A conserved antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of human carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3) mediates induction by the master redox switch Nrf2.
ABSTRACT: Carbonyl reductase activity catalyzes the two electron reduction of several endogenous and exogenous carbonyl substrates. Recent data indicate that the expression of human carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3) is regulated by the master redox switch Nrf2. Nrf2 binds to conserved antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the promoters of target genes. The presence of functional AREs in the CBR3 promoter has not yet been reported. In this study, experiments with reporter constructs showed that the prototypical Nrf2 activator tert-butyl hydroquinone (t-BHQ) induces CBR3 promoter activity in cultures of HepG2 (2.7-fold; p<0.05) and MCF-7 cells (22-fold; p<0.01). Computational searches identified a conserved ARE in the distal CBR3 promoter region ((-2698)ARE). Deletion of this ARE from a 4212-bp CBR3 promoter construct impacted basal promoter activity and induction of promoter activity in response to treatment with t-BHQ. Deletion of (-2698)ARE also impacted the induction of CBR3 promoter activity in cells overexpressing Nrf2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated increased binding of specific protein complexes to (-2698)ARE in nuclear extracts from t-BHQ treated cells. The presence of Nrf2 in the specific nuclear protein-(-2698)ARE complexes was evidenced in EMSA experiments with anti-Nrf2 antibodies. These data suggest that the distal (-2698)ARE mediates the induction of human CBR3 in response to prototypical activators of Nrf2.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that polymorphisms in human carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3) influence the pharmacodynamics of doxorubicin. First, we sought to identify the promoter of CBR3. Next, we examined whether two CBR3 promoter polymorphisms (CBR3 -725T>C and CBR3 -326T>A) dictate promoter activity and hepatic CBR3 mRNA levels.The promoter activities of CBR3 reporter constructs were investigated in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. CBR3 mRNA levels were documented in 95 liver samples from white (n = 62) and black (n = 33) donors. Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses were used to determine the impact of the CBR3 -725T>C and CBR3 -326T>A polymorphisms on hepatic CBR3 mRNA levels.We identified the promoter of human CBR3. Liver samples from black donors showed higher relative CBR3 mRNA levels than samples from whites (CBR3 mRNA(blacks) = 3.0 +/- 3.1 relative fold vs. CBR3 mRNA(whites) = 1.6 +/- 1.5 relative fold, p = 0.021). The variant -725C and -326A alleles did not modify the gene reporter activities of engineered CBR3 promoter constructs. In line, hepatic CBR3 mRNA levels were not associated with CBR3 -725T>C and CBR3 -326T>A genotype status.These studies provide the first insights into the regulation and variable hepatic expression of polymorphic CBR3.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells contribute to the development and progression of vascular diseases. We have recently shown that hyperoxia enhances NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression, which regulates lung endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Regulation of Nox4 in the vasculature is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify the transcriptional factor(s) involved in regulation of endothelial Nox4. We found that hyperoxia-induced Nox4 expression was markedly reduced in Nrf2(-/-) mice, compared to Nrf2(+/+) mice. Exposure of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) to hyperoxia stimulated Nrf2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased Nox4 expression. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression using an siRNA approach attenuated basal Nox4 expression; however, it enhanced superoxide/ROS generation under both normoxia and hyperoxia. In silico analysis revealed the presence of at least three consensus sequences for the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of Nox4. In transient transfections, hyperoxia stimulated Nox4 promoter activity in HLMVECs, and deletion of the -438 to -458 and -619 to -636 sequences markedly reduced hyperoxia-stimulated Nox4 promoter activation. ChIP analysis revealed an enhanced recruitment of Nrf2 to the endogenous Nox4 promoter spanning these two AREs after hyperoxic insult. Collectively, these results demonstrate, for the first time, a novel role for Nrf2 in regulating hyperoxia-induced Nox4 transcription via AREs in lung endothelium.
Project description:The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters, including ABCC3, is a large family of efflux pumps that plays a pivotal role in the elimination of xenobiotics from the body. ABCC3 has been reported to be induced during hepatic stress conditions and through the progression of some forms of cancer. Several lines of evidence have implicated the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in this induction. However, although rodent models have been investigated, a functional antioxidant response element (ARE) in the human ABCC3 gene has not been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the ARE(s) responsible for mediating the Nrf2-dependent induction of the human ABCC3 gene. A high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis performed in A549 cells revealed a specific interaction between Nrf2 and the eighth intron of the human ABCC3 gene rather than the more prototypical flanking region of the gene. Subsequent in silico analysis of the intron identified two putative ARE elements that contained the core consensus ARE sequence commonly found in several Nrf2-responsive genes. Functional characterization of these two AREs using luciferase-reporter constructs with ARE mutant constructs revealed that one of these putative AREs is functionally active. Finally, DNA pull-down assays confirmed specific binding of these intronic AREs by Nrf2 in vitro. Our findings identify a functional Nrf2 response element within the eighth intron of the ABCC3 gene, which may provide mechanistic insight into the induction of ABCC3 during antioxidant response stimuli.
