Abcc6 deficiency causes increased infarct size and apoptosis in a mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion model.
ABSTRACT: ABCC6 genetic deficiency underlies pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) in humans, characterized by ectopic calcification, and early cardiac disease. The spectrum of PXE has been noted in Abcc6-deficient mice, including dystrophic cardiac calcification. We tested the role of Abcc6 in response to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.To determine the role of Abcc6 in cardioprotection, we induced ischemic injury in mice in vivo by occluding the left anterior descending artery (30 minutes) followed by reperfusion (48 hours). Infarct size was increased in Abcc6-deficient mice compared with wild-type controls. Additionally, an Abcc6 transgene significantly reduced infarct size on the background of a naturally occurring Abcc6 deficiency. There were no differences in cardiac calcification following I/R, but increased cardiac apoptosis was noted in Abcc6-deficient mice. Previous studies have implicated the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in directing calcification, and here we showed that the BMP responsive transcription factors pSmad1/5/8 were increased in hearts of Abcc6 mice. Consistent with this finding, BMP4 and BMP9 were increased and activin receptor-like kinase-2 and endoglin were downregulated in cardiac extracts from Abcc6-deficient mice versus controls.These data identify Abcc6 as a novel modulator of cardiac myocyte survival after I/R. This cardioprotective mechanism may involve inhibition of the BMP signaling pathway, which modulates apoptosis.
Project description:Abnormal mineralization occurs in the context of several common conditions, including advanced age, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, chronic renal failure, and certain genetic conditions. Metabolic, mechanical, infectious, and inflammatory injuries promote ectopic mineralization through overlapping yet distinct molecular mechanisms of initiation and progression. The ABCC6 protein is an ATP-dependent transporter primarily found in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. ABCC6 exports unknown substrates from the liver presumably for systemic circulation. ABCC6 deficiency is the primary cause for chronic and acute forms of ectopic mineralization described in diseases such as pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), ?-thalassemia, and generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) in humans and dystrophic cardiac calcification (DCC) in mice. These pathologies are characterized by mineralization of cardiovascular, ocular, and dermal tissues. PXE and to an extent GACI are caused by inactivating ABCC6 mutations, whereas the mineralization associated with ?-thalassemia patients derives from a liver-specific change in ABCC6 expression. DCC is an acquired phenotype resulting from cardiovascular insults (ischemic injury or hyperlipidemia) and secondary to ABCC6 insufficiency. Abcc6-deficient mice develop ectopic calcifications similar to both the human PXE and mouse DCC phenotypes. The precise molecular and cellular mechanism linking deficient hepatic ABCC6 function to distal ectopic mineral deposition is not understood and has captured the attention of many research groups. Our previously published work along with that of others show that ABCC6 influences other modulators of calcification and that it plays a much greater physiological role than originally thought.
Project description:Biallelic mutations in ABCC6 cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a disease characterized by calcification in the skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The function of ATP-binding cassette C6 (ABCC6) and the pathogenesis of PXE remain unclear. We used mouse models and patient fibroblasts to demonstrate genetic interaction and shared biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying ectopic calcification in PXE and related disorders caused by defined perturbations in extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate catabolism. Under osteogenic culture conditions, ABCC6 mutant cells calcified, suggesting a provoked cell-autonomous defect. Using a conditional Abcc6 knockout mouse model, we excluded the prevailing pathogenic hypothesis that singularly invokes failure of hepatic secretion of an endocrine inhibitor of calcification. Instead, deficiency of Abcc6 in both local and distant cells was necessary to achieve the early onset and penetrant ectopic calcification observed upon constitutive gene targeting. ABCC6 mutant cells additionally had increased expression and activity of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an enzyme that degrades pyrophosphate, a major inhibitor of calcification. A selective and orally bioavailable TNAP inhibitor prevented calcification in ABCC6 mutant cells in vitro and attenuated both the development and progression of calcification in Abcc6-/- mice in vivo, without the deleterious effects on bone associated with other proposed treatment strategies.
