TNF-induced necroptosis in L929 cells is tightly regulated by multiple TNFR1 complex I and II members.
ABSTRACT: TNF receptor 1 signaling induces NF-?B activation and necroptosis in L929 cells. We previously reported that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-mediated receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) ubiquitination acts as a cytoprotective mechanism, whereas knockdown of cylindromatosis, a RIP1-deubiquitinating enzyme, protects against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We report here that RIP1 is a crucial mediator of canonical NF-?B activation in L929 cells, therefore questioning the relative cytoprotective contribution of RIP1 ubiquitination versus canonical NF-?B activation. We found that attenuated NF-?B activation has no impact on TNF-induced necroptosis. However, we identified A20 and linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as negative regulators of necroptosis. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to RIP3, we also found that knockdown of RIP1 did not block TNF cytotoxicity. Cell death typing revealed that RIP1-depleted cells switch from necroptotic to apoptotic death, indicating that RIP1 can also suppress apoptosis in L929 cells. Inversely, we observed that Fas-associated protein via a death domain, cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and caspase-8, which are all involved in the initiation of apoptosis, counteract necroptosis induction. Finally, we also report RIP1-independent but RIP3-mediated necroptosis in the context of TNF signaling in particular conditions.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is a critical initiator in mediating necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in L929 cells, so knockdown of RIP3 inhibits TNF?-induced L929 cell necroptosis. However, RIP3 knockdown was shown to switch TNF?-induced necroptosis to apoptosis in L929 cells in other studies. Therefore, whether RIP3 knockdown blocks the TNF?-induced death of L929 cells is controversial. In this study, TNF? activated caspase pathway and induced cell death in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells, and the RIP3-independent cell death had been blocked by Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) or caspase 8 knockdown, demonstrating that RIP3 knockdown switched TNF?-induced necroptosis to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Although both TNF receptor type 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) and RIP1 have been reported to mediate TNF?-induced apoptosis, the knockdown of TRADD, but not RIP1, suppressed TNF?-induced activation of the caspase pathway and subsequent apoptosis in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells. In addition, TRADD bound and activated caspase 8 during the RIP3-independent apoptosis process, indicating that TRADD initiates RIP3-independent apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway. Collectively, we identified the target and mechanism underlying RIP3-independent apoptosis and elucidated the coordinated roles of RIP3 and TRADD in mediating the programmed cell death of L929 cells following TNF? stimulation.
Project description:Necroptosis is a caspase-independent regulated type of cell death that relies on receptor-interacting protein kinases RIP1 (receptor-interacting protein kinases 1) and RIP3. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?)-stimulated assembly of the TNFR1 (TNF receptor 1)-associated signaling complex leads to the recruitment of RIP1, whose ubiquitination is mediated by the cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (c-IAPs). Translocation of RIP1 to the cytoplasm and association of RIP1 with the necrosome is believed to correlate with deubiquitination of RIP1. However, we found that RIP1 is ubiquitinated with K63 and linear polyubiquitin chains during TNF?, IAP antagonist BV6 and caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk-induced necroptotic signaling. Furthermore, ubiquitinated RIP1 is associated with the necrosome, and RIP1 ubiquitination in the necrosome coincides with RIP3 phosphorylation. Both cellular IAPs and LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) modulate RIP1 ubiquitination in IAP antagonist-treated necrotic cells, but they use different mechanisms. c-IAP1 regulates RIP1 recruitment to the necrosome without directly affecting RIP1 ubiquitination, whereas HOIP and HOIL1 mediate linear ubiquitination of RIP1 in the necrosome, but are not essential for necrosome formation. Knockdown of the E3 ligase c-IAP1 decreased RIP1 ubiquitination, necrosome assembly and necroptosis induced by TNF?, BV6 and zVAD-fmk. c-IAP1 deficiency likely decreases necroptotic cell death through the activation of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway and consequent c-IAP2 upregulation. The ability to upregulate c-IAP2 could determine whether c-IAP1 absence will have a positive or negative impact on TNF?-induced necroptotic cell death and necrosome formation. Collectively, these results reveal unexpected complexity of the roles of IAP proteins, IAP antagonists and LUBAC in the regulation of necrosome assembly.