Project description:Functional up-regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activity through different posttranslational modifications has been implicated in the survival and proliferation of various cancers. It is increasingly recognized that the HSF1 gene is also up-regulated at the transcriptional level, a phenomenon correlated with poor prognosis for patients with different cancers, including breast cancer. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional up-regulation of HSF1 in human cells upon arsenite- or peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Sequential promoter truncation coupled with bioinformatics analysis revealed that this activation is mediated by two antioxidant response elements (AREs) located between 1707 and 1530 bp upstream of the transcription start site of the HSF1 gene. Using shRNA-mediated down-regulation, ChIP of NRF2, site-directed mutagenesis of the AREs, and DNase I footprinting of the HSF1 promoter, we confirmed that nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2, also known as NFE2L2) interacts with these AREs and up-regulates HSF1 expression. We also found that BRM/SWI2-related gene 1 (BRG1), a catalytic subunit of SWI2/SNF2-like chromatin remodeler, is involved in this process. We further show that NRF2-dependent HSF1 gene regulation plays a crucial role in cancer cell biology, as interference with NRF2-mediated HSF1 activation compromised survival, migration potential, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and autophagy in MCF7 breast cancer cells exposed to oxidative stress. Taken together, our findings unravel the mechanistic basis of HSF1 gene regulation in cancer cells and provide molecular evidence supporting a direct interaction between HSF1 and NRF2, critical regulators of two cytoprotective mechanisms exploited by cancer cells.
Project description:To maintain intracellular redox homeostasis, genes encoding many antioxidants and detoxification enzymes are transcriptionally upregulated upon deleterious oxidative stress through the cis antioxidant responsive elements (AREs) in their promoter regions. Nrf2 is the critical transcription factor responsible for ARE-dependent transcription. We and others have previously demonstrated that Nrf2 is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by Keap1 in a redox-sensitive manner through modifications of distinct cysteine residues of Keap1. Here, we report that p300/CBP directly acetylates Nrf2 in response to arsenite-induced stress. We have identified multiple acetylated lysine residues within the Nrf2 Neh1 DNA-binding domain. Combined lysine-to-arginine mutations on the acetylation sites, with no effects on Nrf2 protein stability, compromised the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2 in a promoter-specific manner. These findings demonstrated that acetylation of Nrf2 by p300/CBP augments promoter-specific DNA binding of Nrf2 and established acetylation as a novel regulatory mechanism that functions in concert with Keap1-mediated ubiquitination in modulating the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response.
Project description:Carbonyl reduction constitutes a phase I reaction for many xenobiotics and is carried out in mammals mainly by members of two protein families, namely aldo-keto reductases and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases. In addition to their capacity to reduce xenobiotics, several of the enzymes act on endogenous compounds such as steroids or eicosanoids. One of the major carbonyl reducing enzymes found in humans is carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) with a very broad substrate spectrum. A paralog, carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3) has about 70% sequence identity and has not been sufficiently characterized to date. Screening of a focused xenobiotic compound library revealed that CBR3 has narrower substrate specificity and acts on several orthoquinones, as well as isatin or the anticancer drug oracin. To further investigate structure-activity relationships between these enzymes we crystallized CBR3, performed substrate docking, site-directed mutagenesis and compared its kinetic features to CBR1. Despite high sequence similarities, the active sites differ in shape and surface properties. The data reveal that the differences in substrate specificity are largely due to a short segment of a substrate binding loop comprising critical residues Trp229/Pro230, Ala235/Asp236 as well as part of the active site formed by Met141/Gln142 in CBR1 and CBR3, respectively. The data suggest a minor role in xenobiotic metabolism for CBR3.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.
