Comparative genomics study of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and ectoine relevant genes from Halomonas sp. TD01 revealed extensive horizontal gene transfer events and co-evolutionary relationships.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Halophilic bacteria have shown their significance in industrial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and are gaining more attention for genetic engineering modification. Yet, little information on the genomics and PHA related genes from halophilic bacteria have been disclosed so far. RESULTS: The draft genome of moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas sp. TD01, a strain of great potential for industrial production of short-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), was analyzed through computational methods to reveal the osmoregulation mechanism and the evolutionary relationship of the enzymes relevant to PHA and ectoine syntheses. Genes involved in the metabolism of PHA and osmolytes were annotated and studied in silico. Although PHA synthase, depolymerase, regulator/repressor and phasin were all involved in PHA metabolic pathways, they demonstrated different horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events between the genomes of different strains. In contrast, co-occurrence of ectoine genes in the same genome was more frequently observed, and ectoine genes were more likely under coincidental horizontal gene transfer than PHA related genes. In addition, the adjacent organization of the homologues of PHA synthase phaC1 and PHA granule binding protein phaP was conserved in the strain TD01, which was also observed in some halophiles and non-halophiles exclusively from ?-proteobacteria. In contrast to haloarchaea, the proteome of Halomonas sp. TD01 did not show obvious inclination towards acidity relative to non-halophilic Escherichia coli MG1655, which signified that Halomonas sp. TD01 preferred the accumulation of organic osmolytes to ions in order to balance the intracellular osmotic pressure with the environment. CONCLUSIONS: The accessibility of genome information would facilitate research on the genetic engineering of halophilic bacteria including Halomonas sp. TD01.
Project description:Plastic pollution is a severe threat to our environment which necessitates implementation of bioplastics to realize sustainable development for a green world. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) represent one of the potential candidates for these bioplastics. However, a major challenge faced by PHA is the high production cost which limits its commercial application. Halophiles are considered to be a promising cell factory for PHA synthesis due to its several unique characteristics including high salinity requirement preventing microbial contamination, high intracellular osmotic pressure allowing easy cell lysis for PHA recovery, and capability to utilize wide spectrum of low-cost substrates. Optimization of fermentation parameters has made it plausible to achieve large-scale production at low cost by using halophiles. Further deeper insights into halophiles have revealed the existence of diversified and even novel PHA synthetic pathways within different halophilic species that greatly affects PHA type. Thus, precise metabolic engineering of halophiles with the help of advanced tools and strategies have led to more efficient microbial cell factory for PHA production. This review is an endeavour to summarize the various research achievements in these areas which will help the readers to understand the current developments as well as the future efforts in PHA research.
Project description:Introduction:A halophilic bacterium of the Halomonas elongata BK-AG25 has successfully produced ectoine with high productivity. To overcome the drawbacks of high levels of salt in the production process, a nonhalophilic bacteria of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was used to express the ectoine gene cluster of the halophilic bacteria, and the production of ectoine by the recombinant cell was optimized. Methods:The ectoine gene cluster from the halophilic bacterium was isolated and inserted into an expression plasmid of pET30(a) and subsequently transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Production of ectoine from the recombinant E. coli was investigated and then maximized by optimizing the level of nutrients in the medium, as well as the bioprocess conditions using response surface methodology. The experimental designs were performed using a central composite design. Results:The recombinant E. coli successfully expressed the ectoine gene cluster of Halomonas elongata BK-AG25 under the control of the T7 promoter. The recombinant cell was able to produce ectoine, of which most were excreted into the medium. The optimization of ectoine production with the response surface methodology showed that the level of salt in the medium, the incubation temperature, the optical density of the bacteria before induction, and the final concentration of the inducer gave a significant effect on ectoine production by the recombinant E. coli. Interestingly, the level of salt in the medium and the incubation temperature showed an inverse effect on the production of intracellular and extracellular ectoine by the recombinant cell. At the optimum conditions, the production yield was about 418?mg ectoine/g cdw (cell dry weight) after 12?hours of incubation. Conclusion:This study is the first report on the expression of an ectoine gene cluster of Halomonas elongata BK-AG25 in E. coli BL21, under the control of the T7 promoter. Optimization of the level of nutrients in the medium, as well as the bioprocess condition using response surface methodology, has successfully increased the production of ectoine by the recombinant bacteria.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chromohalobacter salexigens (formerly Halomonas elongata DSM 3043) is a halophilic extremophile with a very broad salinity range and is used as a model organism to elucidate prokaryotic osmoadaptation due to its strong euryhaline phenotype.<h4>Results</h4>C. salexigens DSM 3043's metabolism was reconstructed based on genomic, biochemical and physiological information via a non-automated but iterative process. This manually-curated reconstruction accounts for 584 genes, 1386 reactions, and 1411 metabolites. By using flux balance analysis, the model was extensively validated against literature data on the C. salexigens phenotypic features, the transport and use of different substrates for growth as well as against experimental observations on the uptake and accumulation of industrially important organic osmolytes, ectoine, betaine, and its precursor choline, which play important roles in the adaptive response to osmotic stress.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This work presents the first comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model of a halophilic bacterium. Being a useful guide for identification and filling of knowledge gaps, the reconstructed metabolic network iOA584 will accelerate the research on halophilic bacteria towards application of systems biology approaches and design of metabolic engineering strategies.
