Development and validation of the online social support for smokers scale.
ABSTRACT: Social networks play an important role in smoking. Provision of social support during cessation is a cornerstone of treatment. Online social networks for cessation are ubiquitous and represent a promising modality for smokers to receive and provide the support necessary for cessation. There are no existing measures specific to online social support for smoking cessation.The objective was to develop a measure of social support to be used in online smoking cessation treatment research.Initial items for the Online Social Support for Smokers Scale (OS4) were based on existing theory and scales delineated in various taxonomies. Preliminary field analysis (N = 73) was conducted on 23 initial items to optimize the scale. Further development was conducted on a refined 15-item scale in the context of a large randomized trial of Internet and telephone cessation treatment with follow-ups at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. In all, 1326 participants were randomized to an enhanced Internet arm that included a large online social network; psychometric analyses employed 3-month follow-up data from those reporting use of the enhanced Internet intervention at least once (n = 873). Items were subjected to a factor analysis, and the internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined along with construct and criterion validity. Other measures used in the study included demographics, nicotine dependence, partner support for cessation, general social support, social integration, stress, depression, health status, online community use, Internet use behaviors, intervention satisfaction, and 30-day point prevalence abstinence.The final 12-item OS4 scale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alphas .86-.89) across demographic and smoking strata of interest. The OS4 also demonstrated good construct and criterion validity, with the directionality of the observed associations providing support for most a priori hypotheses. Significant Pearson correlations were observed between the OS4 and the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ) Positive subscale (ρ = .24, P < .001). As hypothesized, participants with the highest OS4 scores were more likely to have actively participated in the enhanced Internet community and to have high levels of satisfaction with the enhanced Internet intervention. In logistic regression analyses, the OS4 was highly predictive of 30-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6, 12, and 18 months (all P values <.001). The odds of abstinence at 6 months rose by 48% for each standard unit increase in online social support (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.71), dropping only slightly to 37% at 12 and 18 months (95% CI 1.17-1.59).The OS4 is a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for measuring online social support for smoking cessation. Results should be replicated and extended, but this study suggests the OS4 can be used to advance theory, understand mechanisms, and potentially help to improve the tailoring of Internet-based smoking cessation treatments. It can also inspire development of similar measures for other online health-related intervention research.Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00282009; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00282009 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/60XNj3xM6).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Internet-based Smoking Cessation Interventions could help pregnant women quit smoking, especially those who do not wish to, or cannot, access face-to-face or telephone support. This study aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effectiveness and usage of a fully automated smoking cessation website targeted to pregnancy, 'MumsQuit', and obtain an initial effect-size estimate for a full scale trial. METHODS:We recruited 200 UK-based pregnant adult smokers online to a two-arm double-blind pilot RCT assessing the effectiveness of MumsQuit compared with an information-only website. MumsQuit was adapted from a generic internet smoking cessation intervention, 'StopAdvisor'. The primary outcome was self-reported continuous 4-week abstinence assessed at 8 weeks post-baseline. Secondary outcomes were automatically collected data on intervention usage. RESULTS:Participants smoked 15 cigarettes per day on average, 73% were in the first trimester of their pregnancy, 48% were from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and 43% had never used evidence-based cessation support. The point estimate of odds ratio for the primary outcome was 1.5 (95% CI=0.8-2.9; 28% vs. 21%). Compared with control participants, those in the MumsQuit group logged in more often (3.5 vs. 1.3, p<0.001), viewed more pages (67.4 vs. 5.7, p<0.001) and spent more time browsing the website (21.3min vs. 1.0min, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:MumsQuit is an engaging and potentially helpful form of support for pregnant women who seek cessation support online, and merits further development and evaluation in a full-scale RCT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smoking is one of the most significant factors contributing to low life expectancy, health inequalities, and illness at the worldwide scale. Smoking cessation attempts benefit from social support. Mobile phones have changed the way we communicate through the use of freely available message-oriented apps. Mobile app-based interventions for smoking cessation programs can provide interactive, supportive, and individually tailored interventions. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to identify emotions, coping strategies, beliefs, values, and cognitive evaluations of smokers who are in the process of quitting, and to analyze online social support provided through the analysis of messages posted to a chat function integrated into a mobile app. METHODS:In this descriptive qualitative study, informants were smokers who participated in the chat of Tobbstop. The technique to generate information was documentary through messages collected from September 2014 through June 2016, specifically designed to support a smoking cessation intervention. A thematic content analysis of the messages applied 2 conceptual models: the Lazarus and Folkman model to assess participant's experiences and perceptions and the Cutrona model to evaluate online social support. RESULTS:During the study period, 11,788 text messages were posted to the chat by 101 users. The most frequent messages offered information and emotional support, and all the basic emotions were reported in the chat. The 3 most frequent coping strategies identified were physical activity, different types of treatment such as nicotine replacement, and humor. Beliefs about quitting smoking included the inevitability of weight gain and the notion that not using any type of medications is better for smoking cessation. Health and family were the values more frequently described, followed by freedom. A smoke-free environment was perceived as important to successful smoking cessation. The social support group that was developed with the app offered mainly emotional and informational support. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis suggests that a chat integrated into a mobile app focused on supporting smoking cessation provides a useful tool for smokers who are in the process of quitting, by offering social support and a space to share concerns, information, or strategies.