Project description:Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) generates ROS as a byproduct of mitochondrial complex I activity. ROS-detoxifying enzymes are made available through the activation of their antioxidant response elements (ARE) in their gene promoters. NRF2 binds to AREs and induces this anti-oxidant response. We show that cells from multiple origins performing OXPHOS induced NRF2 expression and its transcriptional activity. The NRF2 promoter contains MEF2 binding sites and the MAPK ERK5 induced MEF2-dependent NRF2 expression. Blocking OXPHOS in a mouse model decreased Erk5 and Nrf2 expression. Furthermore, fibroblasts derived from patients with mitochondrial disorders also showed low expression of ERK5 and NRF2 mRNAs. Notably, in cells lacking functional mitochondrial complex I activity OXPHOS did not induce ERK5 expression and failed to generate this anti-oxidant response. Complex I activity induces ERK5 expression through fumarate accumulation. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a genetic program to prevent oxidative stress directly linked to OXPHOS and not requiring ROS.
Project description:The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cancer cells has never been characterized. This study examines DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human cancer cell model systems. DHA enhanced HO-1 gene expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximal induction at 21 h of treatment. This induction of HO-1 expression was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft nude mouse model fed a fish-oil-enriched diet. The increase in HO-1 gene transcription induced by DHA was significantly attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. This was supported by direct measurement of lipid peroxide levels after DHA treatment. Using a human HO-1 gene promoter reporter construct, we identified two antioxidant response elements (AREs) that mediate the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription. Knockdown of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression compromised the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, indicating the importance of the Nrf2 pathway in this event. However, the nuclear protein levels of Nrf2 remained unchanged upon DHA treatment. Further studies demonstrated that DHA reduces nuclear Bach1 protein expression by promoting its degradation and attenuates Bach1 binding to the AREs in the HO-1 gene promoter. In contrast, DHA enhanced Nrf2 binding to the AREs without affecting nuclear Nrf2 expression levels, indicating a new cellular mechanism that mediates DHA's induction of HO-1 gene transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human malignant cells.
Project description:NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a key transcriptional activator that mediates the inducible expression of antioxidant genes. NRF2 is normally ubiquitinated by KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) and subsequently degraded by proteasomes. Inactivation of KEAP1 by oxidative stress or electrophilic chemicals allows NRF2 to activate transcription through binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) and recruiting histone acetyltransferase CBP (CREB-binding protein). Whereas KEAP1-dependent regulation is a major determinant of NRF2 activity, NRF2-mediated transcriptional activation varies from context to context, suggesting that other intracellular signaling cascades may impact NRF2 function. To identify a signaling pathway that modifies NRF2 activity, we immunoprecipitated endogenous NRF2 and its interacting proteins from mouse liver and identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as a novel NRF2-binding partner. We found that glucocorticoids, dexamethasone and betamethasone, antagonize diethyl maleate-induced activation of NRF2 target genes in a GR-dependent manner. Dexamethasone treatment enhanced GR recruitment to AREs without affecting chromatin binding of NRF2, resulting in the inhibition of CBP recruitment and histone acetylation at AREs. This repressive effect was canceled by the addition of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Thus, GR signaling decreases NRF2 transcriptional activation through reducing the NRF2-dependent histone acetylation. Consistent with these observations, GR signaling blocked NRF2-mediated cytoprotection from oxidative stress. This study suggests that an impaired antioxidant response by NRF2 and a resulting decrease in cellular antioxidant capacity account for the side effects of glucocorticoids, providing a novel viewpoint for the pathogenesis of hypercorticosteroidism.
Project description:NRF2 regulates cellular redox homeostasis, metabolic balance, and proteostasis by forming a dimer with small musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma proteins (sMAFs) and binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) to activate target gene transcription. In contrast, NRF2-ARE-dependent transcriptional repression is unreported. Here, we describe NRF2-mediated gene repression via a specific seven-nucleotide sequence flanking the ARE, which we term the NRF2-replication protein A1 (RPA1) element (NRE). Mechanistically, RPA1 competes with sMAF for NRF2 binding, followed by interaction of NRF2-RPA1 with the ARE-NRE and eduction of promoter activity. Genome-wide in silico and RNA-seq analyses revealed this NRF2-RPA1-ARE-NRE complex mediates negative regulation of many genes with diverse functions, indicating that this mechanism is a fundamental cellular process. Notably, repression of MYLK, which encodes the nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase, by the NRF2-RPA1-ARE-NRE complex disrupts vascular integrity in preclinical inflammatory lung injury models, illustrating the translational significance of NRF2-mediated transcriptional repression. Our findings reveal a gene-suppressive function of NRF2 and a subset of negatively regulated NRF2 target genes, underscoring the broad impact of NRF2 in physiological and pathological settings.