Project description:Among the different tools which can be studied and managed to tailor-make polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and enhance their production, bacterial strain and carbon substrates are essential. The assimilation of carbon sources is dependent on bacterial strain's metabolism and consequently cannot be dissociated. Both must wisely be studied and well selected to ensure the highest production yield of PHAs. Halomonas sp. SF2003 is a marine bacterium already identified as a PHA-producing strain and especially of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P-3HB) and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (P-3HB-co-3HV). Previous studies have identified different genes potentially involved in PHA production by Halomonas sp. SF2003, including two phaC genes with atypical characteristics, phaC1 and phaC2. At the same time, an interesting adaptability of the strain in front of various growth conditions was highlighted, making it a good candidate for biotechnological applications. To continue the characterization of Halomonas sp. SF2003, the screening of carbon substrates exploitable for PHA production was performed as well as production tests. Additionally, the functionality of both PHA synthases PhaC1 and PhaC2 was investigated, with an in silico study and the production of transformant strains, in order to confirm and to understand the role of each one on PHA production. The results of this study confirm the adaptability of the strain and its ability to exploit various carbon substrates, in pure or mixed form, for PHA production. Individual expression of PhaC1 and PhaC2 synthases in a non-PHA-producing strain, Cupriavidus necator H16 PHB¯4 (DSM 541), allows obtaining PHA production, demonstrating at the same time, functionality and differences between both PHA synthases. All the results of this study confirm the biotechnological interest in Halomonas sp. SF2003.
Project description:The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics. The percentage identity of these biosynthetic genes from Halomonas sp. R5-57 and current production strains varies between 99 % for some to 69 % for others, thus it is plausible that R5-57 may have a different production capacity to currently used strains, or that in the case of PHAs, the properties of the final product may vary. Here we present the finished genome sequence (LN813019) of Halomonas sp. R5-57 which will facilitate exploitation of this bacterium; either as a whole-cell production host, or by recombinant expression of its individual enzymes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microorganisms living in saline environments are forced to regulate turgor via the synthesis of organic osmoprotective compounds. Microbial adaptation to fluctuations in external salinity includes degradation of compatible solutes. Here we have examined the biochemical pathway of degradation of the cyclic imino acid ectoine, the major osmoprotector in halotolerant methane-utilizing bacteria. METHODS:The BLAST search of the genes involved in ectoine degradation in the halotolerant methanotroph Methylotuvimicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z was performed with the reference sequences of Halomonas elongata. The genes for the key enzymes of the pathway were disrupted by insertion mutagenesis and the cellular metabolites in the methanol extracts of mutant cells were analyzed by HPLC. The doeA gene from Mm. alcaliphilum 20Z was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli to identify the product of ectoine hydrolysis catalyzed by ectoine hydrolase DoeA. RESULTS:We have shown that the halotolerant methanotroph Mm. alcaliphilum 20Z possesses the doeBDAC gene cluster coding for putative ectoine hydrolase (DoeA), N?-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyrate deacetylase (DoeB), diaminobutyrate transaminase (DoeD) and aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (DoeC). The deletion of the doeA gene resulted in accumulation of the higher level of ectoine compared to the wild type strain. N?-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyrate (N?-acetyl-DAB), a substrate for ectoine synthase, was found in the cytoplasm of the wild type strain. N?-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyrate (N?-acetyl-DAB), a substrate for the DoeB enzyme, appeared in the cells as a result of exposure of the doeB mutant to low osmotic pressure. The genes for the enzymes involved in ectoine degradation were found in all aerobic methylotrophs capable of ectoine biosynthesis. These results provide the first evidence for the in vivo operation of the ectoine degradation pathway in methanotrophs and thus expand our understanding of the regulation mechanisms of bacterial osmoadaptation. CONCLUSIONS:During adaptation to the changes in external osmolarity, halophilic and halotolerant methylotrophs cleave ectoine, thereby entering the carbon and nitrogen of the compatible solute to the central metabolic pathways. The biochemical route of ectoine degradation in the halotolerant methanotroph Mm. alcaliphilum 20Z is similar to that in heterotrophic halophiles. We have shown that ectoine hydrolase DoeA in this methanotroph hydrolyzes ectoine with the formation of the only isomer: N?-acetyl-DAB. All aerobic methylotrophs capable of ectoine biosynthesis harbor the genetic determinants for ectoine degradation.
