/6), while technology had the lowest rating (3.24/6). However, we observed no differences between levels of training on any of the 23 competencies/sub-competencies.Residents seem to ascribe much more value in receiving feedback on domains involving high-risk, challenging procedural skills as compared to low-risk technical and communication skills. Further studies are necessary to determine whether residents' perceived importance of competencies/sub-competencies needs to be considered when developing an assessment or feedback program based on these 23 EM competencies/sub-competencies.
Project description:Background:Many hospitals have or will be opening an observation unit (OU), the majority managed by the emergency department (ED). Graduating emergency medicine (EM) residents will be expected to have the knowledge and skills necessary to appropriately identify and manage patients in this setting. Our objective is to examine the current state of observation medicine (OM) education and prevalence in EM training. Methods:In a follow-up to the 2019 Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) OM Interest Group meeting, we convened an expert panel of OM physicians who are members of both the SAEM OM Interest Group and the American College of Emergency Physicians Section of OM. The panel of six emergency physicians representing geographic diversity was formed. A structured literature review was performed yielding 16 educational publications and sources pertaining to OM education and training across all specialties. Report on the Existing Literature:Only a small number of EM residencies have a required or elective OM rotation in an OU. An OM rotation in a protocol-driven ED OU gives residents experience managing patients in this setting and improves skills integral to EM and part of the EM milestones and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies: reassessment, disposition decision making, risk stratification, team management, and practicing cost-appropriate care. Even without a formal rotation, multiple OM educational resources can be incorporated into EM resident education and didactics. Education research opportunity exists. Conclusions:This panel believes that OM is an important component of EM that should be incorporated into EM residency as the knowledge and skills learned such as risk stratification, disposition decision making, and team management augment those needed for the practice of EM. There is a distinct opportunity for EM educators to better equip their trainees for a career in EM by including OM education and experience in EM residency training.
Project description:Objectives:Provider efficiency has been reported in the literature but there is a lack of efficiency analysis among emergency medicine (EM) residents. We aim to compare efficiency of EM residents of different training levels and determine if EM resident efficiency is affected by emergency department (ED) crowding. Methods:We conducted a single-center retrospective observation study from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2017. The number of new patients per resident per hour and provider-to-disposition (PTD) time of each patient were used as resident efficiency markers. A crowding score was assigned to each patient upon the patient's arrival to the ED. We compared efficiency among EM residents of different training levels under different ED crowding statuses. Dynamic efficiency changes were compared monthly through the entire academic year (July to next June). Results:The study enrolled a total of 150,920 patients. A mean of 1.9 patients/hour was seen by PGY-1 EM residents in comparison to 2.6 patients/hour by PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. Median PTD was 2.8 hours in PGY-1 EM residents versus 2.6 hours in PGY-2 and -3 EM residents. There were no significant differences in acuity across all patients seen by EM residents. When crowded conditions existed, residency efficiency increased, but such changes were minimized when the ED became overcrowded. A linear increase of resident efficiency was observed only in PGY-1 EM residents throughout the entire academic year. Conclusion:Resident efficiency improved significantly only during their first year of EM training. This efficiency can be affected by ED crowding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An ED visit provides a unique opportunity to identify elder abuse, which is common and has serious medical consequences. Despite this, emergency providers rarely recognise or report it. We have begun the design of an ED-based multidisciplinary consultation service to improve identification and provide comprehensive medical and forensic assessment and treatment for potential victims. METHODS:We qualitatively explored provider perspectives to inform intervention development. We conducted 15 semistructured focus groups with 101 providers, including emergency physicians, social workers, nurses, technologists, security, radiologists and psychiatrists at a large, urban academic medical centre. Focus groups were transcribed, and data were analysed to identify themes. RESULTS:Providers reported not routinely assessing for elder mistreatment and believed that they commonly missed it. They reported 10 reasons for this, including lack of knowledge or training, no time to conduct an evaluation, concern that identifying elder abuse would lead to additional work, and absence of a standardised response. Providers believed an ED-based consultation service would be frequently used and would increase identification, improve care and help ensure safety. They made 21 recommendations for a multidisciplinary team, including the importance of 24/7 availability, the value of a positive attitude in a consulting service and the importance of feedback to referring ED providers. Participants also highlighted that geriatric nurse practitioners may have ideal clinical and personal care training to contribute to the team. CONCLUSIONS:An ED-based multidisciplinary consultation service has potential to impact care for elder abuse victims. Insights from providers will inform intervention development.
