Peripheral blood monocyte-expressed ANXA2 gene is involved in pathogenesis of osteoporosis in humans.
ABSTRACT: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor of osteoporosis and has strong genetic determination. Genes influencing BMD and fundamental mechanisms leading to osteoporosis have yet to be fully determined. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) are potential osteoclast precursors, which could access to bone resorption surfaces and differentiate into osteoclasts to resorb bone. Herein, we attempted to identify osteoporosis susceptibility gene(s) and characterize their function(s), through an initial proteomics discovery study on PBM in vivo, and multiscale validation studies in vivo and in vitro. Utilizing the quantitative proteomics methodology LC-nano-ESI-MS(E), we discovered that a novel protein, i.e. ANXA2, was up-regulated twofold in PBM in vivo in Caucasians with extremely low BMD (cases) versus those with extremely high BMD (controls) (n = 28, p < 0.05). ANXA2 gene up-regulation in low BMD subjects was replicated at the mRNA level in PBM in vivo in a second and independent case-control sample (n = 80, p < 0.05). At the DNA level, we found that SNPs in the ANXA2 gene were associated with BMD variation in a 3(rd) and independent case-control sample (n = 44, p < 0.05), as well as in a random population sample (n = 997, p < 0.05). The above integrative evidence strongly supports the concept that ANXA2 is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in humans. Through a follow-up cellular functional study, we found that ANXA2 protein significantly promoted monocyte migration across an endothelial barrier in vitro (p < 0.001). Thus, elevated ANXA2 protein expression level, as detected in low BMD subjects, probably stimulates more PBM migration through the blood vessel walls to bone resorption surfaces in vivo, where they differentiate into higher number of osteoclasts and resorb bone at higher rates, thereby decreasing BMD. In conclusion, this study identified a novel osteoporosis susceptibility gene ANXA2, and suggested a novel pathophysiological mechanism, mediated by ANXA2, for osteoporosis in humans.
Project description:Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor of osteoporotic fracture (OF). Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) can differentiate into osteoclasts to resorb bone. It was known that PBM-expressed Anxa2 protein is associated with BMD, and extracellular Anxa2 protein promotes osteoclastogenesis. This study aimed to test 1) whether Anxa2 protein level in PBM differs significantly between subjects with OF and without fracture history (NF); 2) whether Anxa2 level in plasma is associated with BMD; 3) how Anxa2 protein at various concentrations would affect osteoblastic activity in vitro. All the study subjects were Chinese Han elderly. Firstly, Anxa2 protein in PBM was identified and quantitated by LC-MS/MS and compared between 45 OF cases and 42 healthy controls. Secondly, plasma Anxa2 protein level was quantitated by ELISA and compared between unrelated subjects with extremely low vs. high hip BMD (0.63±0.10 vs. 1.05±0.10 g/cm2, n = 75). Furthermore, in vitro functional assay was utilized to test the effects of extracellular Anxa2 protein on osteoblastic growth. We found that Anxa2 protein expression in PBM was significantly up-regulated in OF vs. NF subjects (fold change [FC)] = 1.16, P<0.05). Plasma Anxa2 protein concentration (range: 31.69-227.35ng/ml) was significantly elevated in low vs. high BMD subjects (84.85 vs. 66.15ng/ml, FC = 1.28, P<0.05). Cellular dynamical monitoring demonstrated that the general shape of dose-response relationship is the inverse U-shaped curve. Specifically, lower dose of Anxa2 protein may promote osteoblast growth and the optimal concentration for osteoblastic growth was around 50ng/ml, but even higher concentration could attenuate hFOB1.19 osteoprogenitor cell growth. We concluded that Anxa2 protein could attenuate osteoblast growth and be associated with hip BMD and OF in Chinese elderly.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a prevalent bone metabolic disease, mainly caused by excessive bone resorption (by osteoclasts) over bone formation (by osteoblasts). Identifying the key transcription factors and understanding the regulatory network influencing osteoclastogenesis will be helpful to explore the potential biological mechanism for osteoporosis. In our study, peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) was used as a cell model for bone mineral density (BMD) research. PBMs serve as progenitors of osteoclasts and produce important cytokines for osteoclastogenesis. In our study, via exon arrays, gene expression profiles of PBMs were analyzed between high versus low hip BMD groups. Transcription factors for differentially expressed genes were then predicted based on the enrichment analysis. We found that 591 genes were differentially expressed between the two BMD groups (nominally significant, raw p value?<?0.05). For high BMD subjects, 482 genes were up-regulated and 109 genes were down-regulated. We then found 29 potential transcription factors for up-regulated genes and nine transcription factors for down-regulated genes. Among these transcription factors, HMGA1 and NFKB2 were differentially expressed between high versus low BMD groups. In addition, their regulation types with their target genes were consistent with the information from public databases. Our findings of key transcription factors and their target genes for osteoporosis were further validated by GWAS analysis. Overall, we predicted important transcription factors for osteoporosis. We were also able to infer the regulatory mechanism that exists between transcription factors and target genes in bone metabolism.
