VpRFP1, a novel C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata, functions as a transcriptional activator in defence response of grapevine.
ABSTRACT: RING finger proteins comprise a large family and play important roles in regulation of growth and development, hormone signalling, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, the identification and functional characterization of a C4C4-type RING finger protein gene from the Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (designated VpRFP1) are reported. VpRFP1 was initially identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from a cDNA library constructed from leaves of V. pseudoreticulata inoculated with the grapevine powdery mildew Uncinula necator. Sequence analysis of the deduced VpRFP1 protein based on the full-length cDNA revealed an N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a C-terminal C4C4-type RING finger motif with the consensus sequence Cys-X(2)-Cys-X(13)-Cys-X(1)-Cys-X(4)-Cys-X(2)-Cys-X(10)-Cys-X(2)-Cys. Upon inoculation with U. necator, expression of VpRFP1 was rapidly induced to higher levels in mildew-resistant V. pseudoreticulata plants. In contrast, expression of VpRFP1 was down-regulated in mildew-susceptible V. vinifera plants. Western blotting using an antibody raised against VpRFP1 showed that VpRFP1 was also induced to higher levels in V. pseudoreticulata plants at 12-48 hours post-inoculation (hpi). However, there was only slight increase in VpRFP in V. vinifera plants in the same time frame, even though a more significant increase was observed at 96-144?hpi in these plants. Results from transactivation assays in yeast showed that the RING finger motif of VpRFP1 exhibited some activity of transcriptional activation; however, no activity was seen with the full-length VpRFP1. Overexpression of VpRFP1 in Arabidopsis plants was found to enhance resistance to Arabidopsis powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, which seemed to be correlated with increased transcript levels of AtPR1 and AtPR2 in the pathogen-infected tissues. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Taken together, the results suggested that VpRFP1 may be a transcriptional activator of defence-related genes in grapevines.
Project description:The cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera, is a member of the Vitaceae family, which comprises over 700 species in 14 genera. Vitis vinifera is highly susceptible to the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe necator. However, other species within the Vitaceae family have been reported to show resistance to this fungal pathogen, but little is known about the mechanistic basis of this resistance. Therefore, the frequency of successful E. necator penetration events, in addition to programmed cell death (PCD) responses, were investigated in a representative genotype from a range of different species within the Vitaceae family. The results revealed that penetration resistance and PCD-associated responses, or combinations of both, are employed by the different Vitaceae genera to limit E. necator infection. In order to further characterize the cellular processes involved in the observed penetration resistance, specific inhibitors of the actin cytoskeleton and secretory/endocytic vesicle trafficking function were employed. These inhibitors were demonstrated to successfully break the penetration resistance in V. vinifera against the nonadapted powdery mildew E. cichoracearum. However, the use of these inhibitors with the adapted powdery mildew E. necator unexpectedly revealed that, although secretory and endocytic vesicle trafficking pathways play a crucial role in nonhost penetration resistance, the adapted powdery mildew species may actually require these pathways to successfully penetrate the plant host.
Project description:Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession "Baihe-35-1," which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw.), a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084), increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (?-glucuronidase) analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cultivated grapevines, Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa, evolved from their wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris. They were domesticated in Central Asia in the absence of the powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, which is thought to have originated in North America. However, powdery mildew resistance has previously been discovered in two Central Asian cultivars and in Chinese Vitis species. RESULTS: A set of 380 unique genotypes were evaluated with data generated from 34 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The set included 306 V. vinifera cultivars, 40 accessions of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, and 34 accessions of Vitis species from northern Pakistan, Afghanistan and China. Based on the presence of four SSR alleles previously identified as linked to the powdery mildew resistance locus, Ren1, 10 new mildew resistant genotypes were identified in the test set: eight were V. vinifera cultivars and two were V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris based on flower and seed morphology. Sequence comparison of a 620 bp region that includes the Ren1-linked allele (143 bp) of the co-segregating SSR marker SC8-0071-014, revealed that the ten newly identified genotypes have sequences that are essentially identical to the previously identified mildew resistant V. vinifera cultivars: 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Karadzhandal'. Kinship analysis determined that three of the newly identified powdery mildew resistant accessions had a relationship with 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Karadzhandal', and that six were not related to any other accession in this study set. Clustering procedures assigned accessions into three groups: 1) Chinese species; 2) a mixed group of cultivated and wild V. vinifera; and 3) table grape cultivars, including nine of the powdery mildew resistant accessions. Gene flow was detected among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that powdery mildew resistance is present in V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, the dioecious wild progenitor of the cultivated grape. Four first-degree parent progeny relationships were discovered among the hermaphroditic powdery mildew resistant cultivars, supporting the existence of intentional grape breeding efforts. Although several Chinese grape species are resistant to powdery mildew, no direct genetic link to the resistance found in V. vinifera could be established.