Project description:Web-based smoking cessation interventions can deliver evidence-based treatments to a wide swath of the population, but effectiveness is often limited by insufficient adherence to proven treatment components. This study evaluated the impact of a social network (SN) intervention and free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on adherence to evidence-based components of smoking cessation treatment in the context of a Web-based intervention.A sample of adult U.S. smokers (N = 5290) was recruited via BecomeAnEX.org, a free smoking cessation Web site. Smokers were randomized to one of four arms: (1) an interactive, evidence-based smoking cessation Web site (WEB) alone; (2) WEB in conjunction with an SN intervention designed to integrate participants into the online community (WEB+SN); (3) WEB plus free NRT (WEB+NRT); and (4) the combination of all treatments (WEB+SN+NRT). Adherence outcomes assessed at 3-month follow-up were as follows: Web site utilization metrics, use of skills training components, intratreatment social support, and pharmacotherapy use.WEB+SN+NRT outperformed all others on Web site utilization metrics, use of practical counseling tools, intratreatment social support, and NRT use. It was the only intervention to promote the sending of private messages and the viewing of community pages over WEB alone. Both social network arms outperformed WEB on most metrics of online community engagement. Both NRT arms showed higher medication use compared to WEB alone.This study demonstrated the effectiveness of two approaches for improving adherence to evidence-based components of smoking cessation treatment. Integrated approaches to medication provision and social network engagement can enhance adherence to components known to improve cessation.This study demonstrated that an integrated approach to medication provision and social network integration, when delivered through an online program, can enhance adherence across all three recommended components of an evidence-based smoking cessation program (skills training, social support, and pharmacotherapy use). Nicotine replacement therapy-when provided as part of an integrated program-increases adherence to other program elements, which in turn augment its own therapeutic effects. An explicit focus on approaches to improve treatment adherence is an important first step to identifying leverage points for optimizing intervention effectiveness.
Project description:Smoking is one of the largest contributors to the global burden of disease. Internet interventions have been shown to reduce smoking rates successfully. However, improved methods of evaluating effectiveness need to be developed for large-scale Internet intervention trials.To illustrate a method to interpret outcomes of large-scale, fully automated, worldwide Internet intervention trials.A fully automated, international, Internet-based smoking cessation randomized controlled trial was conducted in Spanish and English, with 16,430 smokers from 165 countries. The randomized controlled trial replicated a published efficacy trial in which, to reduce follow-up attrition, 1000 smokers were followed up by phone if they did not provide online follow-up data.The 7-day self-reported abstinence rates ranged from 36.18% (2239/6189) at 1 month to 41.34% (1361/3292) at 12 months based on observed data. Given high rates of attrition in this fully automated trial, when participants unreachable at follow-up were presumed to be smoking, the abstinence rates ranged from 13.63% (2239/16.430) at 1 month to 8.28% (1361/16,430) at 12 months. We address the problem of interpreting results with high follow-up attrition rates and propose a solution based on a smaller study with intensive phone follow-up.Internet-based smoking cessation interventions can help large numbers of smokers quit. Large-scale international outcome studies can be successfully implemented using automated Internet sites. Interpretation of the studies' results can be aided by extrapolating from results obtained from subsamples that are followed up by phone or similar cohort maintenance methods.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00721786; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00721786 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/63mhoXYPw).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Smoking is a major public health concern. In Japan, a 12-week standard smoking cessation support program is available, however, its required face-to-face visits are a key obstacle in completing the program. Telemedicine is a useful way to provide medical treatment at a distance. Although telemedicine for smoking cessation using an internet-based video system has the potential for ensuring better clinical outcomes for patients with nicotine dependence, its efficacy is unclear.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a smoking cessation support program using an internet-based video system compared with a face-to-face program among patients with nicotine dependence.