Project description:Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes renewal throughout life in a process whereby osteoclasts resorb worn bone and osteoblasts synthesize new bone. Imbalances in bone turnover lead to bone loss and development of osteoporosis and ultimately fracture, a debilitating condition with high morbidity and mortality. Silica is a ubiquitous biocontaminant that is considered to have high biocompatibility. The authors report that silica nanoparticles (NPs) mediate potent inhibitory effects on osteoclasts and stimulatory effects on osteoblasts in vitro. The mechanism of bioactivity is a consequence of an intrinsic capacity to antagonize activation of NF-?B, a signal transduction pathway required for osteoclastic bone resorption but inhibitory to osteoblastic bone formation. We further demonstrate that silica NPs promote a significant enhancement of bone mineral density (BMD) in mice in vivo, providing a proof of principle for the potential application of silica NPs as a pharmacological agent to enhance BMD and protect against bone fracture.
Project description:Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is more prevalent in females than in males. So far, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying osteoporosis are unclear. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) are precursors of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. This study aims to identify PBM-expressed proteins (genes) influencing hip BMD in humans. We utilized three independent study cohorts (N=34, 29, 40), including premenopausal Caucasians with discordant hip BMD. We studied PBM proteome-wide protein expression profiles in cohort 1 and identified 57 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between low vs. high BMD subjects. One protein gelsolin (GSN), after validation by Western blotting, was subject to follow-up. We compared GSN mRNA level in PBM between low vs. high BMD subjects in cohorts 2 and 3. We genotyped SNPs across GSN in 2286 unrelated Caucasians (cohort 4) and 1627 Chinese (cohort 5) and tested their association with hip BMD in females and males, respectively. We discovered and validated that GSN protein expression level in PBM was down-regulated 3.0-fold in low vs. high BMD subjects (P<0.05). Down-regulation of GSN in PBM in low BMD subjects was also observed at mRNA level in both cohort 2 and cohort 3. We identified that SNP rs767770 was significantly associated with hip BMD in female Caucasians (P=0.0003) only. Integrating analyses of the datasets at DNA, RNA, and protein levels from female Caucasians substantiated that GSN is highly significant for hip BMD (P=0.0001). We conclude that GSN is a significant gene influencing hip BMD in female Caucasians.
Project description:Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that resorb bone and contribute to bone remodeling. Diseases such as osteoporosis and osteolytic bone metastasis occur when osteoclast-mediated bone resorption takes place in the absence of concurrent bone synthesis. Considerable effort has been placed on identifying molecules that regulate the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. To this end, we investigated unique and overlapping functions of members of the FAK family (FAK and Pyk2) in osteoclast functions. With the use of a conditional knockout mouse model, in which FAK is selectively targeted for deletion in osteoclast precursors (FAK(?myeloid)), we found that loss of FAK resulted in reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro, coincident with impaired signaling through the CSF-1R. However, bone architecture appeared normal in FAK(?myeloid) mice, suggesting that Pyk2 might functionally compensate for reduced FAK levels in vivo. This was supported by data showing that podosome adhesion structures, which are essential for bone degradation, were significantly more impaired in osteoclasts when FAK and Pyk2 were reduced than when either molecule was depleted individually. We conclude that FAK contributes to cytokine signaling and bone resorption in osteoclasts and partially compensates for the absence of Pyk2 to maintain proper adhesion structures in these cells.
