Potential tumor suppressor NESG1 as an unfavorable prognosis factor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recently we identified nasopharyngeal epithelium specific protein 1 (NESG1) as a potential tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study is to investigate the involvement of NESG1 in tumor progression and prognosis of human NPC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:NESG1 protein expression in NPC was examined. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of NESG1 on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were also investigated. RESULTS:NESG1 expression was downregulated in atypical hyperplasia and NPC samples compared to normal and squamous nasopharynx tissues. Reduced protein expression was negatively associated with the status of NPC progression. Patients with lower NESG1 expression had a shorter overall survival and disease-free time than did patients with higher NESG1 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested NESG1 expression as an independent prognostic indicator for NPC patient survival. Proliferation, migration, and invasion ability were significantly increased in cell lines following lentiviral-mediated shRNA suppression of NESG1 expression. Microarray analysis indicated that NESG1 participated in multiple pathways, including MAPK signaling and cell cycle regulation. Finally, DNA methylation microarray examination revealed a lack of hypermethylation at the NESG1 promoter, suggesting other mechanisms are involved in suppressing NESG1 expression in NPC. CONCLUSION:Our studies are the first to demonstrate that decreased NESG1 expression is an unfavorable prognostic factor for NPC.
Project description:Recent studies demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) deregulated in many cancer tissues including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and had critical roles in cancer progression and metastasis. In this study, we aimed to assess a lncRNA LINC01420 expression in NPC and explore its role in NPC pathogenesis. Our research revealed that the expression level of LINC01420 in NPC tissues were higher than nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) tissues. Moreover, NPC patients with high LINC01420 expression level showed poor overall survival. Knockdown LINC01420 inhibited NPC cell migration and invasion in vitro. In summary, LINC01420 may play a critical role in NPC progression and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in NPC patients.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has the highest metastatic potential among head and neck cancers. Distant metastasis is the major cause of treatment failure. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in NPC progression remains unknown. Our multivariate survival analyses of 255 patients with NPC revealed that higher IL-8 expression in primary NPC tissue was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival of the patients. In vitro study revealed that IL-8 was highly expressed in the established high-metastasis NPC clone S18 relative to the low-metastasis cells. Suppression of IL-8 by short-hairpin RNA reduced the expression of IL-8 in S18 cells and subsequently inhibited migration, invasion, and hepatic metastasis of the cells without influencing cellular growth. Overexpression of IL-8 in S26 cells resulted in increased migration, invasion, and metastasis capabilities of the cells without affecting cellular growth. Exogenous IL-8 enhanced the migration and invasion of low-metastasis CNE-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) could be induced by IL-8 in various NPC cell lines. The high level of phosphorylated AKT in S18 cells could be suppressed by knocking down IL-8 expression. Further, IL-8-promoted migration and invasion could be abolished by either the application of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the knock down of AKT expression by using small-interfering RNA. In summary, IL-8 serves as an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival for patients with NPC. IL-8 promotes NPC metastasis via autocrine and paracrine means, involving activation of AKT signaling and inducing EMT in NPC cells.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) has been shown to play a significant role in several types of cancers, but little is known about the function of MMP14 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MMP14 in NPC using NPC tumor samples or tissue microarray. We have shown that MMP14 was increased in NPC samples compared with normal nasopharynx (NP) tissues in microarray data (GSE13597). Both MMP14 mRNA and protein expression were markedly higher in NPC tissues than in NP tissues. High levels of MMP14 protein were found positively correlate with the status of late clinical stages of tumor and tumor with lymph node metastasis. Moreover, we have shown that MMP14 expression promoted the cell migration and invasion of NPC cells in vitro and regulated the expression of EMT-associated genes. Our data demonstrated that MMP14 plays an important role in regulation of migration and invasion of NPC cells, and constitutes a potential novel therapeutic target for NPC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of CTGF varies in different types of cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the involvement of CTGF in tumor progression and prognosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:CTGF expression levels were examined in NPC tissues and cells, nasopharynx (NP) tissues, and NP69 cells. The effects and molecular mechanisms of CTGF expression on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle were also explored. RESULTS:NPC cells exhibited decreased mRNA expression of CTGF compared to immortalized human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69. Similarly, CTGF was observed to be downregulated in NPC compared to normal tissues at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, reduced CTGF was negatively associated with the progression of NPC. Knocking down CTGF expression enhanced the colony formation, cell migration, invasion, and G1/S cell cycle transition. Mechanistic analysis revealed that CTGF suppression activated FAK/PI3K/AKT and its downstream signals regulating the cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and MMPs. Finally, DNA methylation microarray revealed a lack of hypermethylation at the CTGF promoter, suggesting other mechanisms are associated with suppression of CTGF in NPC. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates that reduced expression of CTGF promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and cell cycle progression through FAK/PI3K/AKT, EMT and MMP pathways in NPC.
