One-pot synthesis of brush-like polymers via integrated ring-opening metathesis polymerization and polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides.
ABSTRACT: We report here the integration of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring-opening polymerization of the amino acid N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) to allow facile synthesis of brush-like polymers containing polypeptide as the brush side chains. ROMP of N-trimethylsilyl norbornenes rendered the preparation of poly(norbornene)s bearing pendant N-TMS groups. With no need to purify the resulting polymers, such macromolecular initiators could subsequently initiate controlled NCA polymerizations. Brush-like poly(norbornene)s with grafted polypeptides or block copolypeptides were readily obtained with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Because numerous ROMP and NCA monomers are widely available, this novel polymerization technique will allow easy access to numerous brush-like hybrid macromolecules with unprecedented properties and broad applications.
Project description:Well-defined molecular brushes bearing polypeptides as side chains were prepared by a "grafting through" synthetic strategy with two-dimensional control over the brush molecular architectures. By integrating N-carboxyanhydride ring-opening polymerizations (NCA ROPs) and ring-opening metathesis polymerizations (ROMPs), desirable segment lengths of polypeptide side chains and polynorbornene brush backbones were independently constructed in controlled manners. The N2 flow accelerated NCA ROP was utilized to prepare polypeptide macromonomers with different lengths initiated from a norbornene-based primary amine, and those macromonomers were then polymerized via ROMP. It was found that a mixture of dichloromethane and an ionic liquid were required as the solvent system to allow for construction of molecular brush polymers having densely-grafted peptide chains emanating from a polynorbornene backbone, poly(norbornene-graft-poly(?-benzyl-l-aspartate)) (P(NB-g-PBLA)). Highly efficient postpolymerization modification was achieved by aminolysis of PBLA side chains for facile installment of functional moieties onto the molecular brushes.
Project description:A study was conducted to survey the tolerance of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with respect to amino acid (a.a) identity of pentapeptide-modified norbornene-based monomers. A library of norbornyl-pentapeptides were prepared with the general structure, norbornyl-GX2PLX5, where residue 'X' was changed at each of the two positions (2 or 5) alternately to consist of the natural amino acids F, A, V, R, S, K, N, T, M, Q, H, W, C, Y, E, Q, and D. Each peptide monomer, free of protecting groups, was mixed in turn under a standard set of polymerization conditions with the ROMP initiator (IMesH2)C5H5N)2(Cl)2Ru=CHPh. Two sets of polymerization reactions were performed, one with Monomer:Initiator (M:I) ratio of 20:1, and another with M:I of 200:1. For the nucleophilic amino acids cysteine and lysine, polymerization reactions were quantitatively compared to those of their protected analogues. Furthermore, we describe polymerization of macromonomers containing up to 30 a.a. to test for tolerance of ROMP to peptide molecular weight. These reactions were studied via SEC-MALS and NMR. Finally, with knowledge of sequence scope in hand, we prepared a set of enzyme-substrate containing brush polymers and studied them with respect to their bioactivity.
Project description:Graft-through ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) using ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts has enabled the synthesis of bottle-brush polymers with unprecedented ease and control. Here we report the first bivalent-brush polymers; these materials were prepared by graft-through ROMP of drug-loaded polyethylene-glycol (PEG) based macromonomers (MMs). Anticancer drugs doxorubicin (DOX) and camptothecin (CT) were attached to a norbornene-alkyne-PEG MM via a photocleavable linker. ROMP of either or both drug-loaded MMs generated brush homo- and co-polymers with low polydispersities and defined molecular weights. Release of free DOX and CT from these materials was initiated by exposure to 365 nm light. All of the CT and DOX polymers were at least 10-fold more toxic to human cancer cells after photoinitiated drug release while a copolymer carrying both CT and DOX displayed 30-fold increased toxicity upon irradiation. Graft-through ROMP of drug-loaded macromonomers provides a general method for the systematic study of structure-function relationships for stimuli-responsive polymers in biological systems.
Project description:A panel of acid-labile bis-norbornene cross-linkers was synthesized and evaluated for the formation of acid-degradable brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) via the brush-first ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) method. An acetal-based cross-linker was identified that, when employed in conjunction with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromonomer, provided highly controlled BASP formation reactions. A combination of this new cross-linker with a novel doxorubicin (DOX)-branch-PEG macromonomer provided BASPs that simultaneously degrade and release cytotoxic DOX in vitro.
Project description:The synthesis of functional poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) (PAOx) copolymers with complex nanoarchitectures using a graft-through ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) approach is described. First, well-defined norbornene-terminated poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) macromonomers (MM) were prepared by cationic ringopening polymerization. ROMP of these MMs produced bottlebrush copolymers with PEtOx side chains. In addition, PEtOx-based branched MMs bearing a terminal alkyne group were prepared and conjugated to an azide-containing bis-spirocyclohexyl nitroxide via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). ROMP of this branched MM, followed by in situ cross-linking, provided PEtOx-based brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) with nitroxide radicals localized at the core-shell interface. These PEtOx-based nitroxide-containing BASPs displayed relaxivity values on par with state-of-the-art polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nitroxide materials, making them promising as organic radical contrast agents for metal-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Project description:In this work, we synthesized end group functionalization of the cis-Norbornene-5-6-endo-dicarboxylic anhydride species via the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of oxanorbornene derivatives generated a chiseled poly(cis-Norbornene-5-6-endo-Dicarboxylic anhydride) acrylate macromonomer. Further, acrylate oxanorbornene based macromonomer further polymerized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization technique. Chain transfer is exhibited in the structure during the radical polymerizations so that free radical polymerization could also be used to comb structure copolymers with a PDI value below 1.2 with the help of acrylate oxanorbornene. Atomic force microscopy reveals the comb shape of branched polymer brushes structure. This method involves polymerizable end-group attachment to a macromonomer, and the backbone of the comb polymer is created in a second step of the polymerization. We believe that this kind of comb structured polymers can be considered for different biological applications.