Project description:TNF-? and IL-17 secreted by proinflammatory T cells (T(EFF)) promote bone erosion by activating osteoclasts. We previously demonstrated that in addition to bone resorption, osteoclasts act as antigen-presenting cells to induce FoxP3 in CD8 T cells (Tc(REG)). The osteoclast-induced regulatory CD8 T cells limit bone resorption in ovariectomized mice (a murine model of postmenopausal osteoporosis). Here we show that although low-dose receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) maximally induces Tc(REG) via Notch signaling pathway to limit bone resorption, high-dose RANKL promotes bone resorption. In vitro, both TNF-? and IL-17, cytokines that are abundant in ovariectomized animals, suppress Tc(REG) induction by osteoclasts by repressing Notch ligand expression in osteoclasts, but this effect can be counteracted by addition of RANKL. Ovariectomized mice treated with low-dose RANKL induced Tc(REG) that suppressed bone resorption, decreased T(EFF) levels, and increased bone formation. High-dose RANKL had the expected osteolytic effect. Low-dose RANKL administration in ovariectomized mice lacking CD8 T cells was also osteolytic, confirming that Tc(REG) mediate this bone anabolic effect. Our results show that although RANKL directly stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone, it also controls the osteoclasts' ability to induce regulatory T cells, engaging an important negative feedback loop. In addition to the conceivable clinical relevance to treatment of osteoporosis, these observations have potential relevance to induction of tolerance and autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Vitamin D was discovered as an anti-rachitic agent preventing a failure in bone mineralization, but it is now established that the active form of vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) induces bone resorption. Discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand (RANKL) uncovered the molecular mechanism by which 1α,25(OH)2D3 stimulates bone resorption. Treating osteoblastic cells with 1α,25(OH)2D3 stimulates RANKL expression, which in turn induces osteoclastogenesis. Nevertheless, active vitamin D compounds such as calcitriol (1α,25(OH)2D3), alfacalcidol (1α(OH)D3) and eldecalcitol (1α,25-dihydroxy-2β-(3-hydroxypropoxy) vitamin D3) have been used as therapeutic drugs for osteoporosis, as they increase bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporotic patients. Paradoxically, the increase in BMD is caused by the suppression of bone resorption. Several studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanism by which active vitamin D compounds suppress bone resorption in vivo. Our study showed that daily administration of eldecalcitol to mice suppressed neither the number of osteoclast precursors in the bone marrow nor the number of osteoclasts formed in ex vivo cultures. Eldecalcitol administration suppressed RANKL expression in osteoblasts. This review discusses how the difference between in vitro and in vivo effects of active vitamin D compounds on bone resorption is induced.
Project description:Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert beneficial effects on the host, when administered in adequate amounts. Mostly, probiotics affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the host and alter the composition of gut microbiota. Nowadays, the incidence of hip fractures due to osteoporosis is increasing worldwide. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats have fragile bone due to estrogen deficiency and mimic the menopausal conditions in women. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) on bone mass density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone remodeling, bone structure, and gene expression in OVX rats. The rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (sham, OVX, and the OVX group supplemented with 1?mL of B. longum 10(8)-10(9) colony forming units (CFU)/mL). B. longum was given once daily for 16 weeks, starting from 2 weeks after the surgery. The B. longum supplementation increased (p < 0.05) serum osteocalcin (OC) and osteoblasts, bone formation parameters, and decreased serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteoclasts, bone resorption parameters. It also altered the microstructure of the femur. Consequently, it increased BMD by increasing (p < 0.05) the expression of Sparc and Bmp-2 genes. B. longum alleviated bone loss in OVX rats and enhanced BMD by decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone formation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Osteoporosis is a prevalent bone metabolic disease characterized by bone fragility. As a key pathophysiological mechanism, the disease is caused by excessive bone resorption (by osteoclasts) over bone formation (by osteoblasts). Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) is a major systemic cell model for bone metabolism by serving as progenitors of osteoclasts and producing cytokines important for osteoclastogenesis. Protein-coding genes for osteoporosis have been widely studied by mRNA analyses of PBMs in high versus low hip bone mineral density (BMD) subjects. However, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which account for a large proportion of human transcriptome, have seldom been studied. METHODS:In this study, microarray analyses of monocytes were performed using Affymetrix exon 1.0 ST arrays in 73 Caucasian females (age: 47-56). LncRNA profile was generated by re-annotating exon array for lncRNAs detection, which yielded 12,007 lncRNAs mapped to the human genome. RESULTS:575 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. In the high BMD subjects, 309 lncRNAs were upregulated and 266 lncRNAs were downregulated (nominally significant, raw p-value?<?0.05). To investigate the relationship between mRNAs and lncRNAs, we used two approaches to predict the target genes of lncRNAs and found that 26 candidate lncRNAs might regulate mRNA expression. The majority of these lncRNAs were further validated to be potentially correlated with BMD by GWAS analysis. CONCLUSION:Overall, our findings for the first time reported the lncRNAs profiles for osteoporosis and suggested the potential regulatory mechanism of lncRNAs on protein-coding genes in bone metabolism.
Project description:Until recently, it was well-accepted that osteoclasts resorb bone according to the resorption cycle model. This model is based on the assumption that osteoclasts are immobile during bone erosion, allowing the actin ring to be firmly attached and thereby provide an effective seal encircling the resorptive compartment. However, through time-lapse, it was recently documented that osteoclasts making elongated resorption cavities and trenches move across the bone surface while efficiently resorbing bone. However, it was also shown that osteoclasts making rounded cavities and pits indeed resorb bone while they are immobile. Only little is known about what distinguishes these two different resorption modes. This is of both basic and clinical interest because these resorption modes are differently sensitive to drugs and are affected by the gender as well as age of the donor. In the present manuscript we show that: 1. levels of active cathepsin K determine the switch from pit to trench mode; 2. pit and trench mode depend on clathrin-mediated endocytosis; and 3. a mechanism integrating release of resorption products and membrane/integrin recycling is required for prolongation of trench mode. Our study therefore contributes to an improved understanding of the molecular and cellular determinants for the two osteoclastic bone resorption modes.