Project description:Necroptosis is a form of necrotic cell death that requires the activity of the death domain-containing kinase RIP1 and its family member RIP3. Necroptosis occurs when RIP1 is deubiquitinated to form a complex with RIP3 in cells deficient in the death receptor adapter molecule FADD or caspase-8. Necroptosis may play a role in host defense during viral infection as viruses like vaccinia can induce necroptosis while murine cytomegalovirus encodes a viral inhibitor of necroptosis. To see how general the interplay between viruses and necroptosis is, we surveyed seven different viruses. We found that two of the viruses tested, Sendai virus (SeV) and murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV68), are capable of inducing dramatic necroptosis in the fibrosarcoma L929 cell line. We show that MHV68-induced cell death occurs through the cytosolic STING sensor pathway in a TNF-dependent manner. In contrast, SeV-induced death is mostly independent of TNF. Knockdown of the RNA sensing molecule RIG-I or the RIP1 deubiquitin protein, CYLD, but not STING, rescued cells from SeV-induced necroptosis. Accompanying necroptosis, we also find that wild type but not mutant SeV lacking the viral proteins Y1 and Y2 result in the non-ubiquitinated form of RIP1. Expression of Y1 or Y2 alone can suppress RIP1 ubiquitination but CYLD is dispensable for this process. Instead, we found that Y1 and Y2 can inhibit cIAP1-mediated RIP1 ubiquitination. Interestingly, we also found that SeV infection of B6 RIP3-/- mice results in increased inflammation in the lung and elevated SeV-specific T cells. Collectively, these data identify viruses and pathways that can trigger necroptosis and highlight the dynamic interplay between pathogen-recognition receptors and cell death induction.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) signaling may result in survival, apoptosis or programmed necrosis. The latter is called necroptosis if the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or genetic knockout of RIP3 prevents it. In the lethal mouse model of TNF?-mediated shock, addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (zVAD) accelerates time to death. Here, we demonstrate that RIP3-deficient mice are protected markedly from TNF?-mediated shock in the presence and absence of caspase inhibition. We further show that the fusion protein TAT-crmA, previously demonstrated to inhibit apoptosis, also prevents necroptosis in L929, HT29 and FADD-deficient Jurkat cells. In contrast to RIP3-deficient mice, blocking necroptosis by Nec-1 or TAT-crmA did not protect from TNF?/zVAD-mediated shock, but further accelerated time to death. Even in the absence of caspase inhibition, Nec-1 application led to similar kinetics. Depletion of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes or genetic deficiency for T lymphocytes did not influence this model. Because RIP3-deficient mice are known to be protected from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP), we applied Nec-1 and TAT-crmA in this model and demonstrated the deterioration of pancreatic damage upon addition of these substances. These data highlight the importance of separating genetic RIP3 deficiency from RIP1 inhibition by Nec-1 application in vivo and challenge the current definition of necroptosis.
Project description:Proper regulation of cell death signaling is crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis and prevention of disease. A caspase-independent regulated form of cell death called necroptosis is rapidly emerging as an important mediator of a number of human pathologies including inflammatory bowel disease and ischemia-reperfusion organ injury. Activation of necroptotic signaling through TNF signaling or organ injury leads to the activation of kinases receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIP1 and RIP3) and culminates in inflammatory cell death. We found that, in addition to phosphorylation, necroptotic cell death is regulated by ubiquitination of RIP1 in the necrosome. Necroptotic RIP1 ubiquitination requires RIP1 kinase activity, but not necroptotic mediators RIP3 and MLKL (mixed lineage kinase-like). Using immunoaffinity enrichment and mass spectrometry, we profiled numerous ubiquitination events on RIP1 that are triggered during necroptotic signaling. Mutation of a necroptosis-related ubiquitination site on RIP1 reduced necroptotic cell death and RIP1 ubiquitination and phosphorylation, and disrupted the assembly of RIP1 and RIP3 in the necrosome, suggesting that necroptotic RIP1 ubiquitination is important for maintaining RIP1 kinase activity in the necrosome complex. We also observed RIP1 ubiquitination in injured kidneys consistent with a physiological role of RIP1 ubiquitination in ischemia-reperfusion disease. Taken together, these data reveal that coordinated and interdependent RIP1 phosphorylation and ubiquitination within the necroptotic complex regulate necroptotic signaling and cell death.