Project description:Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.
Project description:Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera 'Dzhandzhal Kara,' respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. 'Crimson Seedless.' We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases.
Project description:Grapevine powdery mildew is one of the most damaging fungal diseases. Therefore, a precise understanding of the grapevine disease resistance system becomes a subject of significant importance. Plant microRNAs(miRNAs) have been implicated to play regulatory roles in plant biotic stress responses. In this study, high-throughput sequencing and miRDeep-P were employed to identify miRNAs in Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator. Altogether, 126 previously identified microRNAs and 124 novel candidates of miRNA genes were detected. Among them, 43 conserved miRNAs belong to 20 families and 23 non-conserved but previously-known miRNAs belong to 15 families. Following E. necator inoculation, 119 miRNAs were down-regulated and 131 were up-regulated. Furthermore, the expression changes occurring in 32 miRNAs were significant. The expression patterns of some miRNAs were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. A total of 485 target genes were predicted and categorized by Gene Ontology (GO). In addition, 14 vvi-miRNAs were screened with 36 targets which may be involved in powdery mildew resistance in grape. Highly accumulated vvi-NewmiR2118 was detected from accession "Baihe-35-1," whose targets were mostly NBS-LRR resistance genes. It was down-regulated rapidly and strongly in "Baihe-35-1" leaves after inoculated with E. necator, indicating its involvement in grape powdery mildew resistance. Finally, the study verified interaction between vvi-NewmiR2118 and RPP13 by histochemical staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative assay.
Project description:Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes, a conserved gene family in higher eukaryotes, play important roles in cell differentiation, development, and mammalian cell death; however, little is known of their function in plants. In this study, a RBR gene was isolated from the Chinese wild grape, <i>Vitis pseudoreticulata</i> W. T. Wang clone "Baihe-35-1", and designated as <i>VpRBR</i>. The cDNA sequence of <i>VpRBR</i> was 3,030 bp and contained an open reading frame of 3,024 bp. Conceptual translation of this gene indicated a composition of 1,007 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 117.3 kDa. The predicted protein showed a retinoblastoma-associated protein domain A from amino acid residues 416 to 579, and domain B from residues 726 to 855. The result of expression analysis indicated that <i>VpRBR</i> was expressed in tissues, leaves, stem, tendrils, flower, and grape skin at different expression levels. Further quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) data indicated that <i>VpRBR</i> levels were higher in <i>Erysiphe necator-treated</i> "Baihe-35-1" and "Baihe-13-1", two resistant clones of Chinese wild <i>V. pseudoreticulata</i>, than in <i>E. necator-treated</i> "Hunan-1", a susceptible clone of <i>V. pseudoreticulata</i>. Furthermore, the expression of <i>VpRBR</i> in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethylene (Eth) in grape leaves was also investigated. Taken together, these data indicate that <i>VpRBR</i> may contribute to some aspect of powdery mildew resistance in grape.