Project description:Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has engendered difficulties for health systems globally; however, the effect of the pandemic on emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs is unknown. The pandemic has caused reduced volumes of emergency department (ED) patients, except for those with COVID-19 infections, and this may reduce the case exposure of EM residents. The primary objective of this study was to compare the clinical exposure of EM residents between the prepandemic and pandemic periods. Methods This was a retrospective study of EM resident physicians’ training in a tertiary teaching hospital with two branch regional hospitals in Taiwan. We retrieved data regarding patients seen by EM residents in the ED between September 1, 2019, and April 30, 2020. The first confirmed COVID-19 case in Taiwan was reported on January 11, so the pandemic period in our study was defined as spanning from February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. The number and characteristics of patients seen by residents were recorded. We compared the data between the prepandemic and pandemic periods. Results The mean number of patients per hour (PPH) seen by EM residents in the adult ED decreased in all three hospitals during the pandemic. The average PPH of critical area of medical ED was 1.68 in the pre-epidemic period and decreased to 1.33 in the epidemic period (p value <?0.001). The average number of patients managed by residents decreased from 1.24 to 0.82 in the trauma ED (p value?=?0.01) and 1.56 to 0.51 in the pediatric ED (p value?=?0.003) during the pandemic, respectively. The severity of patient illness did not change significantly between the periods. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic engendered a reduced ED volume and decreased EM residents’ clinical exposure. All portion of EM residency training were affected by the pandemic, with pediatric EM being the most affected. The patient volume reduction may persist and in turn reduce patients’ case exposure until the pandemic subsides. Adjustment of the training programs may be necessary and ancillary methods of learning should be used to ensure adequate EM residency training.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate geriatric education programs for emergency department (ED) professionals based on: content and teaching methods and learning outcome effects and factors promoting or hindering program implementation. DESIGN:Systematic review. SETTING:ED. PARTICIPANTS:Physicians, nurses, and medical residents working in the ED. METHODS AND MEASUREMENT:Five major biomedical databases were searched for (quasi) experimental studies, published between 1990 and April 2018, evaluating geriatric education programs for ED professionals. Data were synthesized around study quality, learning participants, teaching content and methods, and Kirkpatrick learning outcomes. RESULTS:Nine before-after studies were included. Learners were mostly ED residents and, to a smaller extent, ED nurses and physicians. Study quality was moderate, with the lowest scores on sampling and instrument validity. Programs varied from a 1-day workshop to a 2-year curriculum, mostly combining didactic lectures with active and experiential learning formats. Topics commonly addressed included managing: geriatric syndromes, trauma and falls, medication, atypical presentations, and care transitions. Statistically significant improvements were mostly found in learners' knowledge acquisition (six studies). Significant improvements were also found in single studies on: self-reported geriatric screening, documentation of geriatric care, and appropriate urinary catheter placement. Factors promoting program implementation included: solving competing educational demands and busy work schedules, embedding the program in preexisting curricula, and close collaboration between emergency and geriatric medicine faculties. CONCLUSIONS:Various geriatric education programs improve the geriatric knowledge of ED professionals and seem to positively impact their clinical practice. However, more program evaluations with larger study samples, and use of valid and reliable outcome measures, are needed to provide robust evidence on the effectiveness of such programs. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1-8, 2019. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:2402-2409, 2019.
Project description:Several studies have shown that workplace violence in the emergency department (ED) is common. Residents may be among the most vulnerable staff, as they have the least experience with these volatile encounters. The goal for this study was to quantify and describe acts of violence against emergency medicine (EM) residents by patients and visitors and to identify perceived barriers to safety.This cross-sectional survey study queried EM residents at multiple New York City hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of violence experienced by residents while working in the ED. The secondary outcomes were the subtypes of violence experienced by residents, as well as the perceived barriers to safety while at work.A majority of residents (66%, 78/119) reported experiencing at least one act of physical violence during an ED shift. Nearly all residents (97%, 115/119) experienced verbal harassment, 78% (93/119) had experienced verbal threats, and 52% (62/119) reported sexual harassment. Almost a quarter of residents felt safe "Occasionally," "Seldom" or "Never" while at work. Patient-based factors most commonly cited as contributory to violence included substance use and psychiatric disease.Self-reported violence against EM residents appears to be a significant problem. Incidence of violence and patient risk factors are similar to what has been found previously for other ED staff. Understanding the prevalence of workplace violence as well as the related systems, environmental, and patient-based factors is essential for future prevention efforts.
Project description:Introduction:The emergency department (ED) presents a challenging task-management environment to emergency medicine (EM) trainees. However, equipping residents with a tool to improve task switching (generically known as multitasking) could have positive impacts on patient care and physician emotional state. We designed a task-management tool and educational curriculum with the goal of improving emergency medicine resident task-switching ability. Methods:The task-management tool uses the acronym SPRINT: (1) stabilize critical patients, (2) perform procedures, (3) rack (see new patients in the chart rack), (4) in or out (reassess and disposition), (5) type it up (chart completion). These tasks and their order were decided on by two seasoned clinicians based on their years of experience in the ED. The SPRINT tool was taught to EM residents through a 1-hour curriculum consisting of an introductory video, a classroom-based workshop with multimedia didactics, and team learning with a card game simulating the use of the SPRINT tool on a shift. Residents were surveyed to evaluate their task-management confidence and perceived effectiveness of the curriculum. Results:A total of 34 EM residents participated in this training on the SPRINT tool. There was an improvement in resident confidence in task management, and residents reporting having a strategy for task prioritization 8 weeks after the workshop. Discussion:The SPRINT curriculum provides EM residents with a tool to manage the complex task-management environment of the ED. Further research in task-management education should focus on patient-oriented outcomes among physicians who have received this training.