Project description:Formation of multi-component signaling complex necrosomes is essential for tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF)-induced programmed necrosis (also called necroptosis). However, the mechanisms of necroptosis are still largely unknown. We isolated a TNF-resistant L929 mutant cell line generated by retrovirus insertion and identified that disruption of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein ? 10 (G?10) gene is responsible for this phenotype. We further show that G?10 is involved in TNF-induced necroptosis and G?2 is the partner of G?10. Src is the downstream effector of G?2?10 in TNF-induced necroptosis because TNF-induced Src activation was impaired upon G?10 knockdown. G?10 does not affect TNF-induced activation of NF-?B and MAPKs and the formation of necrosomes, but is required for trafficking of necrosomes to their potential functioning site, an unidentified subcellular organelle that can be fractionated into heterotypic membrane fractions. The TNF-induced G??-Src signaling pathway is independent of RIP1/RIP3 kinase activity and necrosome formation, but is required for the necrosome to function.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced RIP1/RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/receptor-interacting protein kinase 3)-mediated necroptosis has been proposed as an alternative strategy for treating apoptosis-resistant leukemia. However, we found that most acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, especially M4 and M5 subtypes, produce TNF and show basal level activation of RIP1/RIP3/MLKL signaling, yet do not undergo necroptosis. TNF, through RIP1/RIP3 signaling, prevents degradation of SOCS1, a key negative regulator of interferon-? (IFN-?) signaling. Using both pharmacologic and genetic assays, we show here that inactivation of RIP1/RIP3 resulted in reduction of SOCS1 protein levels and partial differentiation of AML cells. AML cells with inactivated RIP1/RIP3 signaling show increased sensitivity to IFN-?-induced differentiation. RIP1/RIP3 inactivation combined with IFN-? treatment significantly attenuated the clonogenic capacity of both primary AML cells and AML cell lines. This combination treatment also compromised the leukemogenic ability of murine AML cells in vivo. Our studies suggest that inhibition of RIP1/RIP3-mediated necroptotic signaling might be a novel strategy for the treatment of AML when combined with other differentiation inducers.
Project description:The receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) associates with RIP1 in a necrosome complex that can induce necroptosis, apoptosis, or cell proliferation. We analyzed the expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in CD34+ leukemia cells from a cohort of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and CD34+ cells from healthy donors. RIP3 expression was significantly reduced in most AML samples, whereas the expression of RIP1 did not differ significantly. When re-expressed in the mouse DA1-3b leukemia cell line, RIP3 induced apoptosis and necroptosis in the presence of caspase inhibitors. Transfection of RIP3 in the WEHI-3b leukemia cell line or in the mouse embryonic fibroblasts also resulted in increased cell death. Surprisingly, re-expression of a RIP3 mutant with an inactive kinase domain (RIP3-kinase dead (RIP3-KD)) induced significantly more and earlier apoptosis than wild-type RIP3 (RIP3-WT), indicating that the RIP3 kinase domain is an essential regulator of apoptosis/necroptosis in leukemia cells. The induced in vivo expression of RIP3-KD but not RIP3-WT prolonged the survival of mice injected with leukemia cells. The expression of RIP3-KD induced p65/RelA nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) subunit caspase-dependent cleavage, and a non-cleavable p65/RelA D361E mutant rescued these cells from apoptosis. p65/RelA cleavage appears to be at least partially mediated by caspase-6. These data indicate that RIP3 silencing in leukemia cells results in suppression of the complex regulation of the apoptosis/necroptosis switch and NF-?B activity.
Project description:The HECT domain E3 ligase HACE1 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. Here, we report that HACE1 is a central gatekeeper of TNFR1-induced cell fate. Genetic inactivation of HACE1 inhibits TNF-stimulated NF-?B activation and TNFR1-NF-?B-dependent pathogen clearance in vivo. Moreover, TNF-induced apoptosis was impaired in hace1 mutant cells and knockout mice in vivo. Mechanistically, HACE1 is essential for the ubiquitylation of the adaptor protein TRAF2 and formation of the apoptotic caspase-8 effector complex. Intriguingly, loss of HACE1 does not impair TNFR1-mediated necroptotic cell fate via RIP1 and RIP3 kinases. Loss of HACE1 predisposes animals to colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis in vivo, which is markedly alleviated by genetic inactivation of RIP3 kinase and TNFR1. Thus, HACE1 controls TNF-elicited cell fate decisions and exerts tumor suppressor and anti-inflammatory activities via a TNFR1-RIP3 kinase-necroptosis pathway.
Project description:Necroptosis, a form of regulated necrotic cell death, is governed by RIP1/RIP3-mediated activation of MLKL. However, the signaling process leading to necroptotic death remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that PUMA, a proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, is transcriptionally activated in an RIP3/MLKL-dependent manner following induction of necroptosis. The induction of PUMA, which is mediated by autocrine TNF-? and enhanced NF-?B activity, contributes to necroptotic death in RIP3-expressing cells with caspases inhibited. On induction, PUMA promotes the cytosolic release of mitochondrial DNA and activation of the DNA sensors DAI/Zbp1 and STING, leading to enhanced RIP3 and MLKL phosphorylation in a positive feedback loop. Furthermore, deletion of PUMA partially rescues necroptosis-mediated developmental defects in FADD-deficient embryos. Collectively, our results reveal a signal amplification mechanism mediated by PUMA and cytosolic DNA sensors that is involved in TNF-driven necroptotic death in vitro and in vivo.