Project description:Halophiles are excellent sources of enzymes that are not only salt stable but also can withstand and carry out reactions efficiently under extreme conditions. The aim of the study was to isolate and study the diversity among halophilic bacteria producing enzymes of industrial value. Screening of halophiles from various saline habitats of India led to isolation of 108 halophilic bacteria producing industrially important hydrolases (amylases, lipases and proteases). Characterization of 21 potential isolates by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analysis found them related to Marinobacter, Virgibacillus, Halobacillus, Geomicrobium, Chromohalobacter, Oceanobacillus, Bacillus, Halomonas and Staphylococcus genera. They belonged to moderately halophilic group of bacteria exhibiting salt requirement in the range of 3-20%. There is significant diversity among halophiles from saline habitats of India. Preliminary characterization of crude hydrolases established them to be active and stable under more than one extreme condition of high salt, pH, temperature and presence of organic solvents. It is concluded that these halophilic isolates are not only diverse in phylogeny but also in their enzyme characteristics. Their enzymes may be potentially useful for catalysis under harsh operational conditions encountered in industrial processes. The solvent stability among halophilic enzymes seems a generic novel feature making them potentially useful in non-aqueous enzymology.
Project description:It has been firmly established that organic osmolytes (compatible solutes) of halophilic Bacteria and Archaea have positive effects on conformation and activity of proteins, and may therefore improve their functional production. In particular, the amino acid derivative ectoine is known for its conformational stabilization, aggregation suppression, and radical protection properties. The natural producer and industrial production strain Halomonas elongata accumulates ectoine in the cytoplasm, and as a result offers a unique stabilizing environment for recombinant proteins. For the construction of broad hoast range vector systems with fluorescent reporter proteins, we chose the salt-inducible promoter region of the ectoine gene cluster (promA). A closer inspection of the genetic background revealed that its combination of sigma 38 (σ38) and sigma 70 (σ70) promoters was followed by a weak ribosomal binding site (RBS). This inspired a systematic approach for the construction of a promA-based vector series with a synthetic RBS region using the RBS Calculator v2.0, which resulted in a greatly improved salt-dependent expression-even in a deletion construct lacking the σ38 promoter. To expand the application range of this expression system, we looked further into the possible export of recombinant proteins into the periplasm. Both sec and tat leader sequences from H. elongata proved to be suitable for directed periplasmic transport into an extreme environment of freely selectable ionic strength.
Project description:The halophilic ?-proteobacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 2581(T) thrives at high salinity by synthesizing and accumulating the compatible solute ectoine. Ectoine levels are highly regulated according to external salt levels but the overall picture of its metabolism and control is not well understood. Apart from its critical role in cell adaptation to halophilic environments, ectoine can be used as a stabilizer for enzymes and as a cell protectant in skin and health care applications and is thus produced annually on a scale of tons in an industrial process using H. elongata as producer strain. This paper presents the complete genome sequence of H. elongata (4,061,296 bp) and includes experiments and analysis identifying and characterizing the entire ectoine metabolism, including a newly discovered pathway for ectoine degradation and its cyclic connection to ectoine synthesis. The degradation of ectoine (doe) proceeds via hydrolysis of ectoine (DoeA) to N?-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid, followed by deacetylation to diaminobutyric acid (DoeB). In H. elongata, diaminobutyric acid can either flow off to aspartate or re-enter the ectoine synthesis pathway, forming a cycle of ectoine synthesis and degradation. Genome comparison revealed that the ectoine degradation pathway exists predominantly in non-halophilic bacteria unable to synthesize ectoine. Based on the resulting genetic and biochemical data, a metabolic flux model of ectoine metabolism was derived that can be used to understand the way H. elongata survives under varying salt stresses and that provides a basis for a model-driven improvement of industrial ectoine production.
Project description:A high-throughput screening system for moderately halophilic phenol-degrading bacteria from various habitats was developed to replace the conventional strain screening owing to its high efficiency. Bacterial enrichments were cultivated in 48 deep well microplates instead of shake flasks or tubes. Measurement of phenol concentrations was performed in 96-well microplates instead of using the conventional spectrophotometric method or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The high-throughput screening system was used to cultivate forty-three bacterial enrichments and gained a halophilic bacterial community E3 with the best phenol-degrading capability. Halomonas sp. strain 4-5 was isolated from the E3 community. Strain 4-5 was able to degrade more than 94% of the phenol (500 mg · L(-1) starting concentration) over a range of 3%-10% NaCl. Additionally, the strain accumulated the compatible solute, ectoine, with increasing salt concentrations. PCR detection of the functional genes suggested that the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (LmPH) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) were active in the phenol degradation process.