Project description:Polypeptides have broad applications and can be prepared via ring-opening polymerization of ?-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs). Conventional initiators, such as primary amines, give slow NCA polymerization, which requires multiple days to reach completion and can result in substantial side reactions, especially for very reactive NCAs. Moreover, current NCA polymerizations are very sensitive to moisture and must typically be conducted in a glove box. Here we show that lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) initiates an extremely rapid NCA polymerization process that is completed within minutes or hours and can be conducted in an open vessel. Polypeptides with variable chain length (DP?=?20-1294) and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn?=?1.08-1.28) were readily prepared with this approach. Mechanistic studies support an anionic ring opening polymerization mechanism. This living NCA polymerization method allowed rapid synthesis of polypeptide libraries for high-throughput functional screening.
Project description:Antioxidant norbornene-based monomers bearing biobased sterically hindered phenols (SHP)-NDF (norbornene dihydroferulate) and NDS (norbornene dihydrosinapate)-have been successfully prepared through biocatalysis from naturally occurring ferulic and sinapic acids, respectively, in presence of Candida antarctica Lipase B (Cal-B). The ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of these monomers was investigated according to ruthenium catalyst type (GI) vs. (HGII) and monomer to catalyst molar ratio ([M]/[C]). The co-polymerization of antioxidant functionalized monomer (NDF or NDS) and non-active norbornene (N) has also been performed in order to adjust the number of SHP groups present per weight unit and tune the antioxidant activity of the copolymers. The polydispersity of the resulting copolymers was readily improved by a simple acetone wash to provide antioxidant polymers with well-defined structures. After hydrogenation with p-toluenesulfonylhydrazine (p-TSH), the radical scavenging ability of the resulting saturated polymers was evaluated using ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) analysis. Results demonstrated that polymers bearing sinapic acid SHP exhibited higher antiradical activity than the polymer bearing ferulic acid SHP. In addition it was also shown that only a small SHP content was needed in the copolymers to exhibit a potent antioxidant activity.
Project description:Poly(tert-butyl ester norbornene imide) homopolymers and poly(tert-butyl ester norbornene imide-b-N-methyloxanorbornene imide) copolymers were prepared by pulsed-addition ring-opening metathesis polymerization (PA-ROMP). PA-ROMP is a unique polymerization method that employs a symmetrical cis-olefin chain transfer agent (CTA) to simultaneously cap a living polymer chain and regenerate the ROMP initiator with high fidelity. Unlike traditional ROMP with chain transfer, the CTA reacts only with the living chain end, resulting in narrowly dispersed products. The regenerated initiator can then initiate polymerization of a subsequent batch of monomer, allowing for multiple polymer chains with controlled molecular weight and low polydispersity to be generated from one metal initiator. Using the fast-initiating ruthenium metathesis catalyst (H(2)IMes)(Cl)(2)(pyr)(2)RuCHPh and cis-4-octene as a CTA, the capabilities of PA-ROMP were investigated with a Symyx robotic system, which allowed for increased control and precision of injection volumes. The results from a detailed study of the time required to carry out the end-capping/initiator-regeneration step were used to design several experiments in which PA-ROMP was performed from one to ten cycles. After determination of the rate of catalyst death, a single, low polydispersity polymer was prepared by adjusting the amount of monomer injected in each cycle, maintaining a constant monomer/catalyst ratio. Additionally, PA-ROMP was used to prepare nearly perfect block copolymers by quickly injecting a second monomer at a specific time interval after the first monomer injection, such that chain transfer had not yet occurred. Polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering.
Project description:Ring-opening metathesis polymerization of norbornene-based (macro)monomers is a powerful approach for the synthesis of macromolecules with diverse compositions and complex architectures. Nevertheless, a fundamental limitation of polymers prepared by this strategy is their lack of facile degradability, limiting their utility in a range of applications. Here we describe a class of readily available bifunctional silyl ether-based cyclic olefins that copolymerize efficiently with norbornene-based (macro)monomers to provide copolymers with backbone degradability under mildly acidic aqueous conditions and degradation rates that can be tuned over several orders of magnitude, depending on the silyl ether substituents. These monomers can be used to manipulate the in vivo biodistribution and clearance rate of polyethylene glycol-based bottlebrush polymers, as well as to synthesize linear, bottlebrush and brush-arm star copolymers with degradable segments. We expect that this work will enable preparation of degradable polymers by ROMP for biomedical applications, responsive self-assembly and improved sustainability.