Project description:Rho GTPase-activating protein 42 was identified as an inhibitor of RhoA to maintain normal blood pressure homeostasis. However, the effect of ARHGAP42 in promoting cell malignancy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is demonstrated in this study. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR were used for a mRNA profiling of ARHGAP42 in nasopharyngeal primary and metastatic carcinoma tissues. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining were used for detecting the expression of ARHGAP42 protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and cell lines. The overexpression and silence experiments of ARHGAP42 were performed in NPC cell lines using siRNA and expressive plasmid for evaluating cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, and transwell test were employed for with the function of ARHGAP42 and its antisense lncRNA uc010rul. We confirmed the elevated expression of ARHGAP42 in metastatic NPC tissues of mRNA and protein for the first time. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that NPC patients with highly ARHGAP42 expression were significantly associated with shorter metastasis-free survival. Knockdown of ARHGAP42 resulted in significant inhibition of nasopharyngeal cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro, and the overexpression of ARHGAP42 showed the opposite effects. In addition, the silence of uc010rul resulted in ARHGAP42 expression decrease and significant inhibition of nasopharyngeal cancer cell migration and invasion. High expression of ARHGAP42 is associated with poor metastasis-free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. ARHGAP42 promotes migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro; the antisense lncRNA may be involved in this effect.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) is a secreted protein that highly expressed in a variety of cancers and contributes to cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness, mobility, metastasis and EMT. However, its clinical significance and biological function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unknown up to now. Up-regulation of BMP2 was first observed in NPC cell lines by a genome-wide transcriptome analysis in our previous study. In this study, BMP2 mRNA was detected by qRT-PCR and data showed that it was upregulated in NPC compared with non-cancerous nasopharynx samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in NPC specimens revealed that high BMP2 expression was significantly associated with clinical stage, distant metastasis and shorter survival of NPC patients. Moreover, overexpression of BMP2 in NPC cells promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, BMP2 overexpression increase phosphorylated protein level of mTOR, S6K and 4EBP1. Correspondingly, mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin blocked the effect of BMP2 on NPC cell proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, our results suggest that BMP2 overexpression in NPC enhances proliferation, invasion and EMT of tumor cells through the mTORC1 signaling pathway.
Project description:Increasing studies reports that aberrant miRNAs contribute to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development and progression. However, the role of miR-92b in NPC remains unclear. In present research, we found that a reduced miR-92b expression in NPC tissues and cell lines. The clinical data showed that the down-regulated miR-92b expression was obviously associated with adverse prognostic characteristic. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-92b was a novel independent prognostic symbol for predicting 5-year survival of NPC patients. MiR-92b overexpression inhibited cell migration, invasion and EMT progress, while down-regulated miR-92b reversed the effect. Besides, miR-92b could modulate Smad3 by directly binding to its 3'-UTR. In clinical samples of NPC, miR-92b inversely correlated with Smad3. Alternation of Smad3 expression at least partially abrogated the migration, invasion and EMT progress of miR-92b on NPC cells. In summary, our results indicated that miR-92b functioned as a tumor suppressor gene in regulating the EMT and metastasis of NPC via targeting Smad3, and may represent a novel potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker for NPC.
Project description:Calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4) plays a key role in tumor migration or invasion. In this study, expression and function of Capn4 was investigated in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here we report that both mRNA and protein levels of Capn4 were elevated in NPC tissues when compared to normal NP tissues. Similarly, Capn4 was also highly expressed in multiple NPC cell lines, compared to immortalized human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69. Moreover, expression of Capn4 was significantly correlated with Epstein-Barr virus infection, advanced stages, and lymph node or distant metastasis (P < 0.001). The patients with NPC displaying higher Capn4 had a significantly shorter overall survival (P = 0.002) and progression-free survival (P = 0.003). Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of Capn4 suppressed cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. These events resulted from Capn4 downregulation were associated with reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), Snail, and Vimentin. Finally, we demonstrated that Capn4 upregulated MMP2 via nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation, manifested by increased phosphorylation of p65, a subunit of NF-?B. Together, these findings argue a novel function of Capn4 in invasion and metastasis of NPC, and thereby suggest that Capn4 may represent an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in NPC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing-fold-containing family B member 1 (BPIFB1, previously termed LPLUNC1) is highly expressed in the nasopharynx, significantly downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and associated with prognosis in NPC patients. Because metastasis represents the primary cause of NPC-related death, we explored the role of BPIFB1 in NPC migration and invasion. METHODS:The role of BPIFB1 in NPC metastasis was investigated in vitro and in vivo. A co-immunoprecipitation assay coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify BPIFB1-binding proteins. Additionally, western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry allowed assessment of the molecular mechanisms associated with BPIFB1-specific metastatic inhibition via vitronectin (VTN) and vimentin (VIM) interactions. RESULTS:Our results showed that BPIFB1 expression markedly inhibited NPC cell migration, invasion, and lung-metastatic abilities. Additionally, identification of two BPIFB1-interacting proteins, VTN and VIM, showed that BPIFB1 reduced VTN expression and the formation of a VTN-integrin ?V complex in NPC cells, leading to inhibition of the FAK/Src/ERK signalling pathway. Moreover, BPIFB1 attenuated NPC cell migration and invasion by inhibiting VTN- or VIM-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSIONS:This study represents the first demonstration of BPIFB1 function in NPC migration, invasion, and lung metastasis. Our findings indicate that re-expression of BPIFB1 might represent a useful strategy for preventing and treating NPC.
Project description:Clinically, distant metastasis after primary treatment remains a key problem in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the treatment outcome of metastatic NPC remains disappointing, so there is a pressing need to identify novel therapeutic strategies. In accordance with our previous microarray data, we found that miR-101 was downregulated in NPC clinical specimens and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-101 significantly suppressed NPC cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis in vitro and inhibited angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model. Furthermore, ITGA3 was identified and validated as a novel target of miR-101, and the restoration of ITGA3 expression potently rescued the suppressive effects of miR-101. In addition, NPC patients with high ITGA3 expression had poorer overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival than patients with low ITGA3 expression, and ITGA3 overexpression was an independent poor prognostic factor in NPC. More importantly, we demonstrated that the systemic delivery of lentivirus-mediated miR-101 abrogated the lung metastatic colonization formation of NPC cells without obvious toxicity. Our study elucidates the molecular mechanisms of miR-101/ITGA3 pathway in regulating NPC metastasis and angiogenesis, and the systemic delivery of miR-101 provides a potent evidence for the development of a novel microRNA-targeting anticancer strategy for NPC patients.