Project description:Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (PXE) is a rare disorder characterized by fragmentation and progressive calcification of elastic fibres in connective tissues. Although arterial hypertension (AHT) has been reported in PXE patients, its impact on pathological manifestations has as yet been unexplored. We investigated the consequences of experimental AHT on Abcc6-/- PXE mouse models. Experimental AHT was induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt) in uni-nephrectomised mice. Blood pressure (BP) and vascular reactivity were monitored using tail-cuff plethysmography and myography respectively. Calcium content and fibrosis were assessed using colorimetry, Von Kossa and Sirius red staining respectively. The gene expression implicated in vascular biology was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. DOCA-salt induced a matching rise in BP in Abcc6-/- and WT mice. Aortic ring contraction and relaxation in vitro were comparable. Calcium accumulated in the hearts of hypertensive Abcc6-/- mice along with significant fibrosis in the myocardium and aorta by contrast with the WT mice. In hypertensive Abcc6-/- mouse aortas, these results were corroborated by gene expression patterns favouring calcification, fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodelling. Abcc6 loss-of-function is associated with greater cardiovascular calcification and fibrosis in mice subjected to DOCA-Salt hypertension. These results suggest likely cardiovascular deterioration in PXE patients with AHT, necessitating diligent BP monitoring.
Project description:Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic condition primarily caused by hepatic ABCC6 transporter dysfunction. Most clinical manifestations of PXE are due to premature calcification of elastic fibers. However, the vascular impact of PXE is pleiotropic and remains ill defined. ABCC6 expression has recently been associated with cellular nucleotide export. We studied the impact of ABCC6 deficiency on blood levels of adenosine triphosphate and related metabolites and on soluble nucleotidase activities in PXE patients and Abcc6-/- mice. In addition, we investigated the expression of genes encoding ectocellular purinergic signaling proteins in mouse liver and aorta. Plasma adenosine triphosphate and pyrophosphate levels were significantly reduced in PXE patients and in Abcc6-/- mice, whereas adenosine concentration was not modified. Moreover, 5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activity was increased in the serum of PXE patients and Abcc6-/- mice. Consistent with alterations of purinergic signaling, the expression of genes involved in purine and phosphate transport/metabolism was dramatically modified in Abcc6-/- mouse aorta, with much less impact on the liver. ABCC6 deficiency causes impaired vascular homeostasis and tissue perfusion. Our findings suggest that these alterations are linked to changes in extracellular nucleotide metabolism that are remote from the liver. This opens new perspectives for the understanding of PXE pathophysiology.
Project description:Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) are heritable ectopic mineralization disorders. Most cases of PXE and many cases of GACI harbor mutations in the ABCC6 gene. There is no effective treatment for these disorders. We explored the potential efficacy of bisphosphonates to prevent ectopic calcification caused by ABCC6 mutations by feeding Abcc6(-/-) mice with diet containing etidronate disodium (ETD) or alendronate sodium trihydrate (AST) in quantities corresponding to 1x, 5x, or 12x of the doses used to treat osteoporosis in humans. The mice were placed on diet at 4 weeks of age, and the degree of mineralization was assessed at 12 weeks by quantitation of the calcium deposits in the dermal sheath of vibrissae, a progressive biomarker of the mineralization, by computerized morphometry of histopathologic sections and by direct chemical assay of calcium. We found that ETD, but not AST, at the 12x dosage, significantly reduced mineralization, suggesting that selected bisphosphonates may be helpful for prevention of mineral deposits in PXE and GACI caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, when combined with careful monitoring of efficacy and potential side-effects.
Project description:Coxsackievirus type B3 (CVB3) is a cardiotropic enterovirus. Infection causes cardiomyocyte necrosis and myocardial inflammation. The damaged tissue that results is replaced with fibrotic or calcified tissue, which can lead to permanently altered cardiac function. The extent of pathogenesis among individuals exposed to CVB3 is dictated by a combination of host genetics, viral virulence, and the environment. Here, we aimed to identify genes that modulate cardiopathology following CVB3 infection. 129S1 mice infected with CVB3 developed increased cardiac pathology compared to 129X1 substrain mice despite no difference in viral burden. Linkage analysis identified a major locus on chromosome 7 (LOD: 8.307, P<0.0001) that controlled the severity of cardiac calcification and necrosis following infection. Sub-phenotyping and genetic complementation assays identified Abcc6 as the underlying gene. Microarray expression profiling identified genotype-dependent regulation of genes associated with mitochondria. Electron microscopy examination showed elevated deposition of hydroxyapatite-like material in the mitochondrial matrices of infected Abcc6 knockout (Abcc6-/-) mice but not in wildtype littermates. Cyclosporine A (CsA) inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by inhibiting cyclophilin D (CypD). Treatment of Abcc6 -/- mice with CsA reduced cardiac necrosis and calcification by more than half. Furthermore, CsA had no effect on the CVB3-induced phenotype of doubly deficient CypD-/-Abcc6-/- mice. Altogether, our work demonstrates that mutations in Abcc6 render mice more susceptible to cardiac calcification following CVB3 infection. Moreover, we implicate CypD in the control of cardiac necrosis and calcification in Abcc6-deficient mice, whereby CypD inhibition is required for cardioprotection.