<h4>Methods</h4>This study will be a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial. Participants randomized to the intervention arm will undergo an internet-based smoking cessation program, whereas control participants will undergo a standard face-to-face program. We will use the CureApp Smoking Cessation (CASC) for both arms, which consists of the CASC smartphone app for patients and a Web-based patient information management system for clinicians with a mobile carbon monoxide checking device. The primary endpoint will be the continuous abstinence rate (CAR) from weeks 9 to 12. Secondary endpoints will be: (1) the smoking cessation success rate at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks; (2) CAR from weeks 9 to 24; (3) changes in scores on the mood and physical symptoms scale and 12-Item French Version Of The Tobacco Craving Questionnaire; (4) Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence scores at 8, 12, and 24 weeks; (5) time to first lapse after the first visit; (6) nicotine dependence and cognition scale scores at 12 and 24 weeks; (7) usage rate of the CASC; (8) qualitative questionnaire about the usability and acceptability of telemedicine; and (9) presence of product problems or adverse events.<h4>Results</h4>We will recruit 114 participants who are nicotine-dependent but otherwise healthy adults from March to July 2018 and follow up with them until January 2019 (24 weeks). We expect all study results to be available by the end of March 2019.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This will be the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of an internet-based (telemedicine) smoking cessation support program relative to a face-to-face program among patients with nicotine dependence. We expect that the efficacy of the telemedicine smoking cessation support program will not be clinically worse than the face-to-face program. If this trial demonstrates that telemedicine does not have clinically worse efficacy and feasibility than a conventional face-to-face program, physicians can begin to offer a more flexible smoking cessation program to patients who may otherwise give up on trying such programs.<h4>Trial registration</h4>University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000031620; https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000035975.<h4>International registered report identifier (irrid)</h4>DERR1-10.2196/12701.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Around 2 million Chinese people, mostly men, die annually from tobacco-related diseases; yet, fewer than 8% of Chinese smokers ever receive any smoking cessation support. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to test the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility for a mobile social network (WeChat)-based smoking cessation intervention (SCAMPI program) among Chinese male smokers. METHODS:Chinese male smokers aged 25-44 years were recruited online from WeChat, the most widely used social media platform in China. Individuals using other smoking cessation interventions or who lacked capacity to provide online informed consent were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to intervention or control groups. Neither participants nor researchers were masked to assignment. The trial was fully online. All data were collected via WeChat. The intervention group received access to the full-version SCAMPI program, a Chinese-language smoking cessation program based on the Behaviour Change Wheel framework and relevant cessation guidelines. Specific intervention functions used in the program include: planning to help users make quitting plans, calculator to record quitting benefits, calendar to record progress, gamification to facilitate quitting, information about smoking harms, motivational messages to help users overcome urges, standardized tests for users to assess their levels of nicotine dependence and lung health, as well as a social platform to encourage social support between users. The control group had access to a static WeChat page of contacts for standard smoking cessation care. Both groups received incentive credit payments for participating. The primary outcome was 30-day biochemically verified smoking abstinence at 6 weeks after randomization, with missing data treated as not quitting. Secondary outcomes were other smoking status measures, reduction of cigarette consumption, study feasibility (recruitment and retention rate), and acceptability of and satisfaction with the program. RESULTS:The program recorded 5736 visitors over a 13-day recruitment period. We recruited 80 participants who were randomly allocated to two arms (n=40 per arm). At 6 weeks, 36 of 40 (90%) intervention participants and 35 of 40 (88%) control participants provided complete self-reported data on their daily smoking status via WeChat. Biochemically verified smoking abstinence at 6 weeks was determined for 10 of 40 (25%) intervention participants and 2 of 40 (5%) control participants (RR=5, 95% CI 1.2-21.4, P=.03). In the intervention group, the calculator function, motivational messages, and health tests were underused (less than once per week per users). Participants rated their satisfaction with the intervention program as 4.56 out of 5.00. CONCLUSIONS:Our program is a novel, accessible, and acceptable smoking cessation intervention for Chinese male smokers. A future trial with a greater sample size and longer follow-up will identify if it is as effective as these preliminary data suggest. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ANZCTR registry, ACTRN12618001089224; https://tinyurl.com/y536n7sx. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):RR2-18071.