Project description:RPW8 genes are atypical broad-spectrum genes that provide resistance to powdery mildew, downy mildew, the cauliflower mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana, and powdery mildew in tobacco. They play important roles in basal plant pathogen defense. They also provide insights into a novel disease resistance mechanism. In this study, we report on homologous RPW8 genes in Vitis pseudoreticulata. Five VpRPW8 genes were cloned; their Open Reading Frame (ORF) sequences ranged from 1994 base pairs to 2478 base pairs. They were comprised of five exons and four introns and shared 78.66% identity. Their proteins had typical conserved RPW8 and NB-LRR (the nucleotide-binding site and the leucine-rich repeats) domains (except VpRPW8-d, which lacked LRR domains). Prokaryotic expression results were consistent with predicted molecular weights. All five RPW8 genes were located in the cytoplasm. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that VpRPW8s in V. pseudoreticulata were induced by Plasmopara viticola, but nearly only VvRPW8-d genes were induced in Vitis vinifera. Furthermore, a VpRPW8 transgenic tobacco system was established. Overexpressed VpRPW8s enhanced resistance to Phytophthora capsici and VpRPW8s conferred varying degrees of resistance to Ph. capsici in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our study presents novel members of the plant RPW8 family and suggests that VpRPW8s are involved in enhanced resistance to P. viticola and Ph. capsici.
Project description:Powdery mildew is a disease caused by fungal pathogens that harms grape leaves and fruits. The TIFY gene family is a plant-specific super-family involved in the process of plants' development and their biotic and abiotic stress responses. This study aimed to learn the function of the VvTIFY9 gene to investigate molecular mechanisms of grape resistance to powdery mildew. A VvTIFY9 protein encoding a conserved motif (TIF[F/Y]XG) was characterized in grape (Vitis vinifera). Sequence analysis confirmed that VvTIFY9 contained this conserved motif (TIF[F/Y]XG). Quantitative PCR analysis of VvTIFY9 in various grape tissues demonstrated that the expression of VvTIFY9 was higher in grape leaves. VvTIFY9 was induced by salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and it also quickly responded to infection with Erysiphe necator in grape. Analysis of the subcellular localization and transcriptional activation activity of VvTIFY9 showed that VvTIFY9 located to the nucleus and had transcriptional activity. Arabidopsis that overexpressed VvTIFY9 were more resistant to Golovinomyces cichoracearum, and quantitative PCR revealed that two defense-related genes, AtPR1 and AtPDF1.2, were up-regulated in the overexpressing lines. These results indicate that VvTIFY9 is intimately involved in SA-mediated resistance to grape powdery mildew. This study provides the basis for exploring the molecular mechanism of grape resistance to disease resistance and candidate genes for transgenic disease resistance breeding of grape plants.
Project description:Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most economically important fruit crops in the world, suffers significant yield losses from powdery mildew, a major fungal disease caused by Erysiphe necator. In addition to suppressing host immunity, phytopathogens modulate host proteins termed susceptibility (S) factors to promote their proliferation in plants. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) technology was used to enable the targeted mutagenesis of MLO (mildew resistance Locus O) family genes that are thought to serve as S factors for powdery mildew fungi. Small deletions or insertions were induced in one or both alleles of two grapevine MLO genes, VvMLO3 and VvMLO4, in the transgenic plantlets of the powdery mildew-susceptible cultivar Thompson Seedless. The editing efficiency achieved with different CRISPR/Cas9 constructs varied from 0 to 38.5%. Among the 20 VvMLO3/4-edited lines obtained, one was homozygous for a single mutation, three harbored biallelic mutations, seven were heterozygous for the mutations, and nine were chimeric, as indicated by the presence of more than two mutated alleles in each line. Six of the 20 VvMLO3/4-edited grapevine lines showed normal growth, while the remaining lines exhibited senescence-like chlorosis and necrosis. Importantly, four VvMLO3-edited lines showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew, which was associated with host cell death, cell wall apposition (CWA) and H2O2 accumulation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology can be successfully used to induce targeted mutations in genes of interest to improve traits of economic importance, such as disease resistance in grapevines.