Project description:Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is associated with biallelic mutations in ENPP1 in the majority of cases, whereas mutations in ABCC6 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily C number 6) are known to cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). However, ABCC6 mutations account for a significant subset of GACI cases, and ENPP1 mutations can also be associated with PXE lesions. Based on the considerable overlap of GACI and PXE, both entities appear to reflect two ends of a clinical spectrum of ectopic calcification rather than two distinct disorders. ABCC6 and ENPP1 mutations might lead to alterations of the same physiological pathways.
Project description:?-Thalassemia and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) are distinct genetic disorders. Yet, a dystrophic mineralization phenotype similar to PXE has frequently been associated with ?-thalassemia or sickle cell anemia patients of Mediterranean descent. These calcifications are clinically and structurally identical to inherited PXE. As we previously excluded the presence of PXE-causing mutations in the ABCC6 gene of ?-thalassemia patients with PXE manifestations, we hypothesized that a molecular mechanism independent of gene mutations either altered the ABCC6 gene expression or disrupted the biologic properties of its product in the liver or kidneys, which are the tissues with the highest levels of expression. To test this possibility, we investigated Abcc6 synthesis in the liver and kidneys of a ?-thalassemia mouse model (Hbb(th3/+)). We found a progressive liver-specific down-regulation of the Abcc6 gene expression and protein levels by quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. The levels of Abcc6 protein decreased significantly at 6 months of age and stabilized at 10 months and older ages at ?25% of the wild-type protein levels. We studied the transcriptional regulation of the Abcc6 gene in wild-type and Hbb(th3/+) mice, and we identified the erythroid transcription factor NF-E2 as the main cause of the transcriptional down-regulation using transcription factor arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The Hbb(th3/+) mice did not develop spontaneous calcification as seen in the Abcc6(-/-) mice probably because the Abcc6 protein decrease occurred late in life and was probably insufficient to promote mineralization in the Hbb(th3/+) mouse C57BL/6J genetic background. Nevertheless, our result suggested that a similar decrease of ABCC6 expression occurs in the liver of ?-thalassemia patients and may be responsible for their frequent PXE-like manifestations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, is a rare multiorgan disease characterized by the mineralization and fragmentation of elastic fibers in connective tissue. Cardiac complications reportedly associated with PXE are mainly based on case reports.<h4>Methods</h4>A cohort of 67 PXE patients was prospectively assessed. Patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), treadmill testing, and perfusion myocardial scintigraphy (SPECT). Additionally, the hearts of a PXE mouse models (Abcc6(-/-)) and wild-type controls (WT) were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>Three patients had a history of proven coronary artery disease. In total, 40 patients underwent exercise treadmill tests, and 28 SPECT. The treadmill tests were all negative. SPECT showed mild perfusion abnormalities in two patients. Mean left ventricular (LV) dimension and function values were within the normal range. LV hypertrophy was found in 7 (10.4%) patients, though the hypertrophy etiology was unknown for 3 of those patients. Echocardiography revealed frequent but insignificant mitral and tricuspid valvulopathies. Mitral valve prolapse was present in 3 patients (4.5%). Two patients exhibited significant aortic stenosis (3.0%). While none of the functional and histological parameters diverged significantly between the Abcc6(-/-) and WT mice groups at age of 6 and 12 months, the 24-month-old Abcc6(-/-) mice developed cardiac hypertrophy without contractile dysfunction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite sporadic cases, PXE does not appear to be associated with frequent cardiac complications. However, the development of cardiac hypertrophy in the 24-month-old Abcc6(-/-) mice suggests that old PXE patients might be prone to developing late cardiopathy.
Project description:Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) manifests with cutaneous lesions consisting of yellowish papules coalescing into plaques of inelastic skin. Histopathology demonstrates accumulation of pleiomorphic elastic structures with progressive mineralization. The classic form of PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene.A 2-year-old patient with PXE of the neck, inguinal folds and lower abdomen, and with extensive tissue mineralization, was evaluated for the underlying mutations in candidate genes known to be involved in ectopic mineralization disorders.The patient's genotype was studied by sequencing ABCC6, MGP and ENPP1 genes, encoding proteins which harbour mutations in ectopic mineralization disorders.No pathogenetic mutations were found in the ABCC6 or MGP genes. Sequencing of ENPP1 disclosed a homozygous missense mutation, p.Y513C, associated with generalized arterial calcification of infancy.This study demonstrates the presence of the cutaneous features of PXE in a genetically distinct disease, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and thus expands the spectrum of PXE-related disorders.