Project description:To estimate the causal effects of online community use on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months among smokers that received a combined Internet/phone intervention for smoking cessation.Participants were 399 adult smokers selected from the combined Internet/phone arm of The iQUITT Study (Graham et al., 2011), a randomized trial of Internet and proactive telephone counseling for smoking cessation. All selected participants had accessed a web-based smoking-cessation program with an established online community and received at least one telephone counseling call. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading posts, viewing profiles) and active (e.g., writing posts, sending messages) community use were extracted at 3 months. Self-selected community use defined the groups of interest as None, Passive, and Both (passive and active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate average treatment effects (ATE) and average treatment effects on the treated (ATT).Patterns of community use were None = 145 (36.3%), Passive = 82 (20.6%), and Both = 172 (43.1%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were None = 12.2% (95% CI = 6.7-17.7), Passive = 25.2% (95% CI = 15.1-35.2), and Both = 35.5% (95% CI = 28.1-42.9). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of passive community use by nonusers.More than 1/3 of the participants who used the community both passively and actively achieved abstinence. Participation in an established online community as part of a combined Internet/phone intervention has the potential to promote short-term abstinence. Results also demonstrated that information and support that originate in the community can serve as a resource for all users. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:This study examined mediators and moderators of short-term treatment effectiveness from the iQUITT Study (Quit Using Internet and Telephone Treatment), a 3-arm randomized trial that compared an interactive smoking cessation Web site with an online social network (enhanced Internet) alone and in conjunction with proactive telephone counseling (enhanced Internet plus phone) to a static Internet comparison condition (basic Internet).The analytic sample was N = 1,236 participants with complete 3-month data on all mediating variables. The primary outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) at 3 months. Recognizing the importance of temporal precedence in mediation analyses, we also present findings for 6-month outcomes. Purported mediators were treatment utilization and changes in psychosocial constructs. Proposed moderators included baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Mediation analyses examined the extent to which between-arm differences in 30-day ppa could be attributed to differential Web site utilization, telephone counseling, and associated changes in smoking self-efficacy and social support for quitting. Effect modification analyses fitted interactions between treatment and prespecified moderators on abstinence.Significant mediators of 30-day ppa were changes in smoking temptations, quitting confidence, and positive and negative partner support, which were strongly associated with increased Web site utilization. The addition of telephone counseling to an enhanced Web site further improved abstinence rates, partly via an association with increased quitting confidence. Baseline smoking rate was the only significant moderator.Increased treatment utilization and associated changes in several psychosocial measures yielded higher abstinence rates. Findings validate the importance of treatment utilization, smoking self-efficacy, and social support to promote abstinence.
Project description:Background: The use of technology to support healthcare in Indonesia holds new promise in light of decreasing costs of owning mobile devices and ease of access to internet. However, it is necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions prior to its implementation. This would throw light on the acceptability of mobile phone communication in bringing about behavioural changes among the target Indonesian population. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived usefulness of receiving a potential smoking cessation intervention via mobile phones. Methods: This is an exploratory cross-sectional study involving current and former adult tobacco smokers residing in Indonesia. Online advertisement and snowballing were used to recruit respondents. Data was collected using a web-based survey over a period of 4 weeks. Those willing to participate signed an online consent and were subsequently directed to the online questionnaire that obtained demographics, tobacco usage patterns, perceived usefulness of a mobile phone smoking cessation application and its design. Results: A total of 161 people who smoked tobacco responded to the online survey. The mean age of the participants was 29.4. Of the 123 respondents, 102 were men. Prior experience with using a mobile phone for health communication (OR 3.6, P=0.014) and those willing to quit smoking (OR 5.1, P=0.043) were likely to perceive a mobile phone smoking cessation intervention as useful. A smartphone application was preferred over text messages, media messages or interactive voice response technology. Content comprising of motivational messages highlighting the methods and benefits of quitting smoking were requested. Conclusion: People who smoke in Indonesia perceived receiving a potential smoking cessation intervention via mobile phones as useful. A multi-component, personalized smartphone application was the desired intervention technique. Such an intervention developed and implemented within a public health program could help address the tobacco epidemic in Indonesia.
Project description:Internet-based Smoking Cessation Interventions (ISCIs) may help pregnant smokers who are unable, or unwilling, to access face-to-face stop smoking support. Targeting ISCIs to specific groups of smokers could increase their uptake and effectiveness. The current study explored the needs and preferences of pregnant women seeking online stop smoking support with an aim to identify features and components of ISCIs that might be most attractive to this population.We conducted qualitative interviews with thirteen pregnant women who completed the intervention arm of a pilot randomized controlled trial of a novel ISCI for pregnant smokers ('MumsQuit'). The interviews explored women's views towards MumsQuit and online support with quitting smoking in general, as well as their suggestions for how ISCIs could be best targeted to pregnancy. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Framework Analysis.Participants expressed preferences for an accessible, highly engaging and targeted to pregnancy smoking cessation website, tailored to individuals' circumstances as well as use of cessation medication, offering comprehensive and novel information on smoking and quitting smoking in pregnancy, ongoing support with cravings management, as well as additional support following relapse to smoking. Participants also viewed as important targeting of the feedback and progress reports to baby's health and development, offering personal support from experts, and providing a discussion forum allowing for communication with other pregnant women wanting to quit .The present study has identified a number of potential building blocks for ISCIs targeted to quitting smoking in pregnancy. Pregnant smokers willing to try using ISCI may particularly value an engaging intervention offering a high degree of targeting of comprehensive information to them as a group and tailoring support and advice to their individual needs, as well as one providing post-relapse support, peer-to-peer communication and personal support from experts.